Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

The Civil Rights Movement: Beginnings

530 views

Published on

Why did it take nearly a century for African Americans to be able to exercise their Constitutional rights? Ultimate and Proximate factors are featured.

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

The Civil Rights Movement: Beginnings

  1. 1. The Civil Rights Movement …beginnings
  2. 2. The Civil Rights Movement …beginnings
  3. 3. “I am an “invisible man. “No, I am not a spook like those who “ haunted Edgar Allan Poe; nor am I “ one of your Hollywood ectoplasms.
  4. 4. I am a man of substance, of flesh and bone, and liquids, and I might even be said to possess a mind. I am invisible, understand, simply because people refuse to see me…. When they approach me they see only my surroundings, themselves, or figments of their imagination — indeed, everything and anything except me.
  5. 5. Nor is my invisibility exactly a matter of biochemical accident to my epidermis. That invisibility to which I refer occurs because of a peculiar disposition of the eyes of those with whom I come into contact. A matter of construction of their inner eyes, those eyes with which they look through their physical eyes upon reality.
  6. 6. I am not complaining, nor am I protesting either. It is sometimes advantageous to be unseen, although it is most often rather wearing on the nerves. Then, too, you’re constantly being bumped against by those of poor vision. Or again, you often doubt if you really exist.
  7. 7. You wonder whether you aren’t simply a phantom in other people’s minds. Say, a figure in a nightmare which the sleeper tries with all his strength to destroy.
  8. 8. It’s when you feel like this that, out of resentment, you begin to bump people back.”
  9. 9. It’s when you feel like this that, out of resentment, you begin to bump people back.”
  10. 10. 2 Questions
  11. 11. Ultimate Causes?
  12. 12. Proximate Causes?
  13. 13. CRM ≠ MLK
  14. 14. Gallup Poll (AIPO) [February, 1965] “How would you rate the job that... Martin Luther King... has done in the fight for Negro rights?” 94% Positive 3% Negative 3% Not sure
  15. 15. Gallup Poll (AIPO) [August, 1963] “What are your feelings about [the] proposed mass civil rights rally to be held in Washington D.C. on August 28, 1963?” 23% Favorable 60% Unfavorable 17% No opinion
  16. 16. <1>
  17. 17. Ultimate: Preconditions for Racial Change
  18. 18. Ultimate: Preconditions for Racial Change 1. Ideological shifts 2. Nazi ideology & the Double “V” 3. Cold War 4. Migration & Urban Power 5. Economic Growth & Education
  19. 19. Ultimate: Preconditions for Racial Change 6. Protest Organizations 7. U.S. Military 8. Emmett Till 9. The Brown decision (SCOTUS)
  20. 20. Ideological shifts
  21. 21. Liberal Environmentalism
  22. 22. Nazi ideology
  23. 23. Cold War Competition
  24. 24. Migration
  25. 25. > North, > cities
  26. 26. 1910: 89% (80% rural) S
  27. 27. 1970s >80% (urban)
  28. 28. Why?
  29. 29. 50% 1960
  30. 30. Urban power base
  31. 31. Af-Am Church
  32. 32. Af-Am Church
  33. 33. Economic Growth
  34. 34. United Negro College Fund
  35. 35. Af-Am Colleges
  36. 36. Af-Am High Schools
  37. 37. Af-Am High Schools
  38. 38. Af-Am High Schools
  39. 39. Af-Am High Schools
  40. 40. Af-Am High Schools
  41. 41. 15,000 1930
  42. 42. 75,000 1950
  43. 43. Protest Organizations
  44. 44. National Association for the Advancement of Colored Peoples
  45. 45. Thurgood Marshall
  46. 46. 1948
  47. 47. Sgt. Isaac Woodard, 1946
  48. 48. Judge J. Waties Waring
  49. 49. Pres. Harry S Truman
  50. 50. “Segregation is per se inequality”
  51. 51. The Murder of Emmett Till
  52. 52. Supreme Court Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas (1954)
  53. 53. majority Northerners
  54. 54. 20%
