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The Civil Rights Movement - Beginnings

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Ultimate and proximate causes of the Civil Rights Movement

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The Civil Rights Movement - Beginnings

  1. 1. The Civil Rights Movement …beginnings
  2. 2. “I am an “invisible man. “No, I am not a spook like those who “ haunted Edgar Allan Poe; nor am I “ one of your Hollywood ectoplasms.
  3. 3. I am a man of substance, of flesh and bone, and liquids, and I might even be said to possess a mind. I am invisible, understand, simply because people refuse to see me…. When they approach me they see only my surroundings, themselves, or figments of their imagination — indeed, everything and anything except me.
  4. 4. Nor is my invisibility exactly a matter of biochemical accident to my epidermis. That invisibility to which I refer occurs because of a peculiar disposition of the eyes of those with whom I come into contact. A matter of construction of their inner eyes, those eyes with which they look through their physical eyes upon reality.
  5. 5. I am not complaining, nor am I protesting either. It is sometimes advantageous to be unseen, although it is most often rather wearing on the nerves. Then, too, you’re constantly being bumped against by those of poor vision. Or again, you often doubt if you really exist.
  6. 6. You wonder whether you aren’t simply a phantom in other people’s minds. Say, a figure in a nightmare which the sleeper tries with all his strength to destroy.
  7. 7. It’s when you feel like this that, out of resentment, you begin to bump people back.”
  8. 8. It’s when you feel like this that, out of resentment, you begin to bump people back.”
  9. 9. It’s when you feel like this that, out of resentment, you begin to bump people back.”
  10. 10. 2 Questions
  11. 11. Ultimate Causes?
  12. 12. Proximate Causes?
  13. 13. CRM ≠ MLK
  14. 14. Gallup Poll (AIPO) [February, 1965] “How would you rate the job that... Martin Luther King... has done in the fight for Negro rights?” 94% Positive 3% Negative 3% Not sure
  15. 15. Gallup Poll (AIPO) [August, 1963] “What are your feelings about [the] proposed mass civil rights rally to be held in Washington D.C. on August 28, 1963?” 23% Favorable 60% Unfavorable 17% No opinion
  16. 16. <1>
  17. 17. Ultimate: Preconditions for Racial Change
  18. 18. Ideological shifts
  19. 19. Liberal Environmentalism
  20. 20. Nazi ideology
  21. 21. 1948
  22. 22. Cold War Competition
  23. 23. Migration
  24. 24. > North, > cities
  25. 25. 89% (80% rural) S 1910
  26. 26. >80% (urban) 1970s
  27. 27. Why?
  28. 28. 50% 1960
  29. 29. Urban power base
  30. 30. Af-Am Church
  31. 31. Af-Am Church
  32. 32. Af-Am Colleges
  33. 33. Af-Am High Schools
  34. 34. Af-Am High Schools
  35. 35. Af-Am High Schools
  36. 36. Af-Am High Schools
  37. 37. Af-Am High Schools
  38. 38. 15,000 1930
  39. 39. 75,000 1950
  40. 40. Protest Organizations
  41. 41. National Association for the Advancement of Colored Peoples
  42. 42. Thurgood Marshall
  43. 43. Economic Growth
  44. 44. United Negro College Fund
  45. 45. Supreme Court Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas (1954)
  46. 46. majority Northerners
  47. 47. 20%
  48. 48. “Today I have stood…from this Cradle of the Confederacy, this very Heart of the Great Anglo- Saxon Southland, that today we sound the drum for freedom as have our generations of forebears before us done, time and time again through history…
  49. 49. “Let us…send our answer to the tyranny that clanks its chains upon the South. In the name of the greatest people that have ever trod this earth, I draw the line in the dust …and I say . . . segregation today . . . segregation tomorrow . . . segregation forever.”
  50. 50. “They [white southerners] are not bad people. All they are concerned about is…that their sweet little girls are not required to sit in school alongside some big overgrown Negroes.”
  51. 51. </1>
  52. 52. <2>
  53. 53. Proximate: Anti- Segregation Tactics
  54. 54. “I know the one thing we did right Was the day we started to fight. Keep your eyes on the prize, Hold on, hold on.”
  55. 55. Montgomery Bus Boycott
  56. 56. Rosa Parks
  57. 57. Women’s Political Council
  58. 58. SCLC Southern Christian Leadership Council
  59. 59. 381 days
  60. 60. “unConstitutional” Alabama, 1956
  61. 61. CORE Congress of Racial Equality
  62. 62. “Freedom Rides”
  63. 63. Gallup Poll (AIPO) [May, 1961] “Do you approve or disapprove of what the ‘Freedom Riders’ are doing?” 22% Approve 61% Disapprove 18% No opinion
  64. 64. Gallup Poll (AIPO) [May, 1961] “Do you approve or disapprove of what the ‘Freedom Riders’ are doing?” 22% Approve 61% Disapprove 18% No opinion
  65. 65. SNCC: Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee
  66. 66. Gallup Poll (AIPO) [May, 1961] “Do you think ‘sit-ins’ at lunch counters, ‘freedom buses’, and other demonstrations by Negroes will hurt or help the Negro’s chances of being integrated in the South?” 57% Hurt 28% Help 16% No opinion
  67. 67. Gallup Poll (AIPO) [May, 1961] “Do you think ‘sit-ins’ at lunch counters, ‘freedom buses’, and other demonstrations by Negroes will hurt or help the Negro’s chances of being integrated in the South?” 57% Hurt 28% Help 16% No opinion
  68. 68. </2>
  69. 69. <3>
  70. 70. RESULTS: Legislative Triumph
  71. 71. Civil Rights Act 1964
  72. 72. Voting Rights Act 1965
  73. 73. 36% registered 1964
  74. 74. 65% registered 1969
  75. 75. 300 black mayors 1965
  76. 76. 300 black mayors 1980
  77. 77. 72 black reps 1965
  78. 78. 4200 black reps 1987
  79. 79. </3>
  80. 80. “We had breakfast while we were waiting for the rain to stop, and I [was] sitting with the [Indianapolis] Clowns in a restaurant behind Griffith Stadium and hearing them break all the plates in the kitchen after we were finished eating. What a horrible sound.
  81. 81. Even as a kid, the irony of it hit me: here we were in the capital in the land of freedom and equality, and they had to destroy the plates that had touched the forks that had been in the mouths of black men. If dogs had eaten off those plates, they’d have washed them.”
  82. 82. “There was often a hate letter or two in the mail, and I was always concerned about Barbara and the kids being abused when they went to the ballpark…. Returning to the South took some of the boy from Mobile out of me, and replaced it with a man who was weary of the way things were.
  83. 83. I was tired of being invisible.
  84. 84. I was tired of being invisible.
  85. 85. “I was the equal of any ballplayer in the world, damn it, and if nobody was going to give me my due, it was time to grab for it.” – Henry Aaron

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