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  3. 3. MICROPROCESSOR <ul><li>Microprocessor is an electronic circuit that functions as the central processing unit (CPU) of a computer, providing computational control. </li></ul><ul><li>The Microprocessor, (or CPU), is the brain of the computer . </li></ul><ul><li>A microprocessor is “a component that implements memory .” </li></ul><ul><li>Microprocessor is the core of the system . </li></ul>
  5. 5. Operation Types in a Microprocessor <ul><li>All of the operations of the microprocessor can be classified into one of three types: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Microprocessor Initiated Operations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Internal Operations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Peripheral Initiated Operations </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Microprocessor Architecture <ul><li>The Microprocessor can be programmed to perform functions on given data by writing specific instructions into its memory. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The microprocessor reads one instruction at a time, matches it with its instruction set, and performs the data manipulation specified. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The result is either stored back into memory or displayed on an output device. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Necessary Tools For Microprocessor <ul><li>CPU: Central Processing Unit </li></ul><ul><li>I/O: Input /Output </li></ul><ul><li>Bus: Address bus & Data bus </li></ul><ul><li>CU: Timing and Control Unit </li></ul><ul><li>Special And General Purpose Register </li></ul><ul><li>L1 & L2 Cache Memory </li></ul><ul><li>Bus Interface </li></ul>
  8. 8. Block Diagram Of Microprocessor
  9. 9. TIMING AND CONTROL UNIT <ul><li>C.P.U is partitioned into A.L.U & C.U. </li></ul><ul><li>The function of control unit is to generate the relevant timing & control signals to all operations in the computer. </li></ul><ul><li>It controls the flow of the data between the processor & memory & peripherals . </li></ul>
  10. 10. ARITHMETIC & LOGIC UNIT <ul><li>An arithmetic-logic unit (ALU) is the part of a CPU that carries out arithmetic and logic operations on the operands in computer instruction words. </li></ul><ul><li>The ALU includes storage places for input operands, operands that are being added, the accumulated result (stored in an accumulato r ), and shifted results. </li></ul><ul><li>It performs arithmetic operations like addition, subtraction, increment, decrement etc. </li></ul><ul><li>It also performs logical operations like AND, OR, X-OR, Complement etc. </li></ul>
  11. 11. How ALU Works?
  12. 12. L1 & L2 Cache Memory <ul><li> L1 and L2 are levels of cache memory in a computer. </li></ul><ul><li>“Level-1&quot; cache memory, usually built onto the microprocessor chip itself. </li></ul><ul><li>L2 (that is, level-2) cache memory is on a separate chip (possibly on an expansion card) that can be accessed more quickly than the larger &quot;main&quot; memory. </li></ul>
  13. 13. L1 & L2 Cache Memory
  14. 14. Special & General Purpose Register <ul><li>General purpose registers can be used as either data or address register. </li></ul><ul><li>There are 6 general purpose registers namely B, C, D, E, H, L. </li></ul><ul><li>Each of them is a 8-bit registers. </li></ul><ul><li>They are used to hold data and results. </li></ul><ul><li>To hold 16 bit data, combination of two 8-bit registers can be used. </li></ul>
  15. 15. BUS INTERFACE <ul><li>The bus interface unit is the part of the processor that interfaces with the rest of the PC. </li></ul><ul><li>It deals with moving information over the processor data bus, the primary conduit for the transfer of information to and from the CPU. </li></ul><ul><li>The bus interface unit is responsible for responding to all signals that go to the processor, and generating all signals that go from the processor to other parts of the system. </li></ul>DATA BUS
  16. 16. DATA BUS <ul><li>A collection of wires in which data is transmitted from one computer to another external drive . </li></ul><ul><li>The data bus carries digital information. </li></ul><ul><li>The data bus is connected to the inputs of several gates and to the outputs of several gates. </li></ul><ul><li>This is also called bi-directional bus because information may flow on the bus wires in both directions. </li></ul>
  17. 17. ADDRESS BUS <ul><li>An address bus is a computer bus (a series of lines connecting two or more devices) that is used to specify a physical address. </li></ul><ul><li>The width of the address bus determines the amount of memory a system can address. </li></ul><ul><li>It transfers the address of the location. </li></ul><ul><li>It is called uni-directional because it transfers address from C.P.U to memory only. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Address Bus Memory Capacity Chart <ul><li>Address Bus Size Maximum RAM </li></ul><ul><li>20 bits 1MB </li></ul><ul><li>24 bits 16MB </li></ul><ul><li>32 bits 4GB </li></ul><ul><li>36 bits 64GB </li></ul><ul><li>40 bits 1TB </li></ul><ul><li>44 bits 16TB </li></ul>
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