  55. 55. “[F]rom this Cradle of the Confederacy, this very Heart of the Great Anglo- Saxon Southland…we sound the drum for freedom as have our generations of forebears before us done, time and time again through history…
  56. 56. “Let us…send our answer to the tyranny that clanks its chains upon the South. In the name of the greatest people that have ever trod this earth, I draw the line in the dust…and I say…segregation today…segregation tomorrow… segregation forever.”
  57. 57. “They [white southerners] are not bad people. All they are concerned about is…that their sweet little girls are not required to sit in school alongside some big overgrown Negroes.”
  58. 58. </1>
  59. 59. <2>
  60. 60. Proximate: Anti- Segregation Tactics
  61. 61. Proximate: Anti- Segregation Tactics 1. Bus Boycott(s) 2. Freedom Rides 3. Sit-ins 4. Etc.
  62. 62. “I know the one thing we did right Was the day we started to fight. Keep your eyes on the prize, Hold on, hold on.”
  63. 63. Montgomery Bus Boycott
  64. 64. Rosa Parks
  65. 65. Women’s Political Council
  66. 66. Jo Ann Robinson
  67. 67. SCLC Southern Christian Leadership Council
  68. 68. 381 days
  69. 69. “unConstitutional” Alabama, 1956
  70. 70. CORE Congress of Racial Equality
  71. 71. “Freedom Rides”
  72. 72. Gallup Poll (AIPO) [May, 1961] “Do you approve or disapprove of what the ‘Freedom Riders’ are doing?” 22% Approve 61% Disapprove 18% No opinion
  73. 73. SNCC: Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee
  74. 74. Gallup Poll (AIPO) [May, 1961] “Do you think ‘sit-ins’ at lunch counters, ‘freedom buses’, and other demonstrations by Negroes will hurt or help the Negro’s chances of being integrated in the South?” 57% Hurt 28% Help 16% No opinion
  75. 75. </2>
  76. 76. <3>
  77. 77. RESULTS: Legislative Triumph
  78. 78. Civil Rights Act 1964
  79. 79. Voting Rights Act 1965
  80. 80. 36% registered 1964
  81. 81. 65% registered 1969
  82. 82. 300 black mayors 1965
  83. 83. 300 black mayors 1980
  84. 84. 72 black reps 1965
  85. 85. 4200 black reps 1987
  86. 86. </3>
  87. 87. “We had breakfast while we were waiting for the rain to stop, and I [was] sitting with the [Indianapolis] Clowns in a restaurant behind Griffith Stadium and hearing them break all the plates in the kitchen after we were finished eating. What a horrible sound.
  88. 88. Even as a kid, the irony of it hit me: here we were in the capital in the land of freedom and equality, and they had to destroy the plates that had touched the forks that had been in the mouths of black men. If dogs had eaten off those plates, they’d have washed them.”
  89. 89. “There was often a hate letter or two in the mail, and I was always concerned about Barbara and the kids being abused when they went to the ballpark….
  90. 90. “You can hit all dem home runs over dem short fences, but you can’t take that black off yo’ face.”
  91. 91. Returning to the South took some of the boy from Mobile out of me, and replaced it with a man who was weary of the way things were.
  92. 92. I was tired of being invisible.
  93. 93. “I was the equal of any ballplayer in the world, damn it, and if nobody was going to give me my due, it was time to grab for it.” – Henry Aaron
  94. 94. “[W]e shouldn’t have to say black lives matter. We should be able to take it for granted. In the 1780s the British Society for the Abolition of Slavery adopted as its official seal a woodcut of a kneeling slave above a banner that read, ‘Am I Not A Man And A Brother?’
  95. 95. More than a hundred years later, black sanitation workers in the Poor People’s Campaign answered the slave’s question with signs worn around their necks that read: ‘I Am A Man.’” – Michelle Alexander December, 2015
  96. 96. February 24th, 2018
  97. 97. 0:25
  98. 98. 3:50
  99. 99. “Ain’t much matter what happens tomorrow, ‘cause we men, ain’t we?”
  100. 100. “I was a changed being after that fight…I was nothing before; I was a MAN NOW.”

×