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Introduction 
In hydraulic systems with single-sided pistons 
we can distinguish different types of movements 
(flow of the fluid) depending on the assembled 
systems. These are slow (working) or fast, 
forward or backward.
Differential system- working principle 
[ ] 
Q F v 
tl 
active surface of the piston 2 
F m 
velocity of the piston m 
tl 
v 
- é 
volumetric efficiency 
s 
- 
ù 
úû 
êë 
- 
h 
vh 
vh 
h 
h 
=
Adjustment of velocity, 
differential system 
1,2- dividers a1,b1,b2- 
electromagnets 
Fast (forward) 
movement will be 
activated when both 
electromagnets a1 
and b2 are switched 
on 
- attained velocity 
- attained load
Adjustment of velocity, 
differential system 
Slow (forward) 
movement will be 
activated when a1 
electromagnet is 
switched on 
In this case velocity will be 
smaller than vr1 and the load will 
be higher than Sr1
Adjustment of velocity, 
differential system 
Backward 
movement will be 
activated when only 
b1 electromagnet is 
switched on
I system 
2 1 
3 
4 
5 
1- pump, 2- pressure relief 
valve, 3- 4 way 3 positions 
directional valve, 4- 
hydraulic cylinder, 5- tank 
Divider positions: 
1 position- slow (working) 
forward movement 
2 position- fast forward 
movement 
3 position- backward 
movement
II system
II system 
Divider positions: 
1 position- fast forward 
movement 
2 position- neutral 
3 position- slow backward 
movement
Wiring diagram of the I & II systems
III system 
Divider positions: 
Y1, Y2 switched on-slow 
forward 
movement 
Only Y1 switched on-fast 
forward 
movement 
Y1,Y3 switched on-slow 
backward 
movement
Wiring diagram of the III system
Application of fast movement 
hydraulic systems 
• Excavator arm control 
• Airplane flap control 
• Breaks control (in cars) 
• Transmitters in agricultural machines 
• Entrance gates mechanisms 
• Cranes
Advantages and disadvantages 
• Longevity 
• Fluent change of velocities in the system; no vibrations 
• Relatively cheap in exploitation 
• Very accurate position of the piston cannot be 
controlled 
• Energy losses 
• Leakages

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Hydraulic Systems

  • 2. Introduction In hydraulic systems with single-sided pistons we can distinguish different types of movements (flow of the fluid) depending on the assembled systems. These are slow (working) or fast, forward or backward.
  • 3. Differential system- working principle [ ] Q F v tl active surface of the piston 2 F m velocity of the piston m tl v - é volumetric efficiency s - ù úû êë - h vh vh h h =
  • 4. Adjustment of velocity, differential system 1,2- dividers a1,b1,b2- electromagnets Fast (forward) movement will be activated when both electromagnets a1 and b2 are switched on - attained velocity - attained load
  • 5. Adjustment of velocity, differential system Slow (forward) movement will be activated when a1 electromagnet is switched on In this case velocity will be smaller than vr1 and the load will be higher than Sr1
  • 6. Adjustment of velocity, differential system Backward movement will be activated when only b1 electromagnet is switched on
  • 7. I system 2 1 3 4 5 1- pump, 2- pressure relief valve, 3- 4 way 3 positions directional valve, 4- hydraulic cylinder, 5- tank Divider positions: 1 position- slow (working) forward movement 2 position- fast forward movement 3 position- backward movement
  • 9. II system Divider positions: 1 position- fast forward movement 2 position- neutral 3 position- slow backward movement
  • 10. Wiring diagram of the I & II systems
  • 11. III system Divider positions: Y1, Y2 switched on-slow forward movement Only Y1 switched on-fast forward movement Y1,Y3 switched on-slow backward movement
  • 12. Wiring diagram of the III system
  • 13. Application of fast movement hydraulic systems • Excavator arm control • Airplane flap control • Breaks control (in cars) • Transmitters in agricultural machines • Entrance gates mechanisms • Cranes
  • 14. Advantages and disadvantages • Longevity • Fluent change of velocities in the system; no vibrations • Relatively cheap in exploitation • Very accurate position of the piston cannot be controlled • Energy losses • Leakages

Editor's Notes

  1. To realize the fast movement (forward direction) the right chamber of the actuator must be included in the fluid circulation-> fluid from the right chamber + fluid from the pump altogether generate more power, therefore the piston moves (to the right) with higher velocity
  2. Pressure in both actuator’s chambers is the same F- is area (not force!!) S- load
  3. To activate 1st position signal Y1 must be switched on; to activate 3rd position- Y2 signal
  4. 3 way 3 positions divider is not availible in the labs that’s why it has to be replaced as indicated in the slide above
  5. Current circuit configuration