Rethinking the Zoological Park: The 21st Century Zoo as a Sustainable Fixture.


                   The Miami MetroZoo. Mi...
Introduction
           Document Abstract                              1
           Social Impact                         ...
This document represents the findings and studies conducted for the proposed
expansion and remodel of the Miami MetroZoo, ...
For as long as man has existed on this planet we have had an innate
        attraction to the natural world surrounding us...
Today we find ourselves in a position
where we no longer need to collect wild
specimens for the zoo, in fact many of the
a...
The Miami Metro-Zoo, in this new century should strive to connect the creatures and
        ecosystems of the natural worl...
There are many ways of experiencing the interface between animals and humans, from the
small menagerie style cages of the ...
Fig. 1.3




                                                                                             The rainforest h...
Rainforests only occur between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Tropic of Cancer, this region of
the world maintains stable...
Life evolved out of the need to survive, the density and diversity of the forest ultimately
        forced rainforest life...
The lowest ecosystem occurs on the ground and
             Fig. 1.4
                             becomes the largest home ...
Fig. 1.5


         The Forest Canopy holds the highest density of life in the forest Lichens, Orchids and Cacti
         ...
The global distribution of life on earth is a result of a variety of functions on earth.
The tectonic movements of our pla...
Movement and circulation are the first behaviors learned by all animals of the
     rainforest. The means by which animals...
Walking is the most efficient and
                                                                most diverse mode of cir...
The food chain is the final organizing feature of the rainforest ecosystems. The
         relationships of the five Kingdo...
One of the giants at the heart of Borneo, a 250 year old mahogany tree stands high as
a steady wind rustles through its le...
Planet earth is currently on the edge of a mass extinction, according to the IUCN
          over 5400 animal species and 6...
Work Cited

Animal:   The Definitive Guide to the Worlds Wildlife, Smithsonian Institution 2005.


Planet Earth:    as you...
To accurately disseminate the
                     issues behind extinctions and
                     habitat loss and to ...
It is known and understood that the GDP (Gross Domestic Product) of the poorest 48
nations (i.e. a quarter of the world’s ...
WWF’s 200
Global Eco-
regions




              Remaining Forests              Global GDP                                 ...
The issues highlight the unified
relationship between the environment, the
wellbeing of people and the
responsibilities of...
The Miami MetroZoo began as the Crandon Park
         Zoo on Key Biscayne just south of Miami Beach. In 1948 a small
     ...
The Asian lobe covered a total of 200 acres and
contained 28 exhibits of animals from the mainland and Asiatic
Islands. By...
The destruction left a deep scar on the park, visitor numbers plummeted
         to under 200,000 people per year and the ...
Amazon and Beyond was designed by Seattle based Jones & Jones
Architects who set as a goal the creation of a fun and infor...
The Miami Metro-Zoo is among the nations top five zoo’s, today it is a sprawling
         park with a unique collection of...
The projected outcome of the MetroZoo redevelopment will strive to lead the visitors
through a narrative of the existing c...
The Miami MetroZoo is among the top five zoo’s, as judged by the American Zoo
         Association. The AZA maintains a cl...
The master plan calls for
eight distinct zoogeographical
regions from around the
world to be created
throughout the zoo. T...
No Hierarchy                                                Central Axis.
         Incremental growth of                  ...
Pg. 31
The Mekong River System


         Hanging Gardens of Asia



         Majestic Nepal


         Wings of Asia
         Ti...
A common solution at many
                           zoo’s is to place themed
                        exhibits parallel to...
The design of the zoo is a
         delicate balance between the
         needs of the animals, visitors
         and keep...
Pg. 35
The experience of walking through the zoo
                        grounds should fully immerse visitors within an
        ...
Fig. 4.3-4.12

       Pg. 37
The existing mode of exhibition and
         circulation at the zoo places visitors
         at eye level with animals. Pa...
This mode of exhibition restricts the opportunities
for multiple viewpoints which are necessary for the
study and explorat...
Pg. 40
This diagram represents a collage
    of functions that would have to
 occur in an immersion exhibit with
       hidden su...
9                                                        90
         8                                                    ...
Pg. 43
Fig. 5.1




              To recreate the regional and geographical qualities
              of specific locations of high...
Fig. 5.2-5.10

     Pg. 45
The majesty of Nepal’s
         geographic diversity creates environments
         that are as diverse as the areas cultur...
With a declining trend due to habitat and
prey base loss and persecution, and with no subpopulation
containing more than 2...
Pg. 48
80

                                              70

                                              60

                  ...
Pg. 50
Snow pack melt from the Himalayas pours down
               the steep and rocky slopes of the mountains,
      coming toge...
Mekong stingrays, Large tooth Sawfish and the giant
   Carp have all been left defenseless against the ongoing
   sprawl o...
90

                                            80

                                            70

                      ...
As the Mekong falls over Khone falls sediments in
         the water turn the river deep shades of umber
         before i...
Pg. 55
Fig. 5.24




            Borneo is the third largest island in the world, at
            nearly 289,000 square miles it r...
In 2006 scientists working in Borneo
discovered a total of 52 new species never
 before seen which adds to the impressive
...
80
     In the years of 1997 and 1998 severe forest
     fires begun by people ripped through the         70

     Kaliman...
Pg. 59
To create a sequence of spaces for the support
                               structure of the modern zoo where keepers ca...
Fig. 5.33-5.39




