Reactor Design 1


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Reactor Design 1

  1. 1. Chemical/Polymer Reactor Design Muhammad Zafar Iqbal
  2. 2. What to do today.. <ul><li>Introduction to Reactor Design </li></ul><ul><li>Reactor Classification </li></ul><ul><li>Modes of Operation of Reactors </li></ul><ul><li>Choice of Operating Conditions: A practical approach </li></ul><ul><li>Design of an ideal batch Reactor </li></ul>
  3. 3. Fundamentals <ul><li>Chemical reactor is the heart of the plant </li></ul><ul><li>Basic aim is to produce a specified product at a given rate from unknown reactants. </li></ul><ul><li>How to proceed: </li></ul><ul><li>1- The type of reactor and its method of operation </li></ul><ul><li>2- The physical condition of reactants at inlet </li></ul><ul><li>What is desired: </li></ul><ul><li>1- Reactor Size: Volume and important dimensions </li></ul><ul><li>2-Composition and physical conditions of product </li></ul><ul><li>3- Temperature inside the reactor and H.T methodology </li></ul><ul><li>4- Operating pressure and any pressure drop occurring at inlet or outlet of reaction mixture </li></ul><ul><li>The existence of any by product must be known </li></ul>
  4. 4. Reactor Classification and type selection <ul><li>Homogenous Reactors : </li></ul><ul><li>Only one phase is involved: gas or liquid </li></ul><ul><li>When more phases are involved the mixing is very important </li></ul><ul><li>Heterogeneous Reactors : </li></ul><ul><li>Two or more phases are involved. </li></ul><ul><li>Normally solids if present then are in catalyst form. </li></ul><ul><li>A heterogeneous reactor may involve a heterogeneous reaction or a homogeneous reaction. </li></ul><ul><li>Heterogeneous reactors show greater variety of configuration and contacting patterns than homogenous reactors. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Types of Reactors <ul><li>Batch Reactor (BR, STR) </li></ul><ul><li>The reactants are initially charged into the vessel and are well mixed and left to react for a certain period of time. The resultant mixture is then discharged. This is an unsteady operation where the composition changes with time but is uniform throughout the reactor at a specific time. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Continuous Reactors <ul><li>Continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR, MFR, BMFR) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An agitator is introduced to disperse the reactants thoroughly into the reaction mixture immediately they enter the reactor. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Product is continuously drawn out and that’s why known for perfect mixing. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compositions at outlet and inside reactor are same. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Best suitable for liquid phase reactions </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Plug Flow Reactor: (PFR) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These are tubular reactors generally but not necessarily. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often called piston flow, slug flow, ideal tubular flow or unmixed flow reactors. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The residence time for all the elements is same: Must be </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sometimes used for liquid phase reactions but best suited for gas phase reactions. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Semi-Batch Reactors <ul><ul><li>Aim of their invention is to get benefit of any thing by changing the contacting pattern. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One of the reactants may not be charged at once but slowly. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When required: </li></ul><ul><li>To react a gas with a liquid </li></ul><ul><li>To control a highly exothermic reaction </li></ul><ul><li>To improve the product yield in suitable circumstances </li></ul>
  9. 9. Heat of Reaction and Reactor Type <ul><li>When heat of Reaction is too small then can be neglected </li></ul><ul><li>But if it is high then this is major influencing factor </li></ul><ul><li>The temperature of the system can rise or fall depending upon the reaction type: Exothermic or Endothermic </li></ul><ul><li>A relation must be there among enthalpy, heat transferred, and temperature change of the system (Energy balance) </li></ul><ul><li>Before designing, check for: </li></ul><ul><li>1- What is the heat of reaction? </li></ul><ul><li>2- Acceptable range of temperature? </li></ul>
  10. 10. Different reactor configurations based on Temperature(Modes of Operation) <ul><li>Adiabatic Reactors </li></ul><ul><li>Very easy to design </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature drop or rise remains within acceptable range </li></ul><ul><li>The properties of the product are not affected by such rise or fall in temperature </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Reactors with Heat Transfer </li></ul><ul><li>This arrangement is used when isothermal operation is desired </li></ul><ul><li>The temperature can be controlled through internal coils, external jackets or external heat exchanger </li></ul><ul><li>The factors which influence the H.T. are: </li></ul><ul><li>1-H.T. coefficient </li></ul><ul><li>2- Jacket Pressure </li></ul><ul><li>3- Jacket Pressure drop </li></ul><ul><li>4- Reactor pressure </li></ul><ul><li>5- Cleanliness </li></ul><ul><li>6- Cost </li></ul>
  12. 12. Reactor with Internal Coils
  13. 13. Jacketed Reactor and its types
  14. 14. Reactor with heat exchanger
  15. 15. Auto thermal Reactors <ul><li>These are the self supporting systems in which heat of one stream is used to heat feed stream in order to raise the reaction rate and save the time and the cost. </li></ul><ul><li>These show integrated reactor system with feed back systems </li></ul><ul><li>An external source of heat is required to start the reaction once and then reaction proceeds on itself. </li></ul><ul><li>This is valid for Highly Exothermic Reaction Systems </li></ul>
  16. 18. Choice of Process Conditions <ul><li>Two main principles are involved: </li></ul><ul><li>1- Chemical Equilibrium </li></ul><ul><li>2- Chemical Kinetics </li></ul><ul><li>If equilibrium contact is very large, then reaction is said to be irreversible. But there lies a max. extent of that reaction upto which it can proceed (Chem. Equil.). </li></ul><ul><li>How to proceed: Find the applicable temperature range of reaction and then investigate Kc under that temperature range. </li></ul><ul><li>From recommended literature it is found that: </li></ul>
  17. 19. Example (Coulson) <ul><li>Statement: </li></ul><ul><li>A process for the manufacture of styrene by the dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene </li></ul><ul><li> C6H5-CH2-CH3 = C6H5-CH=CH2 + H2 </li></ul><ul><li>At T= 560 degree C </li></ul><ul><li>Tasks: </li></ul><ul><li>1- Determine max. conversion of Et at P=1 bar </li></ul><ul><li>2- Determine max. conversion at Et: Steam = 1 : 15 </li></ul><ul><li>Solve Yourself </li></ul>
  18. 20. Ideal Batch Reactor <ul><li>Designing: Calculation of Reaction Time: basic Design Equation </li></ul><ul><li>1- </li></ul><ul><li>2- </li></ul><ul><li>3- </li></ul><ul><li>4- Time to reach a specific conversion </li></ul>
  19. 21. For Constant Density systems For gas-phase reactions