Darwinism (Feb 2009)


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Is Evolution a fact proven by science?

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Darwinism (Feb 2009)

  1. 1. Darwinism
  2. 2. References <ul><li>Newsweek magazine, July 27, 1998, “Science finds God” </li></ul><ul><li>Time magazine, December 4, 1995, “Evolution’s Big Bang” </li></ul><ul><li>Various books and various articles from the Internet </li></ul>
  3. 3. Definition <ul><li>Widely accepted definition: </li></ul><ul><li>“Evolution is a fully natural process, inherent in the physical properties of the universe, by which life arose in the first place, and by which all living things, past and present , have since developed, divergently and progressively.” (George G Simpson, “The World into which Darwin led us”, 1960) </li></ul>
  4. 4. TWO Theories of Evolution <ul><li>Terms coined by G A Kerkut, </li></ul><ul><li>British physiologist and evolutionist in 1960 </li></ul><ul><li>The Special Theory of Evolution also known as “ micro-evolution ” </li></ul><ul><li>The General Theory of Evolution also known as “ macro-evolution ” </li></ul>
  5. 5. Micro-evolution <ul><li>Changes occur throughout life but within narrow limits </li></ul><ul><li>Animal breeders can select characteristics to breed in stock, dogs, cats, plants, flowers, etc - process of “ artificial selection ” </li></ul><ul><li>Key observation: no change crosses “phylogenetic” boundaries (“according to its kind”) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many breeds of dog, but they remain dogs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Micro-evolution is not denied or challenged </li></ul><ul><li>by anyone </li></ul>
  6. 6. Macro-evolution <ul><li>Darwin observed the effects of micro-evolutionary changes in artificial selection and extended that principle into a much larger and broader concept of “ natural selection ” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Theory that all living forms in the world arose from a single source which itself came from inorganic form” (Kerkut) </li></ul><ul><li>Term “evolution” now used synonymously as macro-evolution </li></ul>
  7. 7. Of brown and white bears <ul><li>An illustration used by evolutionists </li></ul><ul><li>Begin with a large population of brown bears in the artic region </li></ul><ul><li>At some point in time a mutation occurred and out came a white bear </li></ul><ul><li>The white bear can hunt its prey much better than brown bears because it blends very well with the white environment so that hunting for food is easier </li></ul>
  8. 8. Of brown and white bears <ul><li>Hence the white bear has better chances of survival, and produces more white bears </li></ul><ul><li>That being a good mutation, over time the white bear population grows while that of the brown bears dwindles </li></ul><ul><li>Eventually all bears in the artic region are white </li></ul><ul><li> Evolution held up as a logical explanation </li></ul><ul><li>why bears are white in the artic region </li></ul>
  9. 9. Of brown and white bears <ul><li>BUT, evolutionists fail to point out that the brown bears evolved over time into white bears – not white cats, or birds or fish. </li></ul><ul><li>Illustration is one of micro-evolution at work – not of macro-evolution. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Darwin’s Theory of Natural Selection <ul><li>So, over eons and eons, new, better, more complex species evolve from lower species – macro-changes </li></ul>
  11. 11. The Darwinian Evolution Model <ul><li>Gradual evolution of simple phyla into more complex ones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From simple invertebrates to worms, to molluscs, to vertebrates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All encompassing - applies to ALL life, ALL species </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. The Darwinian Evolution Model <ul><li>A “ natural ” process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evolution from random mutations, through natural selection, to macro-changes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Absence of any outside force to direct changes - atheistic in principle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Survival of the fittest </li></ul><ul><li>Require time - eons of time - 100-200 million years - because of dependence on random processes for gradual changes </li></ul>
  13. 13. Dependence on chance <ul><li>Compared to climbing a cliff </li></ul><ul><li>Get to the top in a single jump highly improbable </li></ul><ul><li>But step by step – each small step more probable </li></ul><ul><li>So, over long period of time, evolve </li></ul>
  14. 14. Darwinian Evolution Model The Darwinian Tree
  15. 15. Acceptance <ul><li>List of distinguished scientists make any </li></ul><ul><li>scientist who disputes evolution look foolish </li></ul><ul><li>Pierre-Paul Grasse, French zoologist </li></ul><ul><li>George Gaylord Simpson, distinguished professor of paleontology at Harvard </li></ul><ul><li>Carl Sagan, distinguished astronomer at Cornell University </li></ul><ul><li>Konrad Lorenz, eminent anthropologist </li></ul><ul><li>Rene Dubos, leading ecologist </li></ul><ul><li>Richard Goldschmidt, noted geneticist </li></ul>