                 Pg. 61
Pg. 62
Species          Status        Diet      Outdoor          Indoor/Den         Water         Exhibit        Size
           ...
Species       Status       Diet       Outdoor           Indoor/           Water       Exhibit         Size
               ...
Species               Status           Diet         Outdoor            Indoor/D         Water      Exhibi        Size
    ...
Photosynthesis and Plant Tectonics
         Plants make up the base of the worlds entire food chain
         and a huge pr...
Active Sense
The Venus Flytrap is one of those plants that makes
us rethink all that we know of the passive nature of
    ...
Modular Growth
         By examining the growth patterns of certain cacti we can
         isolate the growth of each indiv...
Water and its Tectonics
Water is the basic building block of all life on earth, it is
       the prevalent cover of the ea...
Plate Tectonics
         Of all the systems of the planet the most impressive,
         destructive and responsible for li...
Geographic Juxtaposition   An overlay of the
         and Natural Systems     zoogeographical regions
                    ...
In a study performed by the American Zoo
                                                                 Maserplan Overla...
Form and Thematic
            Structure


     To accurately represent the current
      condition of Asian ecosystems the...
Preliminary Design studies.




                                       A series of studies were performed to
             ...
In this study an examination of existing techniques in exhibit design were utilized to simulate a dually
thematic exhibit....
A final study examined the axis of the river and canopy themes with the village and theatre.
     This scheme used the the...
Conceptual Design Synthesis and Programming




      This figure shows the quantification and juxtaposition of the zones ...
Integrated within the programming of the village will be an artisan shop that will sell a variety of fair trade
          ...
Building        Size &   Classification        Purpose
 The design of the Aviary structure       Program        Number

mo...
Code           Ecology        Aviary         Enlightenment
                         Theatre       Structure           Vill...
Rethinking the Zoological Park:  The 21st Century Zoo as a Sustainable Fixture
Rethinking the Zoological Park:  The 21st Century Zoo as a Sustainable Fixture
Rethinking the Zoological Park:  The 21st Century Zoo as a Sustainable Fixture
Rethinking the Zoological Park:  The 21st Century Zoo as a Sustainable Fixture
Rethinking the Zoological Park:  The 21st Century Zoo as a Sustainable Fixture
Rethinking the Zoological Park:  The 21st Century Zoo as a Sustainable Fixture
Rethinking the Zoological Park:  The 21st Century Zoo as a Sustainable Fixture
Rethinking the Zoological Park:  The 21st Century Zoo as a Sustainable Fixture
Rethinking the Zoological Park:  The 21st Century Zoo as a Sustainable Fixture
Rethinking the Zoological Park:  The 21st Century Zoo as a Sustainable Fixture
Rethinking the Zoological Park:  The 21st Century Zoo as a Sustainable Fixture
Rethinking the Zoological Park:  The 21st Century Zoo as a Sustainable Fixture
Rethinking the Zoological Park:  The 21st Century Zoo as a Sustainable Fixture
Rethinking the Zoological Park:  The 21st Century Zoo as a Sustainable Fixture
Rethinking the Zoological Park:  The 21st Century Zoo as a Sustainable Fixture
Rethinking the Zoological Park:  The 21st Century Zoo as a Sustainable Fixture
Rethinking the Zoological Park:  The 21st Century Zoo as a Sustainable Fixture
Rethinking the Zoological Park:  The 21st Century Zoo as a Sustainable Fixture
Rethinking the Zoological Park:  The 21st Century Zoo as a Sustainable Fixture
Rethinking the Zoological Park:  The 21st Century Zoo as a Sustainable Fixture
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Thesis book for the Savannah College of Art and Design Masters of Architecture program.
May 2008

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Rethinking the Zoological Park: The 21st Century Zoo as a Sustainable Fixture

