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What is a Kendall's Tau (independence)?

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What is a Kendall's Tau (independence)?

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What is a Kendall's Tau (independence)?

  1. 1. What is a Kendall Tau?
  2. 2. Kendall’s Tau is a nonparametric analogue to the Pearson Product Moment Correlation.
  3. 3. Similar to Spearman’s Rho, Kendall’s Tau operates on rank-ordered (ordinal) data but is particularly useful when there are tied ranks.
  4. 4. Let’s consider an investigation that would lend itself to being analyzed by Kendall’s Tau:
  5. 5. An iron man competition consists of three consecutive events:
  6. 6. An iron man competition consists of three consecutive events: Biking 110 miles,
  7. 7. An iron man competition consists of three consecutive events: Biking 110 miles, Swimming 2.5 miles
  8. 8. An iron man competition consists of three consecutive events: Biking 110 miles, Swimming 2.5 miles and Running 26.2 miles
  9. 9. An iron man competition consists of three consecutive events: Biking 110 miles, Swimming 2.5 miles and Running 26.2 miles. Researchers are interested in the degree to which the rank ordered results from the biking and the running events are independent of one another.
  10. 10. An iron man competition consists of three consecutive events: Biking 110 miles, Swimming 2.5 miles and Running 26.2 miles. Researchers are interested in the degree to which the rank ordered results from the biking and the running events are independent of one another.
  11. 11. An iron man competition consists of three consecutive events: Biking 110 miles, Swimming 2.5 miles and Running 26.2 miles. Researchers are interested in the degree to which the rank ordered results from the biking and the running events are independent of one another. Here is the data for 6 individuals who competed:
  12. 12. Individuals Rank order for Biking Event Rank order for Running Event Bob Conrad Dallen Ernie Fen Gaston
  13. 13. Individuals Rank order for Biking Event Rank order for Running Event Bob 1st Conrad 2nd Dallen 2nd Ernie 3rd Fen 4th Gaston 5th
  14. 14. Individuals Rank order for Biking Event Rank order for Running Event Bob 1st 1st Conrad 2nd 1st Dallen 2nd 2nd Ernie 3rd 3rd Fen 4th 4th Gaston 5th 4th
  15. 15. Because both variables are expressed as rank ordered data, we will use either a Kendall’s Tau or a Spearman’s Rho.
  16. 16. Because both variables are expressed as rank ordered data, we will use either a Kendall’s Tau or a Spearman’s Rho. Note – even if only one variable were ordinal and the other were scaled or nominal, you would still use Kendall’s Tau or a Spearman’s Rho by virtue of having one ordinal variable.
  17. 17. Because there are ties in the data, we will use Kendall’s Tau instead of the Spearman’s Rho. Individuals Rank order for Biking Event Rank order for Running Event Bob 1st 1st Conrad 2nd 1st Dallen 2nd 2nd Ernie 3rd 3rd Fen 4th 4th Gaston 5th 4th
  18. 18. Kendall’s Tau renders a result that is identical to Spearman’s Rho and the Pearson Correlation • Therefore it shares the same properties as these other methods: – It ranges from -1 to +1. – It’s direction is determined by the sign (- +) – The closer the value is to -1 or +1, the stronger the relationship – The closer the value is to 0, the weaker the relationship.
  19. 19. Kendall’s Tau renders a result that is identical to Spearman’s Rho and the Pearson Correlation -1 0 +1 • Therefore it shares the same properties as these other methods: – It ranges from -1 to +1. – It’s direction is determined by the sign (- +) – The closer the value is to -1 or +1, the stronger the relationship – The closer the value is to 0, the weaker the relationship.
  20. 20. Kendall’s Tau renders a result that is identical to Spearman’s Rho and the Pearson Correlation -1 0 +1 • Therefore it shares the same properties as these other methods: – It ranges from -1 to +1. – It’s direction is determined by the sign (- +) – The closer the value is to -1 or +1, the stronger the relationship – The closer the value is to 0, the weaker the relationship.
  21. 21. Kendall’s Tau renders a result that is identical to Spearman’s Rho and the Pearson Correlation -1 0 +1 • Therefore it shares the same properties as these other methods: – It ranges from -1 to +1. – It’s direction is determined by the sign (- +) – The closer the value is to -1 or +1, the stronger the relationship – The closer the value is to 0, the weaker the relationship.
  22. 22. Kendall’s Tau renders a result that is identical to Spearman’s Rho and the Pearson Correlation -1 0 +1 • Therefore it shares the same properties as these other methods: – It ranges from -1 to +1. – It’s direction is determined by the sign (- +) – The closer the value is to -1 or +1, the stronger the relationship – The closer the value is to 0, the weaker the relationship.
  23. 23. Kendall’s Tau renders a result that is identical to Spearman’s Rho and the Pearson Correlation -1 0 +1 • Therefore it shares the same properties as these other methods: – It ranges from -1 to +1. – It’s direction is determined by the sign (- +) – The closer the value is to -1 or +1, the stronger the relationship – The closer the value is to 0, the weaker the relationship.
  24. 24. Kendall’s Tau renders a result that is identical to Spearman’s Rho and the Pearson Correlation -1 0 +1 • Therefore it shares the same properties as these other methods: – It ranges from -1 to +1. – It’s direction is determined by the sign (- +) – The closer the value is to -1 or +1, the stronger the relationship – The closer the value is to 0, the weaker the relationship or evidence of INDEPENDENCE.

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