  16. 16. A Proven Fact? <ul><li>“[Darwin] rendered evolution inescapable as a fact , comprehensible as a process, all-embracing as a concept.” (Sir Julian Huxley, “The Emergence of Darwinism”, 1960) </li></ul><ul><li>“Today the theory of evolution is an accepted fact for everyone except a fundamentalist minority.” (Dr Stephen Jay Gould, Harvard paleontologist, “Darwinism Defined: the Difference between Fact and Theory”, 1987 ) </li></ul>
  17. 17. And yet… <ul><li>“I am well aware that there is scarcely a single point discussed in this volume on which facts cannot be adduced, often apparently leading to conclusions directly opposite to those I have arrived . A fair result could be obtained only by fully stating and balancing the facts on both sides of each equation.” (Charles Darwin, 1859, in the Introduction to The Origin of Species) </li></ul>
  18. 18. Darwinism in Crisis
  19. 19. Serious Problems with Natural Selection <ul><li>Cannot explain how life originated </li></ul><ul><li>No evidence of change in phylum </li></ul><ul><li>Contradicts observation that entire cosmos is progressing from order to disorder ( entropy ) </li></ul><ul><li>Chance cannot explain how life ascended from simple and lower intelligence to very complex and higher intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Who or what is directing the climb of species? </li></ul>
  20. 20. Darwinism in Question <ul><li>Old Darwinian model no longer valid since mid-80’s </li></ul><ul><li>Evolution biology in early stages of a paradigm shift </li></ul><ul><li>Natural selection is increasingly qualified and over-shadowed </li></ul><ul><li>Growing consensus that natural selection cannot explain order </li></ul><ul><li>What happened to this “proven fact” ? </li></ul>
  21. 21. Tales from the Crypt <ul><li>Fossil record considered to be the scientific evidence of evolution </li></ul><ul><li>Pierre-P. Grasse considers evolution to be based “primarily on documents provided by paleontology , i.e. the [fossil] history of the living world . . . . only paleontology can provide the evidence of evolution and reveal its course or mechanisms.” </li></ul>
  22. 22. Dead Men Tell No Tales <ul><li>Limitations of fossil record </li></ul><ul><li>The fossil evidence cannot repeat evolution </li></ul><ul><li>“ evolutionary happenings are unique, unrepeatable and irreversible ”, and hence impossible to prove (Theodosius Dobzhansky, “American Scientist”, 1957) </li></ul>
  23. 23. Evolution’s Archilles’ Heel <ul><li>“If it could be shown that this fact [gaps between widely distinct groups] had always existed, the fact would be fatal to the doctrine of evolution.” (Thomas Huxley, 1882) </li></ul>Consider the next most intelligent creature next to man. Why such a gap ? The Missing Link
  24. 24. Evolution’s Archilles’ Heel <ul><li>From Darwin himself: </li></ul><ul><li>“[Since] innumerable transitional forms must have existed, why do we not find them imbedded in countless numbers in the crust of the earth? Why is not every geological formation and every stratum full of such intermediate links ?” </li></ul><ul><li>“. . . why if species have descended from other species by insensibly fine gradations, do we not everywhere see innumerable transitional forms ?” </li></ul>
  25. 25. Another Archilles’ Heel <ul><li>A dependence on eons and eons of time for probability to work its course and effect the evolutionary changes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The need for long periods of time is implied in the meaning of the word “evolve” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If it can be shown that there is not enough time, the theory will be discredited </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eg probability for abiogenesis will require a time far longer than the age of the universe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eg time it takes for species to appear on the scene is far shorter than what evolution would predict </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Recent Discoveries <ul><li>60,000 fossils discovered in 1909 but was “buried” in the Smithsonian until mid-80’s – an attempt to suppress evidence? </li></ul><ul><li>Discoveries of major fossil beds since 1987 all around the world </li></ul><ul><li>There are now 250 million cataloged fossils of 250 million fossil species </li></ul><ul><li>Considered by many scientists to be a complete </li></ul><ul><li>and adequate portrait of the geologic record , </li></ul><ul><li>i.e. the evidence is complete </li></ul>
  27. 27. One Fatal Blow <ul><li>The evidence contradicts Darwin’s theory </li></ul><ul><li>“ The known fossil record fails to document a single example of phyletic evolution” (Dr S M Stanley, John Hopkins University, 1979) </li></ul><ul><li>“ no evidence of transitional form ” (Dr David Raup, University of Chicago, 1978) </li></ul><ul><li>“ extreme rarity of transitional forms” “Most species exhibit no directional change during their tenure on earth” (Dr Stephen Jay Gould, 1977 ) </li></ul>