  1. 1. Rethinking the Zoological Park: The 21st Century Zoo as a Sustainable Fixture. The Miami MetroZoo. Miami, Florida A Thesis Statement submitted to the Faculty of the Architectural Department in partial fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Masters of Architecture At The Savannah College of Art and Design By: Mario Estanislao Pozzo Savannah, Georgia. May, 2008.
  2. 2. Introduction Document Abstract 1 Social Impact 2-3 Concept Statement 4-5 Nature’s Cities: The Tropical Rainforest Ecosystem 6-17 Analysis of a Global Issue 18-21 MetroZoo’s History 22-24 MetroZoo’s Future 25 Project Brief: Outcome, Scope, Constraints, Dependencies 26-28 Master plan Goals 29 Circulation and Immersion Study 30-33 User Needs and Interface Study 34 Proposed Infrastructure 35 Visitor Interface: 36-39 Immersion Scheme 40-41 Climatic Conditions 42 Eco-regions and Climatic Zones Study 43 Animal Interface: 44-45 Nepal 46-50 Mekong River System 51-55 The Heart of Borneo 56-59 Programming Requirements 63-65 Keeper Interface: 60-62 Private Circulation and Functions Study 62 Natural Systems Study 66-70 Conceptual Definition: Geographic juxtaposition and Natural systems 71 Masterplan overlay 72 Form and Thematic structure 73 Preliminary design studies 74-76 Schematic Design and Documentation Conceptual Design Synthesis and Programming 77-79 Code Analysis 80 Final Design and Documentation Final Design and building design 81-97 Architectural Synthesis 88-91 Visitor Experience 92-97 Project Conclusion 98
  3. 3. This document represents the findings and studies conducted for the proposed expansion and remodel of the Miami MetroZoo, with a concentration on the Asian lobe regions on the North Western portion of the site. Defined in the document is the proposed regions of the Mekong River system and the southern rainforests of Thailand, Cambodia and Laos with a transitions into Borneo and Nepal. This proposal will discuss and explore the Rainforest ecosystem, exhibit sequence options, immersion studies, animal lists, general storyline and exhibit sizes along with site analysis and context studies which pertain to the project. There are three possible phases which will be programmed and sited alongside the new approved master plan by the Portico Group to create a continuous geographic themed storyline and zones. The document will conclude with the overall geographic ecosystems structure and definition of program to house potential species. The document will conclude with the final design of the enlightenment path which will take visitors through an adventure through the infrastructure of the rainforests of the world. Pg. 1
  4. 4. For as long as man has existed on this planet we have had an innate attraction to the natural world surrounding us. We have used nature for our own personal and social growth, and as our species expanded throughout the world and became aware of our surroundings we have had a growing attraction to natures resources, companionship and often looked to her to answer questions of our very own existence. Animals have been collected by humans since the earliest moments of our history. Exotic animals have been taken from far away places by social leaders, scientists and travelers and though these animals have been used many times for savage reasons, or though they were kept under inhumane standards their impact on societies knowledge and appreciation of the natural world is immeasurable. Much of our modern attraction to the natural world can attributed to the early specimens collected by the zoological parks and menageries of our recent past. [1] Pg. 2 [1] Zoo: A history of zoological gardens in the west, Eric Baratay and Elisabeth Hardouin-Fugier, Reaktion Books 2002
  5. 5. Today we find ourselves in a position where we no longer need to collect wild specimens for the zoo, in fact many of the animals housed at modern zoo stand as a genetic insurance policy for the species survival. However these captive animals are far from the realities of their wild cousins and their ability to survive in a wild environment is severely impacted by their captivity. Due to the growing issues of human expansion and declining levels of global resources, pressure has been put on all of the remaining ecosystems of the world. The issues behind extinctions and habitat degradation are complicated in nature, but its solution can have global repercussions that will change the way humans exist on this planet. Fig. 1.1 Pg. 3
  6. 6. The Miami Metro-Zoo, in this new century should strive to connect the creatures and ecosystems of the natural world to the current global condition. The park will serve as an example of how man and animal can co-exist, through conservation, education and scientific inquiry. The park will utilize sustainable building practices and site design as a canvas to easily frame the relation between the urban fabric of our cities and the intertwined webs of the wild. The tropical climate of the site is uniquely suited to recreate the important rainforest ecosystems of the world. Circulation problems, visitor comfort and the captivity of wild animals have surfaced to become important issues affecting zoos around the globe. Captive surroundings can never replace an animal’s natural home, but their design can strive to keep animals happy and healthy, visitors engaged, educated and visiting. With recent advances in habitat research, and with a better understanding of the ecological web and its effect on the natural world, zoos are ready to move into a new century. Pg. 4
  7. 7. There are many ways of experiencing the interface between animals and humans, from the small menagerie style cages of the 19th century to observation towers on the edge of wilderness to recreated constructed habitats designed to paint the image of un-built natural space. History shows us that exhibition alone is not enough to educate the public, however new technologies and educational tools allow us to easily frame out an image of how timelessness and modernity can co-exist together. The design will focus on the interface that occurs between three user groups and their respective interfaces to show how man can grow sustainable in rhythm with the wild. Fig. 1.2 Pg. 5
  8. 8. Fig. 1.3 The rainforest holds the greatest diversity of any ecosystem on earth, though these forests cover only 3% of the earth’s surface, estimates show that they hold 50% of all documented species on earth.[1] When the typical person enters the forest, the overwhelming density of vegetation at all levels of the forest is overwhelming. Due to this density the only signs of life are usually auditory, bird and monkey calls echo through the leaves of the forest as their location is kept secret by the branches. The canopy of the forest holds many secrets entangled throughout the limbs of the trees, they support life from the ant colonies through the large predatory cats. The density of life in the rainforest far surpasses the life that we see in the largest of our cities.[2] Pg. 6 [1] Animal: The Definitive Visual Guide to the Worlds Wildlife, Smithsonian Institution, DK Books 2005 [2] WWF Annual Review, 2006, WWF International (pg 2)
