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By guided by
SARATH.P.R U.PRAKASH
12402052
U7
INTRODUCTION
 An actuator is a kind of motor that controls or moves mechanisms or
systems.
 Actuators are extremely usef...
Type of medium
Hydraulic pneumatic electrical
ACTUATORS
HYDRAULIC ACTUATORS
PRINCIPLE
Pascal’s Law
“Pressure exerted anywhere in a confined incompressible fluid is
transmitted eq...
 Hydraulic refers to means and mechanisms of transfer of power
through liquids.
 Hydraulic systems convert mechanical po...
PARTS
 CYLINDER AND PISTON
 DIRECTION CONTROL VALVE
 PUMP
 PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE
WORKING OF HYDRAULIC ACTUATION SYSTEM
 Α directional control valve controls the direction of oil flow in the system
and, ...
case 2 Lever is moving towards
valve body
• The oil from the pump flows through path Ρ-Α of the valve to the upper end of ...
case 3 : Lever is idle in position
• When the directional control valve lever is released, the valve automatically returns...
ADVANTAGES and DISADVANTAGES
 Actuation of large control surface with minimal input.
 Variable speed and direction.
 ov...
PNEUMATIC ACTUATOR
 A pneumatic actuator converts energy (typically in the form
of compressed Air) into motion. The motio...
WORKING OF PNUEMATIC ACTUATORS
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES
 Infinite availability of source
 Safe and clean
 Negligible maintenance
 Low cost
 Easy...
ELECTRIC MOTORS
•The physical principle of all
electric motors is that when an
electric current is passed
through a conduc...
COMPONENTS OF AN ELECTRIC MOTOR
The principle components of an electric motor are:
• STATOR
• ROTOR
• COMMUTATOR
• BRUSHES
DC MOTOR
 The classic DC motor has a rotating armature in the form of an
electromagnet
 A rotary switch called a commuta...
WORKING
STEPPER MOTOR
What is a stepper motor?
1. Motor that moves one step at a time
2. Brushless motor
3. each step is defined b...
2
1
S
N
1
2
Outside Casing
Stator
Rotor
Internal components of a Stepper Motor
OPTICAL SPEED SENSORS
• First appeared in general motor vehicles
• It uses photocell , light emitting diode(LED) and two b...
 When the vehicle is in motion the speedometer cable spins the two
blade reflector
 Each time the reflector rotates thro...
OPTICAL SPEED SENSOR
Application in automatic
transmission
 Since the optical speed sensors are fast and accurate ,they have wide
application ...
Conclusion
 Actuators have wide application in our daily life
 Hydraulic ,electric and pneumatic actuators are used I
al...
reference
 Erylmaz B, Wilson BH (2000). Combining leakage and
orifice flows in a hydraulic servo valve model. J.
Dynamic ...
THANK YOU
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Actuators and optical speed sensor and application in automatic transmission

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Actuators and optical speed sensor and application in automatic transmission

