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قواعد اللغة الانجليزية للمرحلة الثانوية م.خالد الشافعى

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قواعد اللغة الانجليزية للمرحلة الثانوية م.خالد الشافعى

  1. 1.  The Zero Conditional الحالة الصفرية Zero Conditional If + present simple present simple نستخدم الحالة الصفرية لتعبير عن حقائق علميه و لوصف أحداث تكون عادة حقيقية. و فى هذه الجمل نلاحظ  If water freezes, it turns into ice.  If a volcano erupts, it sends dust into the atmosphere.  If I have time, I usually walk to school.  If water freezes, it turns into ice.  If I feel thirsty, I drink water.  If I have time, I usually walk to school.  If I feel tired, I go to bed. If you drop wood in water, it floats. If clauses If قاعدة الحالة الأولي : الاحتمال والإمكان If + ) مضارع بسيط ( , will + ) ) مصدر الفعل  If you go to the dentist, you'll have good teeth.  Unless they hide in the trees, the soldiers will see them.  If he doesn't hurry, he won't catch the bus.  If you get up early, you will go to school early. *تستخدم الحالة الأولى للتعبير عن : -1 إمكانية حدوث شئ ما قريب فى المستقبل . If you drive too fast , you will have an accident. - If I earn some money, I’ll go abroad. If we have enough time, we’ll visit Ahmed. تستخدم في إعطاء الوعود :  If you pass the exam , I’ll give you a present. Your father will give you money, if you get high marks. تستخدم في التهديد  If you speak again , I’ll tell the teacher. If you don’t take your medicine , you won’t get better If you don’t listen carefully, I will punish you.
  2. 2. If clauses If قاعدة - الحالة الثانية : تعبر عن شئ غير محتمل حدوثه . If + ) ماضي بسيط ( , (would / could / might) + ) ) مصدر الفعل تستخدم هذه الحالة للتعبير عن حدث من يرنر التحلتنن يح يحندث فى الحاضر يو التسلقبن - If I had a lot of money, I’d travel round the world. - If I didn’t feel so tired, I’d come out with you. - If he really liked you, he wouldn’t be so horrible to you. كتا تعبر ع افلراض مخالف للواقع  تستخدم الحالة الثانية للتعبير عن موقف خيالي أو غير حقيقي . مع التفرد للدلالة على الاسلحالة were لاحظ اسلخدام  - تستخدم الحالة الثانية لنعبر عن إعطاء النصيحة -If I were a bird , I would fly . If I were you , I would + ) ) مصدر الفعل If I were you, I’d give up smoking. If I were you, I’d study hard. If I were you, I’d see a doctor . If I were you, I’d do more exercise . If I were you, I’d look for another job. هى فعن الجتلة الأساسى were مع ملاحظة يح if بدلا م were يتك اسلخدام - If I were younger, I’d play football with you. (Were) Were I younger, I’d play football with you. If clauses If قاعدة - الحالة الثالثة : تعبر عن مواقف مستحيلة . If + ) ماضي تام ( , (would / could / might) + have + P.P تعبر عن مواقف مستحيلة لأنها لم تحدث في الماضي . - If I had had a lot of money, I would have bought a car. - If I had studied hard, I would have got high marks. - If he had run quickly, he’d have won the race. - If he had played well, he wouldn’t have lost the match. - If he had studied hard , he would have succeed.
  3. 3. تستتتخدم الحالتتة الثالثتتة ل تنبيتتر عتتن ةحتتداث ماحتتية متتن المستتتحيل ت يير تتا فتتي الوقتت الحاحر:  If I had got up early, I would have caught the bus. وتستخدم في التنبير عن الندم ع ى ةفنال ماحية   I would have got high marks if I had worked hard.  If I had worked hard, I would have got high marks. لربط جملتين .... نتبع الخطوات التالية : ( If ) * عند إستخدام -1 نحدد الرابط بين الجملتين . ... ( so & therefore & thus & consequently ) - إذا كان الرابط بين الجملتين يحذف الرابط ولا نعكس الجملتين . يحذف الرابط ونعكس الجملتين . ... ( because & since & as ) - إذا كان الرابط بين الجملتين . ( If ) -2 تحديد الحالة لــ - إذا كان زمن الجملة الأولى مستقبل أو أمر ..... نستخدم الحالة الأولى . - إذا كان زمن الجملة الأولى مضارع ..... نستخدم الحالة الثانية . - إذا كان زمن الجملة الأولى ماضى ..... نستخدم الحالة الثالثة . -3 ننفى المثبت ونثبت المنفى . هى الحالة الأولى ( ( If ) ) من الممكن الإستغناء عن هذه الخطوة إذا كانت الحالة المستخدمة لــ Exs: * Perhaps he will come tomorrow. If so, I’ll meet him. ( If ) ----» If he comes tomorrow, I will meet him. * Hurry up or you won’t catch the train. ( If ) ----» If you hurry up, you will catch the train. لاحظ نحذف الرابط ... تتغير جملة واحدة من ... ( or ) إذا كان الرابط بين الجملتين  الجملتين من حيث النفى والإثبات . * He doesn’t take any exercise, so he is fat. ( If ) ----» If he took some exercise, he wouldn’t be fat. * She didn’t study hard, so she failed the exam. ( If ) ----» If she had studied hard, she wouldn’t have failed the exam. * He isn’t rich, so he won’t buy the car. ( If ) ----» If he were rich, he would buy the car.