  9. 9. Rainforests only occur between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Tropic of Cancer, this region of the world maintains stable temperatures and most importantly high humidity. The 12 hours of sunshine maintain optimum conditions for plants to grow year round. The annual rainfall needed to maintain the diversity of the forest must be at least 8 1/4 feet evenly distributed throughout the year[1] though as much as 20% of the rainfall is caused by the Photorespiration of the surrounding vegetation.[2] Photorespiration occurs when water evaporates from the leaves of the plant to help in the absorption of carbon dioxide and release of oxygen from the leaf structure. This process is not well understood by scientists however the importance of photorespiration to the climatic stability of the forest is beginning to be widely accepted. The stable climate in these regions of the world has allowed the forests to grow relatively uninterrupted for millions of years. Since all aspects of the climate will have an effect on the evolution of the forest, one of the most important variables is the elevation at which the forest grows. For example as the forest moves from an area of low elevation to a high elevation the variety of plants begins to shrink. Large trees will change from being close to 200 feet at a low elevation where the same tree will only grow to be 6-8 feet at a high elevation.[3] Biodiversity will also differ as the elevation rises forcing animals to adapt to the wet conditions. As the forest moves above the clouds and remain shrouded in the fog, amphibians and other moisture loving creatures are not tied down to forest ponds and rivers. Elevation, Humidity, Light, Temperature and rainfall are the climatic variables that will shape the form, structure and biological diversity of the rainforest. [1] Animal: The Definitive Visual Guide to the Worlds Wildlife, Smithsonian Institution, DK Books 2005 [2] http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2004/07/040723093305.htm accessed 10/15/07. [3] Planet Earth, Alastair Fothergill, University of California Press, Section 9 (pg 234-6)11 Pg. 7
  10. 10. Life evolved out of the need to survive, the density and diversity of the forest ultimately forced rainforest life into a battle for all available resources. As plants compete for light, nutrients and space their differing survival techniques leave room for only the strongest and most specialized to survive. The thick vegetation maintains the stability of the entire rainforest ecosystem feeding, sheltering and distributing resources over vast areas.[1] The 3 dimensional structure of the forest canopy is invaluable to thousands of animal species which depend on the layers of plant life encrusted on all the surfaces of the forest to survive. If we cut sections of the forest and examine their density we find that the intertwined web of vegetation is noticeably denser at the highest levels of the canopy or where levels of light are the highest. The physiology of plants restricts their maximum growth to a programmed height, these size differences create a range of ecosystems which can be separated into four vertical groups. [1] Animal: The Definitive Visual Guide to the Worlds Wildlife, Smithsonian Institution, DK Books 2005 pg 46 Pg. 8
  11. 11. The lowest ecosystem occurs on the ground and Fig. 1.4 becomes the largest home for the decomposers. The forest floor is nourished by constant organic litter that falls from the upper stories of the canopy. Here the levels of light are minimal, humidity is high and temperatures are stable, but these conditions nourish, feed and support all the major infrastructure of the rainforest.[1] Emergent Whenever direct light reaches the forest floor seeds of all types begin their race towards the light. Hardwoods for example will germinate much faster than other plants, thus becoming the first to Canopy become established.[2] Once they reach sapling size growth slows as they make their way into the under storey. The under story is made up of a shade tolerant and young trees. Where light filters through Under Story the leaves, a glimmering play between the lights and the darks in the textures of the space define depth and camouflage residents. Vines reach from massive trunk to massive trunk becoming tangled webs sometimes Forest Floor reaching 850’ long.[1] As the vines move ever higher into the light we begin to enter the canopy of the trees. Pg. 9 [1] Animal: pg 46 [2] Planet Earth pg 234
  12. 12. Fig. 1.5 The Forest Canopy holds the highest density of life in the forest Lichens, Orchids and Cacti hang from niches created between the branches of the trees becoming additional layers and micro-ecosystems for many creatures. The thickness of the canopy can reach 65’ before any individual tree is able to break through from the grasp of the surrounding vegetation.[2] Palms and Hardwoods are the only families of trees that can achieve this difficult task. Once a tree penetrates the thick canopy of the forest it enters the emergent layer and is considered a giant. The Emergent layer is the least dense of all the forest layers, the massive buttressed roots seen on the forest floor are far from this incredible aerial world. This layer is made up of an ever shrinking number of hardwood trees sometimes 245’ in height and hundreds of years old. The sheer size and quality of the specimens makes them prime nesting sites for many Apes, predatory birds and many other species who seek them for their highly prized nighttime refuge. [2] Unfortunately the emergent’s are also highly priced by the logging community since growing demand of exotic hardwoods and their ever shrinking numbers are driving their prices higher and higher. Due to this fact illegal logging in most protected forests remains a serious threat. [3] [1] Animal pg 46 [2] Planet Earth pg 258 [3] WWF Annual Report 2006 pg5 Pg. 10
  13. 13. The global distribution of life on earth is a result of a variety of functions on earth. The tectonic movements of our planet and its ever changing surface distributed Animal Families onto different continents. Examples such as the Tapir’s of South America and Malaysia are unique to their ecosystems but are separated by the vast Pacific Ocean. Mountains and climate change caused some animals to migrate or adapt such is the case of Indian and African Elephants who evolved alongside ancient Mammoths and have adapted uniquely to different climates and ecosystems. Scientific inquiry and Biogeography show that historically these processes have always been at play.[1] But it is also understood that life writes its own evolution, that is to say that it was the conscious movements, behaviors, adaptations and actions of the individual animal that write the animals evolutionary past and future. These changes in global diversity typically occur over a very long time allowing animals to adapt efficiently from the predator to the prey, however as we have seen man is also a factor. Fig. 1.6 Pg. 11