  1. 1. By guided by SARATH.P.R U.PRAKASH 12402052 U7
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION  An actuator is a kind of motor that controls or moves mechanisms or systems.  Actuators are extremely useful devices and have diverse range of uses in engineering.  It is operated from a source of energy usually from electric current ,hydraulic fluid pressure , pneumatic pressure.  An actuator is a mechanism by which a control system acts on environment  The control system can be an electronic system , software based..
  3. 3. Type of medium Hydraulic pneumatic electrical ACTUATORS
  4. 4. HYDRAULIC ACTUATORS PRINCIPLE Pascal’s Law “Pressure exerted anywhere in a confined incompressible fluid is transmitted equally in all directions throughout the fluid, acts upon every part of the confining vessel at right angles to its interior surfaces”. F = P x A
  5. 5.  Hydraulic refers to means and mechanisms of transfer of power through liquids.  Hydraulic systems convert mechanical power to fluid power , transmit the fluid power to some location , convert back this fluid power to mechanical power to do useful work. Hydraulic systems are used when large force are required.
  6. 6. PARTS  CYLINDER AND PISTON  DIRECTION CONTROL VALVE  PUMP  PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE
  7. 7. WORKING OF HYDRAULIC ACTUATION SYSTEM  Α directional control valve controls the direction of oil flow in the system and, therefore, the direction of motion of the cylinder piston.  The valve has four ports, labeled Ρ, Τ, Α, and Β. Ρ and Τ stand for pressure and tank (or reservoir), and Α and Β are output ports. The valve can be operated in three different positions. Case 1: Lever is moved away from valve body
  8. 8. case 2 Lever is moving towards valve body • The oil from the pump flows through path Ρ-Α of the valve to the upper end of the cylinder. • The oil pushes the piston downward, which lowers the attached load. At the same time, the oil at the lower end of the cylinder flows back to the reservoir through path Β-Τ of the directional control valve.
  9. 9. case 3 : Lever is idle in position • When the directional control valve lever is released, the valve automatically returns to the center (neutral) position. •In this position, all four ports are blocked and oil cannot escape from either side of the cylinder. •. This stops the movement of the piston and causes oil to flow from the pump back to the reservoir through the pressure relief valve.
  10. 10. ADVANTAGES and DISADVANTAGES  Actuation of large control surface with minimal input.  Variable speed and direction.  overload protection.  Greater load carrying capacity.  Leakage may occur  High fire risk  Temperature changes alters the viscosity of the fluid.
  11. 11. PNEUMATIC ACTUATOR  A pneumatic actuator converts energy (typically in the form of compressed Air) into motion. The motion can be rotary or linear, depending on the type of actuator.  A Pneumatic actuator mainly consists of a piston, a cylinder, and valves or ports.  Pneumatic systems are very common, and have much in common with hydraulic systems with a few key differences
  12. 12. WORKING OF PNUEMATIC ACTUATORS
  13. 13. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES  Infinite availability of source  Safe and clean  Negligible maintenance  Low cost  Easy to leak  Potential noises
  14. 14. ELECTRIC MOTORS •The physical principle of all electric motors is that when an electric current is passed through a conductor (usually a coil of wire) placed within a magnetic field, a force is exerted on the wire causing it to move.
  15. 15. COMPONENTS OF AN ELECTRIC MOTOR The principle components of an electric motor are: • STATOR • ROTOR • COMMUTATOR • BRUSHES
  16. 16. DC MOTOR  The classic DC motor has a rotating armature in the form of an electromagnet  A rotary switch called a commutator reverses the direction of the electric current twice every cycle, to flow through the armature so that the poles of the electromagnet push and pull against the permanent magnets on the outside of the motor  As the poles of the armature electromagnet pass the poles of the permanent magnets, the commutator reverses the polarity of the armature electromagnet.  During that instant of switching polarity, inertia keeps the motor going in the proper direction
  17. 17. WORKING
  18. 18. STEPPER MOTOR What is a stepper motor? 1. Motor that moves one step at a time 2. Brushless motor 3. each step is defined by a step angle 4. Rotation of the angle is proportional to the input impulse
  19. 19. 2 1 S N 1 2 Outside Casing Stator Rotor Internal components of a Stepper Motor
  20. 20. OPTICAL SPEED SENSORS • First appeared in general motor vehicles • It uses photocell , light emitting diode(LED) and two blade mirrored reflector to generate electrical signal • More fast and accurate • Located inside the speedometer head at the back of the control panel
  21. 21.  When the vehicle is in motion the speedometer cable spins the two blade reflector  Each time the reflector rotates through the LED beam , the light is reflected to the photocell  This generates an electric signal and also electric pulses  the computer is programmed to convert the pulses to the electronic measurement of vehicle speed
  22. 22. OPTICAL SPEED SENSOR
  23. 23. Application in automatic transmission  Since the optical speed sensors are fast and accurate ,they have wide application in automatic transmission.  Using the data from the optical speed sensors the ,the gear can be shift automatically at the desired speed.  Thus the vehicle can be operated at optimal efficiency without much skill of driver.  For the torque converter clutch operation speed sensor data is necessary.
  24. 24. Conclusion  Actuators have wide application in our daily life  Hydraulic ,electric and pneumatic actuators are used I almost all automobiles.  Optical speed sensors are necessary for automatic transmission.
  25. 25. reference  Erylmaz B, Wilson BH (2000). Combining leakage and orifice flows in a hydraulic servo valve model. J. Dynamic Systems Measurement Control, 122: 576-579
  26. 26. THANK YOU

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