WHAT YOU SHOULD KNOW ABOUT TEACHING ENGLISH (AS A
THE VERY BASICS.
Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching, Diane Larsen-
Freeman, Oxford University Press.
Principles of Language Learning and Teaching, H. Douglas Brown,
Prentice Hall Regents.
Teaching by Principles, H. Douglas Brown, Prentice Hall Regents.
Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching, Jack C. Richards
& Theordore S. Rodgers, Cambridge University Press.
An introduction to Second Language Acquisition Research. Diane
Larsen-Freeman & Michael H. Long.
The Practice of English Language Teaching, Jeremy Harmer,
Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language.
Celce-Murcia, M. H&H
Second Language Teaching & Learning. David Nunan. (1995). H& H.
Research findings on Learning a
(a) Adults and adolescents can acquire a L2
(b) The learners create concepts with the same systematic
errors as the child learning the L1
(d) Practice doesn’t make perfect
(e) Knowing a linguistic rule doesn’t mean knowing how to use it
(f) Isolated explicit error correction is usually ineffective
(g) More adult learners fossilize
(h) One cannot achieve native-like command of a L2
in one hour a day
(i) A meaningful context is paramount.
Advantages children benefit from in
learning a foreign language:
Children’s greater potential for developing accurate
pronunciation, accent and fluency before puberty
Children’s favorable attitude towards a language and its
culture, either their mother tongue or a second language.
Children’s less mental barriers of learning than adults
Children’s learning two languages simultaneously without
suffering from inter-lingual interference
Listening along with speaking, a preliminary and preferable
role in the natural order of language acquisition for
What is a “good” English
A “good” learner of English is
Willing to experiment
Willing to listen
Willing to ask questions
Willing to think about how to learn
What is a “good” English teacher?
According to Brown (2001)
i) technical knowledge—understanding linguistics; grasping basic
principles of language learning and teaching; language proficiencies
in speaking, reading, writing and listening; knowledge about language
learning process through one’s own experience; understanding the
relationship between culture and language and knowledge of latest
development of language teaching and learning.
Deductive learning of grammar— is an
approach to language learning in which
learners are taught rules and given specific
information about a language. They then
apply these rules when they use the
Inductive learning— is an approach to
language learning in which learners are not
taught grammatical or other types of rules
directly but are left to discover or induce
rules from their experience of using the
Performance and competence
Performance-- a person’s actual use of
Competence-- a person’s knowledge of a
Acquisition vs. learning
Acquisition--the processes by which people naturally develop
proficiency in a language
Learning-- the processes by which people formally develop
the Acquisition-learning hypothesis by Stephen Krashen-
bottom-up processing vs. top-down processing
Top-down processing—a way in which humans
analyze and process language as part of the
process of comprehension and learning by
making use of previous knowledge (higher-level
knowledge) in analyzing and processing
information which is received such as one’s
expectations, experience, schemata in reading
Bottom-up processing— a way making use
principally of information which is already
present in the data (words, sentences, etc.) such
as understanding a text mainly by analyzing the
words and sentences in the text itself.
Teacher-centered vs. learner-centered teaching
Teacher-centered (fronted) teaching— a
teaching style in which instruction is closely
managed and controlled by the teacher
Learner-centered teaching— methods of
teaching which emphasizes the active role of
students in learning, tries to give learners more
control over what and how they learn and
encourages learners to take more responsibility
for their own learning. It is encouraged by many
current teaching approaches.
Target language vs. native
Target language—the language
which a person is learning
Native language— a first language
or mother tongue/motherese which
is acquired first.
Form vs. function
Form— the physical characteristics of a thing->
in language use, a linguistic form is like the
Function— a linguistic form can perform a
variety of different functions:
Come here for a drink-> invitation
Watch out-> warning
Turn left at the corner-> direction
Pass the salt-> request