  14. 14. Movement and circulation are the first behaviors learned by all animals of the rainforest. The means by which animals move are directly proportionate to its size, but the style of movement employed is directly attributable to its ancestry and classification. The most utilized style of movement and circulation is flight. Insects, birds, amphibians and some small mammals have mastered this skill gaining relative freedom from the existing infrastructure of the forest for their circulation.[2] Flight was first mastered by the invertebrate world and in order to follow their prey landlocked reptiles evolved into the flying ancestry of the birds we see today. Some animals have simply mastered the art of gliding or controlled falling to move through the forest canopy. Adaptations typically occur in sequence with changes in Fig. 1.7 food sources, creating specializations which become essential to the populations survival and sometimes forming an important partnership between creatures.[1] Fig. 1.8 The animal life of the rainforest is dependent on its ability to move, unlike vegetation animals cannot absorb energy from their environment, however immobile plants often rely on the mobility of animals for their reproduction and evolution. For example the Fig tree is the most plentiful fruit available to all rainforest animals and the tree depends on animals but especially birds to eat its fruit and later deposit its seeds far from its origin. As a result of this symbiotic relationship the fig tree is found in all the rainforests of the world [1] Animal pg 16 and is the most important food source for many animals.[3] [2] Ibid pg 24 [3] WWF Annual Report 2006 pg5 Pg. 12
  15. 15. Walking is the most efficient and most diverse mode of circulation seen from the smallest invertebrate to the largest predators in the forest. By using the ground or the existing structure of the canopy to move around energy can be conserved and can result in a longer lifespan.[5] The smaller an animal is the easier it can circulate through the environment, ants for Fig. 1.9 example feel few effects from gravity and can virtually walk on any surface without falling and allowing them to carry over eight times their body weight without being crushed or losing mobility.[6] But the larger a species becomes, its chances of injuries as a result of falls or trauma are greatly increased. Like movement, the routes and ways of path-finding of the animals through the rainforest are as diverse as its species, the importance of sight, smell, touch, hearing and taste are important to most animals though each have varying degrees of utility to each sense. Some animals have developed specialized senses unique to their species survival demands.[7] Such is the case with bats reliance on echolocation to move through the forest to find prey. Jungles are home to the specialist, these specializations are the key to survival here and are responsible for the jungles [5] Planet Earth pg 246 diversity. [6] Animal pg 24 Pg. 13 [7] Ibid pg25
  16. 16. The food chain is the final organizing feature of the rainforest ecosystems. The relationships of the five Kingdoms of life and the vertical chain of energy create a situation where the top needs the bottom and the bottom needs the top. The food chain begins with the most essential elements on earth water and energy. Through photosynthesis plants convert light energy into food and form the base for the food chain. Herbivores and insects feed on these plants, converting their sugars and cellulose into small amounts of caloric energy which can be used or stored in their tissues. Herbivores typically consume large amounts of vegetation to obtain their dietary and caloric needs where omnivores will supplement their diet with much needed protein. The food chain rarely contains more than six links since predators can only absorb about 10% of an animal’s total generated energy or biomass.[1] The high levels of energy consumed by the living creatures of the rainforest must be maintained by the predators in order to keep healthy vegetation stocks. A collapse of the food chain from either end eventually result in a steep decline in density as balance is broken. The loss of a top predator can result in a lethal blow to the overall diversity of life in the forest, when controls are removed and certain species overwhelm the sensitive balance of life all levels of life are affected on a global scale.[2] [1] Animal (pg 15) [2] Ibid (pg 31) Pg. 14
  17. 17. One of the giants at the heart of Borneo, a 250 year old mahogany tree stands high as a steady wind rustles through its leaves. Its branches are encrusted in an exotic garden of Orchids cacti and bromeliads, each of them supporting ecosystems of their own. There is an entire world within the branches of this tree as an Orangutan feeds its newborn baby in the canopy of the massive tree. Ants return to their colony in the roots of the orchids bearing food for their queen and birds feed throughout its branches. Smoke rising over the horizon precludes our incoming presence, and as the sounds of chainsaws gets closer the animals become startled and hide. Suddenly the tree snaps away and begins to accelerate pulling down surrounding vines and trees. A loud crash echoes through the thick forest as the tree hits the moist ground, the mother Orangutan lays motionless on the ground as its infant hangs from her lifeless body. Farmers are clearing land to make way for their growing palm oil industry in Borneo. As the trees are cut, light floods the forest floor and vegetation is shaken from the canopy, its residents scramble for cover. The cleared vegetation is set on fire in an attempt to release the nourishing carbons and minerals back into the infertile land. [1] The now orphaned ape is picked up by the farmers who will later sell it on the illegal wildlife trade as he will never return to his shrinking home. Today the rainforest accounts for an estimated 20% of all carbon emissions released into our atmosphere which contribute to climate change, all due to their destruction at the hand of man.[2] The balance that has existed for the last 65 million years can today be easily destroyed with chainsaws and gasoline. The destruction of the rainforest ensures that the balance which maintains thousands of species is permanently broken. Rainforest do not grow back once they are destroyed, the density which has ensured evolution is never regained and the animal species which reside between their branches quickly disappear. [1] WWF Annual Review, 2006, WWF International Pg. 15 [2] Ibid (pg 3)