  28. 28. Another Fatal Blow <ul><li>Patterns in the fossil record do not show gradual steady change over time as Darwin predicted, but sharp jolts of change which cannot be explained by natural selection </li></ul><ul><li>“The most thorough study of species formation in the fossil record confirms that new species appear with a most un-Darwinian abruptness .” (R Kerr, “Did Darwin Get It All Right?”, Science, 1995) </li></ul>
  29. 29. Another Fatal Blow <ul><li>There was a “big-bang” of life ALL over the earth, known as the Cambrian explosion (530 million years ago *) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Life did NOT start in just one place and gradually populate the whole earth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Life did not start small and then grow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It exploded everywhere in a short period of time! </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. The Cambrian Explosion - The Data The Theory – continuous evolution over time from single source The Data – sudden appearance all over – and not from single source
  31. 31. The Cambrian Explosion - The Data Sharp Jolt, Sudden
  32. 32. Current Evolution Model <ul><li>ALL animal phyla appeared simultaneously </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From simple to complex, all appeared and evolved simultaneously - not with simple evolving into complex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There are NO transitional phyla - no elusive missing links </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ALL further development was confined to variations within each phylum . No new phylum has since appeared. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Current Evolution Model <ul><li>Development took place in a short period (5 million years) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not over 100-200 million years - not the eons and eons of time required by the theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not enough time for Darwin’s random mutations to work the evolutionary changes </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Current Evolution Model <ul><li>Data from anatomy, molecular biology and fossil record show that developmental path is pre-determined and channeled . </li></ul><ul><li>There is “an astonishing conservation in basic evolutionary pathways” (Stephen Jay Gould, Harvard Paleontologist, “Darwinian Fundamentalists”, 1997 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Statistically impossible for chance to produce the changes </li></ul>
  35. 35. r-Evolution in the Darwinian world <ul><li>“Virtually every major discovery has put deep cracks in the conventional wisdom and forced scientists to concoct new theories , amid furious debate.” (Time magazine, March 14, 1994) </li></ul>Desperate attempt to provide explanations for current model
  36. 36. A Monstrous Concoction <ul><li>In 1940, Dr Richard Goldschmidt (Geneticist from University of California) proposed the idea of “ systemic mutations ” that produced “ hopeful monsters ” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Once in a while, large scale changes occur </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Produced a good mutation with chance to survive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mutation then gradually evolve by natural selection with small changes into new phylum </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Initially rejected and held with contempt by other evolutionists </li></ul>
  37. 37. Resurrected Monsters <ul><li>“Hopeful Monster” resurrected at various times </li></ul><ul><li>Quantum Evolution (Dr George G Simpson, Harvard, 1944) </li></ul><ul><li>Punctuated Equilibrium, (Dr Stephen Jay Gould, 1972) </li></ul>
  38. 38. Punctured Theories <ul><li>What would trigger large scale changes followed by periods of stability and no change? Why should this be? </li></ul><ul><li>All mutations are harmful – never yet seen a hopeful mutation that can evolve in new species </li></ul><ul><li>Need two good mutations - male and female - in order to propagate; even greater improbability </li></ul><ul><li>Still does not explain the “Big Bang” </li></ul>
  39. 39. A Blind Faith As pointed out by R L Wysong
  40. 40. A Blind Faith
  41. 41. A Blind Faith
  42. 42. Science Fiction <ul><li>Some scientists now embracing “ panspermia ” – life came from outer space, or was planted on earth by extra-terrestrial intelligence </li></ul>
  43. 43. An Ideological Struggle <ul><li>“ From the earliest stages of Greek thought man has been eager to discover some natural cause of evolution, and to abandon the supernatural intervention in the order of nature.” (Henry Fairfield Osburn, 1918) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Evolution is unproved and unprovable . We believe it because the only alternative is special creation, and that is unthinkable .” (Sir Arthur Keith) </li></ul>(Sir Julian Huxley, 1960) “ God is unnecessary .”
  44. 44. So is Darwinism fact or fiction?