With the advent of deep learning and algorithms like word2vec and doc2vec, vectors-based representations are increasingly being used in search to represent anything from documents to images and products. However, search engines work with documents made of tokens, and not vectors, and are typically not designed for fast vector matching out of the box. In this talk, I will give an overview of how vectors can be derived from documents to produce a semantic representation of a document that can be used to implement semantic / conceptual search without hurting performance. I will then describe a few different techniques for efficiently searching vector-based representations in an inverted index, including LSH, vector quantization and k-means tree, and compare their performance in terms of speed and relevancy. Finally, I will describe how each technique can be implemented efficiently in a lucene-based search engine such as Solr or Elastic Search.