  18. 18. Planet earth is currently on the edge of a mass extinction, according to the IUCN over 5400 animal species and 6000 plants face a high risk of extinction in the near future. It is important to recognize that the IUCN can only keep limited or estimated count, due to poor knowledge and viable research available of most creatures on earth. Reliable Mammal and Bird counts do show us that nearly one in four mammals and one in eight bird species are currently on the brink of collapse. The International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources was founded by the United Nations to maintain a running count of animal and plant populations and density. Their figures show that severe levels of habitat destruction due to human interference have accelerated extinction levels to one hundred times the natural rate.[1] The role and support of zoo’s in the organization of programs and fundraising for the protection of biologically important sites is a necessary for the overall success of many of the existing animal protection agencies. However we must first understand the underlying reasons for the ongoing destruction of these important natural resources to examine the approach of the zoo in its protection and education. Pg. 16 [1] WWF Annual Review, 2006, WWF International
  19. 19. Work Cited Animal: The Definitive Guide to the Worlds Wildlife, Smithsonian Institution 2005. Planet Earth: as you’ve never seen it before, Alastair Fothergill 2006. World Wildlife Fund Annual Report 2006, WWF International, 2006. Online Sources IUCN Red List, http://www.iucn.org/themes/ssc/redlist_archive/redlist2000/news.html Accessed 11/03/07 Rainforest Facts www.rain-tree.com/facts.htm accessed 10/21/07. World Wildlife Fund, www.panda.org accessed 11/03/07 Image Sources World Wildlife Fund, www.panda.org accessed 11/12/07 Pg. 17
  20. 20. To accurately disseminate the issues behind extinctions and habitat loss and to formulate a solution it is important to define the underlying causes of this trend. The issues facing the natural world today are the result of three main issues which have had global implications as serious as those of extinctions. Poverty, Climate Change and Environmental degradation are three issues that are closely tied to each other and ultimately are a result of each other. This is to say that it is impossible to successfully protect the remainder of the natural world without resolving Fig. 2.1 these issues in sequence with Pg. 18 each other.
  21. 21. It is known and understood that the GDP (Gross Domestic Product) of the poorest 48 nations (i.e. a quarter of the world’s countries) is less than the wealth of the world’s three richest people combined. [1] It is the three top developed nations in the world that produce over 50% of the worlds carbon emissions. The United States, China and the European Union are the world’s top three polluters and consumers. [2] It is in the most biologically rich and biodiverse areas of the world that the vast majority of the rural poor live, and their survival often depends on the quality and availability of natural resources such as fuels, biomass, arable land and fresh water. [3] Falling levels of resources have triggered political unrest and wars in which millions of people and countless species have been directly affected. The most recent crisis stemming from these issues are still occurring in Ethiopia and most notably Sudan, whose levels of fresh water and ongoing desertification have caused unrest and political instability which led to a civil war and the death of thousands of people.[4] Recent natural disasters have shown us that it is the worlds poorest who are affected most widely and severely by natural disasters. Climate change threatens our world with increased flooding, worsening draught, rising seas, fires and severe storms, all of which are affecting developing nations and the environment most severely. [5] The growth of industrialized nations in the last 150 years (most notably the top three players) has placed the most pressure on the world’s global resources and has had the largest impact on the ongoing climatic changes and environmental degradation. These industrial techniques must be reevaluated to shrink the carbon footprint of its citizens and processes. [6] [1] Ignacio Ramonet, The politics of hunger, Le Monde Diplomatique, November 1998 [2] http://www.imf.org/external/np/sec/memdir/members.htm#3 International Monetary Fund [3] WWF, http://www.panda.org/about_wwf/what_we_do/climate_change/problems/people_at_risk/index.cfm [4] International Federation of the Red Cross http://www.ifrc.org/publicat/wdr2004/chapter1.asp [5]International Federation of the Red Cross, http://www.ifrc.org/publicat/wdr2004/chapter1.asp [6] International Monetary Fund, http://www.imf.org/external/np/sec/memdir/members.htm Pg. 19
  22. 22. WWF’s 200 Global Eco- regions Remaining Forests Global GDP Fig. 2.3 Pg. 20 Fig. 2.4 Fig. 2.5 World Wildlife Fund, www.panda.org accessed 01/12/08
  23. 23. The issues highlight the unified relationship between the environment, the wellbeing of people and the responsibilities of the industrialized world to the natural world. It is mean to create a path towards a sustainable world in which the richest reexamine their technologies and commitments, the poor are introduced to modern amenities and techniques necessary for growth, health and sustainability. And allowing these important ecosystems can be protected by the people who live within them under the leadership of the people studying and leading these efforts. It is in the developing world that sustainability can have the largest impact. Not only could people be brought out from the brink of environmental and social collapse easily with just a few brushstrokes, but establish them as the guardians of their land, living a happy and healthy existence. Fig. 2.6 Pg. 21
  24. 24. The Miami MetroZoo began as the Crandon Park Zoo on Key Biscayne just south of Miami Beach. In 1948 a small road menagerie broke down near Miami and the owner sold his three monkeys, two black bears and goat for $270 to officially create the zoo. By 1967 the zoo had grown to over 1200 Fig. 2.7 animals to include the first captive birth and rearing of an Aardvark. The zoo was nearly destroyed by hurricane Betsy in 1965 when over three feet of water covered the entire zoo killing over 250 of the animals at the park. However by 1968 it was rated among the countries 25 best zoo’s and its collection included a rare white Tiger who was only the second such animal to enter the U.S. After the sheer devastation of Betsy, the Zoological Fig. 2.8 Society began to play with the idea of the construction of a new Zoo for Dade County. On December 11, 1970 county officials applied for the acquisition of a 600 acre parcel of land that used to house the Richmond Naval Air Station. By 1975 the construction of the new master plan designed by painter T.A. Strawser in 1971 had begun, but it would take until December 1981 before the first section of the Zoo was officially open. Pg. 22 Fig. 2.9