  4. 4. Note The Following If Should Were Had ( 1 ) Should : وتصبح القاعدة كالآتي : ( If ) بدلا من ( Should ) - من الممكن أن تحل Should + ) ) المصدر ( + ) الفاعل في الحالتين الأولى والثانية * If she studies hard, she will get high marks. ( Should ) ----» Should she study hard, she will get high marks. 2- Were : بطريقتين : ( If ) بدلا من ( Were ) - من الممكن أن تحل موجودة في الجملة تحول الجملة بالطريقة التالية : ( Were ) -1 إذا كانت Were + ) ..………… + ) الفاعل * If she were a doctor, she would help us. ( Were ) ----» Were she a doctor, she would help us. غير موجودة في الجملة تحول الجملة بالطريقة التالية : ( Were ) -2 إذا كانت Were + ) الفاعل ( + to + ) ) المصدر * If he trained well, he would win the cup. ( Were ) ----» Were he to train well, he would win the cup. --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 3- Had : وتصبح القاعدة كالآتي : ( If ) بدلا من ( Had ) - من الممكن أن تحل Had + ) ………… + ) الفاعل في الحالتين الثانية والثالثة * If he had played the match well, he would have won the cup. ( Had ) ----» Had he played the match well, he would have won the cup. if بدلا من in case of لاحظ استخدام In case of + n. / (v+ing)
  5. 5.  If he arrives tomorrow, we’ll meet him. In case of his arrival tomorrow, we’ll meet him. In case of his arriving tomorrow, we’ll meet him. if تنطبق عليها نفس حالات unless لاحظ أن  Unless = If…not  This food tastes bad. There is too much salt in it. (If../ Unless…) If there wasn't / weren't too much salt in this food, it wouldn't taste bad. Unless there was / were too much salt in this food, it wouldn't taste bad. if تعبيرات تساوى Provided / provided that / providing / as long as / in the event that / in case You can borrow my car as long as you drive carefully. You can look at the eclipse provided that you wear protective glasses - You can stay with us as long as you share the rent. - She will pass her exams provided that she studies hard. في الحالة الأولي: If يمكن استخدام الكلمات الآتية بدلا من As long as = If Provided (that) / Providing (that) = only if You can borrow my car as long as you drive carefully. Provided that you have a lot of money, you can buy this car. If it weren’t for + noun + would + المصدر * تستخدم فى الحالة الثانية فقط Without his cleverness, he wouldn’t overcome his problems. If it weren’t for his cleverness, he wouldn’t overcome his problems. If it hadn’t been for + noun + would have + pp * تستخدم فى النفى فى الحالة الثالثة فقط . Without his cleverness, he wouldn’t have solved this problem. If it hadn’t been for his cleverness, he wouldn’t have solved this problem.
  6. 6. Conjunctions (linking words) الروابط )أدوات الربط( Addition links : روابط الإضافة و هى روابط تسلخدم فى ربط فكرتر يو يكثر Sub + V besides in addition to as well as noun V+ ing Besides + v. + ing: بالاضافة الى - She cooked for twenty people. She did the washing up. (Besides) Besides cooking for twenty people, she did the washing up. In addition to + v. + ing: بالاضافة الى - We went to the market. We went to the zoo. (In addition to) In addition to going to the market, we went to the zoo. In addition + :جملة - We went to the market. We went to the zoo. In addition) We went to the market. In addition, we went to the zoo. As wel l as + v. + ing : ) بالإضافة إلى )الفاعن واحد فى الجتللر - We we n t to t he ma r ke t . We we nt t o t he z oo. (As we l l a s ) A s we l l a s g o i n g t o t h e m a r k e t we we n t t o t h e z o o . ولكن لاحظ : بين فاعلين مختلفين يتبع الفعل الفاعل الأول . )as well as( إذا ربطت - Ha la p l a ys th e g u i t a r . S he p la ys th e p ia no. ( a s we l l a s ) H a l a p l a y s t h e g u i t a r a s w e l l a s t h e p i a n o . not only …………., but also ……….……: لرس فقط ... و لك ييضا not only …… .….., but …….….. as well: لرس فقط ..... و لك ييضا قبن الفعن الأساسى يو بعد الفعن التساعد فى الجتلة الأولى. not only تأتى - We went to the market. We went to the zoo. (not only) We not only went to the market but also we went to the zoo. We not only went to the garden, but we went to the zoo as well.
