Referencing

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Referencing in academic writing

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Referencing

  1. 1. R eferencing
  2. 2. R eferencing <ul><li>T he purpose of a reference list is to supply the information needed to allow a reader to find a source. </li></ul><ul><li>A uthors appear in alphabetical order in the reference list. </li></ul>
  3. 3. R eferencing <ul><li>S ome popular referencing methods are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the Vancouver system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the MLA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the APA style </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the Harvard system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Note: there is no definitive version of the Harvard system and universities use their own varieties. </li></ul>
  4. 4. R eferencing <ul><li>Note: </li></ul><ul><li>It is important to check which system is used by your department but also by individual lecturers. Handbooks supplied by your subject leaders usually provide a reference guide. </li></ul>
  5. 5. R eferencing <ul><li>E xamples of the Harvard system style </li></ul><ul><li>T he way the reference is written differs depending on the source </li></ul><ul><li>T he order in which the referencing information appears is important </li></ul><ul><li>C ommas and full stops are important </li></ul>
  6. 6. T extbook (1) <ul><li>Martin, G.N., Carlson, N.R. and Buskist, W. (2007) Psychology (3rd edn.). Harlow: Pearson Education. </li></ul><ul><li>S urname of author and author’s initial (this information is repeated for each of the co-authors) </li></ul><ul><li>Y ear of publication in brackets </li></ul><ul><li>T itle of the book in italics </li></ul>
  7. 7. T extbook (2) <ul><li>Martin, G.N., Carlson, N.R. and Buskist, W. (2007) Psychology (3rd edn.). Harlow: Pearson Education. </li></ul><ul><li>E dition number in brackets if applicable (e.g. 3rd edn) </li></ul><ul><li>P ublishing location </li></ul><ul><li>P ublisher’s name </li></ul>
  8. 8. A text from an edited collection (1) <ul><li>Thomas, H.S.C. (2008). ‘Biogeographical concepts’. In J. Holden, (Ed.), Physical Geography and the Environment (2nd edn), pp. 39-64. Harlow: Pearson Education. </li></ul><ul><li>S urname of author of chapter and author’s initial (this information is repeated for each of the co-authors) </li></ul><ul><li>Y ear of publication in brackets </li></ul><ul><li>T itle of chapter in quotation marks </li></ul><ul><li>I nitial and surname of editor of book followed by (ed.) </li></ul>
  9. 9. A text from an edited collection (2) <ul><li>Thomas, H.S.C. (2008). ‘Biogeographical concepts’. In J. Holden, (Ed.), Physical Geography and the Environment (2nd edn), pp. 39-64. Harlow: Pearson Education. </li></ul><ul><li>T itle of the book in italics </li></ul><ul><li>E dition number in brackets (if applicable) </li></ul><ul><li>P ublishing location </li></ul><ul><li>P ublisher’s name </li></ul>
  10. 10. J ournal A rticle (1) <ul><li>Woodward-Kron, R. (2002) ‘Critical analysis versus description? Examining the relationship in successful student writing’. Journal of English for Academic Purposes , 1, 121-143. </li></ul><ul><li>S urname of the author of the chapter and author’s initial (this information is repeated for each of the co-authors) </li></ul><ul><li>Y ear of publication in brackets </li></ul><ul><li>T itle of the journal in quotation marks </li></ul>
  11. 11. J ournal A rticle (2) <ul><li>Woodward-Kron, R. (2002) ‘Critical analysis versus description? Examining the relationship in successful student writing’. Journal of English for Academic Purposes , 1 , 121-143. </li></ul><ul><li>T itle of the journal in italics </li></ul><ul><li>V olume number in italics </li></ul><ul><li>P age numbers of the article </li></ul>
  12. 12. N ewspaper A rticle <ul><li>Curtis, P. (2008). ‘University entrants hit record high.’ The Guardian , 22 August, p.4. </li></ul><ul><li>S urname of the author and author’s initial </li></ul><ul><li>Y ear of publication in brackets </li></ul><ul><li>T itle of the article in quotation marks </li></ul><ul><li>N ame of the newspaper in italics </li></ul><ul><li>D ay and month of article </li></ul><ul><li>P age number of the article </li></ul>
  13. 13. W ebsite A rticle (1) <ul><li>Harnack, A. and Kleppinger, E. (2003) Online! A reference guide to using internet sources. Retreived, August 22, 2008 from http://www.bedfordstmartins.com/online/cite6.html#1 </li></ul><ul><li>S urname of author and author’s initial (if available) (this information is repeated for each of the co-authors) </li></ul><ul><li>Y ear of publication in brackets </li></ul><ul><li>T itle of complete work in italics </li></ul>
  14. 14. W ebsite A rticle (2) <ul><li>Harnack, A. and Kleppinger, E. (2003) Online! A reference guide to using internet sources. Retreived, August 22, 2008 from http://www.bedfordstmartins.com/online/cite6.html#1 </li></ul><ul><li>O ther relevant information (volume number, page numbers, etc., if available) </li></ul><ul><li>F ull date article was accessed </li></ul><ul><li>U RL </li></ul>
  15. 15. E ncyclopedia or D ictionary <ul><li>Longman dictionary of contemporary English (1978) London: Longman </li></ul><ul><li>T itle of publication </li></ul><ul><li>D ate </li></ul><ul><li>P ublishing location </li></ul><ul><li>P ublisher </li></ul>
  16. 16. Q uestions? For more slide presentations visit:
  17. 17. This presentations was based on S uccessful A cademic W riting by Andy Gillett, Angela Hammond & Mary Martala

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