  25. 25. The Asian lobe covered a total of 200 acres and contained 28 exhibits of animals from the mainland and Asiatic Islands. By 1982 an additional 25 acres and six new African exhibits would open to the public along with the brand new MetroZoo monorail which gave visitors a new way to move through the zoo and a safe way to preview future exhibits under construction. By August 1990 the zoo had seen a growth to over 300 developed acres, they had opened the award winning 1.6 acre Wings of Asia aviary which contained nearly 300 birds of over 50 species. The completion of the African exhibits and Asian River life habitats attracted over 800,000 people per year and plans continued on the proposed South American sections of the park. It was August 24, 1992 when the winds of hurricane Andrew shattered the goals of the MetroZoo. The category 5 storm ripped through the park, destroying over 5000 trees and completely collapsing the majestic aviary. By the time the winds died down 20 large animals and over 100 rare birds were dead and 200 were missing, workers quickly worked to recover the surviving birds and amazingly were able to capture all the birds and distribute the animals among other zoo’s. Pg. 23
  26. 26. The destruction left a deep scar on the park, visitor numbers plummeted to under 200,000 people per year and the recovery of the exhibits had just begun. It took until 1995 with the arrival of the zoo’s Koala’s for the zoo to recover its collection, by 1996 the Falcon Bachelor Komodo Dragon Encounter was opened as an extension to the Asian River life exhibits. On May 3, 2003 over ten years after Andrew the new American Bankers Family, Wings of Asia aviary re-opened to the public. The new aviary is the largest aviary on the East coast and cost over 13.5 million dollars. This exhibit can hold between 150 and 300 birds within its three zones, the Canopy, uplands and the wetlands. This aviary was designed to be able to stand hurricane force winds, its coiled metal screen canopy flexes in the wind over the entire 70 foot high structure. The aviary introduced an exhibit which draws the evolutionary relationship between birds and dinosaurs through immersions in the aviary and interactive exhibits including a theatre, a fossil digging pit for children and a series of bones which show the similarities between the bones of these extinct reptiles and modern birds. The completion of the aviary consisted of Phase 1 of the zoo’s total redesign, the second phase is set to open in late 2008 and will consist of 27 new acres of the never completed Tropical America lobe. Amazon and beyond will house keystone species such as the Anaconda, Giant River Otters and Harpy Eagles. Miami MetroZoo, www.miamimetrozoo.com/history Pg. 24
  27. 27. Amazon and Beyond was designed by Seattle based Jones & Jones Architects who set as a goal the creation of a fun and informative scientific experience while motivating the public to act responsibly after leaving the zoo. Their design is set to be one of the largest and among the first LEED accredited structures in South Florida which includes many interior conditioned spaces. The overall master plan calls for a geographically accurate transition from North America at the entry to the park and moving further into the Caribbean, Central and South America. The next phases to follow will reformat the existing Asian, Australian and African lobes and will integrate the storyline begun by the Amazon and Beyond project and wings of Asia aviary to eventually create a cohesive, educational and impactful experience. Fig. 2.10 Miami MetroZoo, www.miamimetrozoo.com/future Pg. 25
  28. 28. The Miami Metro-Zoo is among the nations top five zoo’s, today it is a sprawling park with a unique collection of animals all living free from bars under the warm south Florida sun. However the zoo fails to create successful narratives of its themes and biological concepts. Over the last 5 years the first three phases of the 21 phase redevelopment of the zoo have been completed. These new areas of the zoo have introduced new ways of housing these animals and provide new and exiting ways for visitors to experience these amazing creatures. The purpose of this project is to evoke a sense of admiration for both the achievements of man and the wonder of nature her creatures and systems. It is an exploration of the interface that occurs between man and beast from wilderness to city. The MetroZoo will play host to the conservation and preservation goals of many existing institutions. Its design will draw from the needs of the Animals that reside within its walls, the visitors that fill its walkways and the keepers that keep it functioning. As generators of space these users will define program, circulation and axiom. Pg. 26
  29. 29. The projected outcome of the MetroZoo redevelopment will strive to lead the visitors through a narrative of the existing condition of our natural world. The zoo will expose issues surrounding extinctions and habitat loss through the use of interactive immersion exhibits. Solutions to these issues will be presented by the built environment and interactive sensory programming throughout the park. The ever evolving experience will increase attendance as the natural surroundings trigger natural behaviors in the animals. The Miami MetroZoo is the only existing sub-tropical zoo in the nation, due to this fact the site is a prime location for the re-creation of natural tropical environments. The importance of these vulnerable natural environments for the biodiversity of the planet are undeniable. The zoo is a total of 740 acres, of which only 300 have been developed since its opening in 1981. This project will maintain a focus on the Asian sections of the new master plan and set goals and aspirations for the remaining sections of the park. Pg. 27
  30. 30. The Miami MetroZoo is among the top five zoo’s, as judged by the American Zoo Association. The AZA maintains a close relationship with all the zoo’s around the nation, and they manage the collections at all accredited facilities. The AZA maintains a strict set of guidelines for the design of all zoo exhibits, and master plans. Zoo’s go through regular re-certification processes through the association and in return the AZA maintains and oversees all breeding and reintroduction programs. City and State restrictions also exist which restrict collections and exhibitions of wild or exotic animals. The Miami MetroZoo is run and maintained by the Parks and Recreations department of the city of Miami. The park is a public entity under the larger umbrella of the AZA, most funds are provided by the city, however the zoo is dependent on profits made by ticket sales, food, fundraising, merchandise and donations to cover daily operations and expansions. Many private companies have come forward as sponsors to the zoo and many of the existing and planned exhibits have been funded by such companies. Possibilities for increased funding and profit opportunities should always be Pg. 28 explored.
  31. 31. The master plan calls for eight distinct zoogeographical regions from around the world to be created throughout the zoo. These regions range from the Florida everglades to the shores of Patagonia, and from the African savannah’s to a saltwater swimming lagoon on a tropical Asian island. Each region is unique, immersing visitors in a special educational experience. Within these regions themed villages will provide shelter, refreshment and a variety of other opportunities and experiences. Fig. 3.2 By the Portico Group, property of Dade County Parks and Recreation Dept. Pg. 29