  7. 7. تكوح الجتلة الأولى على شكن سؤال. Not only إذا بدينا بن  - We went to the market. We went to the zoo. (Not only……) Not only did we go to the market, but also we went to the zoo. فاعلر مخللفر فاح الفعن يلبع الفاعن الثانى. Not only……but also ….. إذا ربطت  - Tom plays music. His brothers play music. (Not only…..) Not only Tom but also his brothers play music. Linkers of Cause الروابط الدالة على السبب Sub + V because since as Sub + V Because / As / Since + لأح )يأتى قبلها جتلة النلرجة و بعدها جتلة السبب( :جملة - He miss ed the bus. He was lat e for work. ( because) He was l at e f or s ch oo l b eca use he mi s s e d th e b us . She is very beautiful. The girls are jealous of her. The girls are jealous of her because she is very beautiful. Sub + V because of owing to due to through on account of thanks to noun V + ing Due to / Owing to Because of / Through + v. + ing / بسبب :اسم + صفة / اسم - He went to the doctor because he was ill. He went to the doctor because of his illness. (because of) He went to the doctor because of being ill. * Shady got high marks due to his hard work / working hard .
  8. 8. علي الرغم من Sub + V although though even though Sub + V تستخـــدم الروابـــط الآتيـــة للتعبيـــر عـــن التناقـــض.  * Although she was ill, she went to school. He was hungry. He refused to eat ( but ) He was hungry, but he refused to eat. علي الرغم من Sub. + V. despite in spite of regardless of noun V + ing * Despite her illness, she went to school لكن – ومع ذلك Sub. + V but yet however Sub. + V - * He is young. He is strong. (however / but) He is young but strong. He is young, but he is strong. لاحظ هذه الروابط في بداية الجملة : (Whatever) – (However) – (As) However + ( فـعــل + فـاعــل + صفــة أو ) ظــرف Although he is strong he couldn’t work. ( However ) However strong he was, he couldn’t work. However strong he was, he couldn’t work. ( Whatever )
  9. 9. Whatever strength he has , he can’t work. Whatever + فـعــل + فـاعــل + إســم However strong he was, he couldn’t work. (Whatever ) Whatever strength he has , he can’t work. صفــه + as + فـعـــل + فـاعـــل However strong he was, he couldn’t work. ( as) Strong as he is, he can't work. Result links روابط النتيجة sub + V So therefore consequently that's why sub + V تستخـــدم لربـــط جملتيـــن أحدهمــا سبـب للآخـــر و يأتى قبلها جتلة السبب و بعدها جتلة النلرجة He was ill. He didn’t go to school. ( so ) He was ill, so (– therefore ) he didn’t go to school. * He got up late , there fore he missed the train . - I felt ill. I went to bed. (That’s why/ consequently) I felt ill. That’s why I went to bed.
  10. 10. Conditional links روابط الشرط إذا – لو – بشرط أن (If) = as long as / provided that / in case / in the event that * You can travel abroad if / provided that / as long as you have a visa. In case of With By noun V + ing * In case of having a visa , you can travel abroad . (Unless) = if not إذا لم * Unless you do homework, you will be punished. without But for noun V + ing * Without working hard, you won't succeed Linkers of Time الروابط الدالة على الزمن While برنتا - While reading the newspaper, I fell asleep. when عندما - When I got home, I did my homework. as soon as بتجرد يح - As soon as I saw it, I wanted to buy it. before: قرن - Before I went to bed, I phoned my friend.
  11. 11. ماضي بسيط ماضي مستمر while as just as ماضي مستمر *The accident happened while she was talking on her mobile phone . (While) + v + ing ماضي بسيط * While reading a newspaper, he fell asleep. ماضي بسيط When ماضي بسيط ماضي مستمر * When he was watching TV, his father called at him. during + noun * During his visit, he received a great welcome. ماضي بسيط as soon as after ماضي بسيط ماضي تام * As soon as I heard the good news , I phoned my father . had heard ماضي بسيط ماضي تام before By the time ماضي بسيط * I had locked the door before I went out. With My Best Wishes

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