What are these numbers? It is hard to tell. There is no formatting, punctuation or spacing to help us determine if these are simply large numbers or some else.
But when we add formatting, it is much easier: The first is a US phone number, the second is an ISBN. If you know the rules of formatting, you know a lot about what is going on here. The formatting is a way of sharing information quickly and easily with other folks.
Citing Scources - NLM Style
Citing SourcesNational Library of Medicine Style.Very similar to CSE (formerly known as CBE)
First: Why do we use specificstyles?•5408180845•0471250317
Why do we use specificstyles?•540.818.0845•0-471-25031-7
Citing Webpages: NLMStyle• “Homepages” – the page has an identifiable author distinctfrom the authors of the whole site, or the main home page of asite• Example 1 (BBC News), Example 2 (NLM)• “Parts of web sites” – the page is part of a larger site and theauthor isn’t distinct from the site as a whole• Example 1 (CDC), Example 2 (FDA)
“Homepages”• General FormatAuthor. Web Page Title [Internet]. Place of Publication:Publisher; Date of copyright [Date of citation]. Available fromURL.• ExampleHogg, C. Chinas mystery HIV-like disease may be all in the mind[Internet]. London (GB): BBC News; 10 February, 2010 [17February, 2010]. Available from: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/8505998.stmYou may need to findthis on another pagewithin the siteThe organization incharge of the site.Check to make surethis link works!
“Parts of a website”• General FormatTitle of Homepage [Internet]. Place ofPublication: Publisher; Homepage publicationdates. Title of web page you are looking at; Dateof publication [Date cited]. Available from URL.• ExampleCenters for Disease Control and Prevention [Internet]. Atlanta(GA): Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2010. Dengue– Epidemiology; 26 October, 2009 [17 February, 2010]. Availablefrom http://www.cdc.gov/dengue/epidemiology/index.htmlIf you can’t determine theplace of publication put[place unknown]
General Format: ArticlesAuthors. Article Title. Journal Title [Internet]. Date ofPublication [Date of Citation]; Volume Number(IssueNumber):Pages. Available from: http://journalurl
ExampleRubenstein DR, Lovette IJ. Reproductive skew and selection onfemale ornamentation in social species. Nature [Internet]. 2009[cited 11 February 2009];462(7274):786-9. Available from:http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature08614Author initials donot have periods.Journal title isnot italicized orunderlinedInclude format.Include the dateyou last lookedat the articleonline
BooksAuthor AA, Author BB. Book Title.Edition. Place of Publication:Publisher; Year. # of pages p.
BooksMorand S, Krasnov BR, Poulin R.Micromammals and Macroparasites: FromEvolutionary Ecology to Management.Tokyo, Japan: Springer-Verlag; 2006. 647p.Colon separates title andsubtitle
A note about URLs• Be sure the URL you provide can be accessed by anotherperson.• Test this out –• Some databases and publisher websites have “permalinks”or “persistent links/urls”• It may be appropriate to create a short link using thearticle’s DOI…
Creating a link from a DOI• DOI – Digital Object Identifier. Like a social securitynumber for a journal article• Start with: http://dx.doi.org/DOI• The DOI is added at the end (although you don’t include“DOI”, just the number.
Additional Tools• NLM “Citing Medicine” – The style guide for NLM style –available online• Scopus• Click “Output”, then “Bibliography”• You will need to replace the link and add a citation date• Mendeley• For managing articles and websites• Free plugin for Firefox• Export a bibliography in many citation styles