  32. 32. No Hierarchy Central Axis. Incremental growth of Having a central the park has created distribution path gives an inefficient visitors an efficient circulation that can be circulation experience. unpleasant and The elongated plan disorienting. The gives more many circulation opportunities for options can cause maximized themed visitors to miss many exhibit opportunities. of the exhibits. Multiple Loop Unique Loop Hierarchy. Hierarchy When a single When unique themes circulation space is are used throughout used opportunities the park the ability to arise for visitors to use a single main loop explore at their own is a good solution for speed. This visitor small zoo’s. However friendly scheme also in larger parks, this allows for service to layout creates exhibit occur on the periphery spaces which are thus minimizing visitor Pg. 30 excessively long. Fig. 3.3-3.6 Gustavo Sariego (2004) contact.
  33. 33. Pg. 31
  34. 34. The Mekong River System Hanging Gardens of Asia Majestic Nepal Wings of Asia Tiger Exhibit The Heart of Borneo Asian River life Pg. 32
  35. 35. A common solution at many zoo’s is to place themed exhibits parallel to each other The most successful solution is along the circulation path. to place one theme at the This strategy destroys the beginning of the habitat ability for themed immersions, followed by a transition zone, since the viewer will be or ecotone. Then taking exposed to two, often visitors through a second zone conflicting themes and/or themed zone. This concept environments. Attempts at can be repeated with as many interpretation of parallel zones as is practical. storylines are doomed to Another solution allows failure. visitors to pass through one theme on a unique loop, this loop will then take them through a second theme. This presents the unfavorable problem when one returns to the original distribution point, where it Fig. 3.7-3.9 Gustavo Sariego (2004) will become necessary to Organización de Circulaciones en Zoológicos. pass through the originating www.zoolex.org/research.html theme. Pg. 33
  36. 36. The design of the zoo is a delicate balance between the needs of the animals, visitors and keepers. It is the interface between these three users that creates the excitement, conflict and magic of the zoo. These three user groups have unique and particular needs, each becoming critical to the success of the exhibits and the mission of the zoo. Pg. 34
  37. 37. Pg. 35
  38. 38. The experience of walking through the zoo grounds should fully immerse visitors within an accurate depiction of the animals natural habitat. Once immersed, audio and visual resources will educate the public of the natural behavior, social hierarchy and physiological facts consistent with current updated information regarding the species unique situation. Contemporary Architecture will serve as a contrast to the natural exhibits breaking the Fig. 4.1-4.2 relation between wild nature and constructed nature and taking visitors through a journey through the ecosystems of the world. Visitors will be introduced to a constructed version of nature built to house wild animals. There is no way of fully recreating a natural ecosystem which could replace the critical relationships and communities found within a natural ecosystem. However all opportunities for mixed species and exhibit rotation Pg. 36 should be used to maintain ecosystems and plant life.
  39. 39. Fig. 4.3-4.12 Pg. 37
  40. 40. The existing mode of exhibition and circulation at the zoo places visitors at eye level with animals. Paths across from habitats are paved and usually have benches and some shaded areas. Moats, depressions and short fences separate the visitors from the animals. Husbandry and caretaking occurs behind the scenes via private paths and buildings. Pg. 38
  41. 41. This mode of exhibition restricts the opportunities for multiple viewpoints which are necessary for the study and exploration of an ecosystem. The large separation between the exhibits, its support spaces and the public is a good option for safety but can be functionally inefficient. Pg. 39
  42. 42. Pg. 40
  43. 43. This diagram represents a collage of functions that would have to occur in an immersion exhibit with hidden support spaces. The diagram represents four potential themes, aquatic, terrestrial, and arboreal, each with the opportunity for complementary species at either side of the exhibit and changing levels through the structure of the forest. Pg. 41
  44. 44. 9 90 8 80 7 70 6 60 5 50 Miami Average Precipitation 4 (in) 1971-2000 40 Temperatures 3 30 2 20 1 10 0 0 Jan Mar May Jul Sep Nov Jan Mar May Jul Sep Nov Pg. 42 Statistics by National Climatic Data Center, NOAA http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov
  45. 45. Pg. 43
  46. 46. Fig. 5.1 To recreate the regional and geographical qualities of specific locations of high diversity values through the use of contemporary architecture. These built natural habitats will simulate natural ecosystems in a controlled manner to showcase co-dependent species and show the natural hierarchy and biological structure of the environment. The relationship between predator and prey can be used for enrichment if the design of the habitat allows for controlled contact between the two species. Although the recreated habitats may not have functioning ecosystems, the illusion of an ecosystem should be established for both the health of the animals but also for the education of the public. The design of the animal interface must work in sequence and balance with the interface of the visitors and keepers for both maximization of views but also for the health and safety of all users. Pg. 44
  47. 47. Fig. 5.2-5.10 Pg. 45
  48. 48. The majesty of Nepal’s geographic diversity creates environments that are as diverse as the areas culture. However Nepal’s forest is disappearing at an alarming rate, ever since Malaria was eradicated in the 1960’s and the lowlands were opened up for agriculture Nepal has lost over 2/3’s of its wildlife habitats. This development has also caused the remaining habitats to become fragmented throughout the country. Wwf The Tiger is the top predator of most of South-eastern Asia and is one of the first affected by habitat loss and external predation of its prey, recent accounts place the five tiger species at the top of the IUCN red list Based on estimates of density and geographic range (Nowell and Jackson 1996, Seidensticker et al. 1999), the tiger’s total effective population size is estimated at below 2,500 mature breeding individuals. Fig. 5.11 Pg. 46
  49. 49. With a declining trend due to habitat and prey base loss and persecution, and with no subpopulation containing more than 250 mature breeding individuals it is evident that the Tiger and its associated species are in turmoil. (IUCN) The power and grace of this species is the first to be encountered by the visitors of the park, though their presence may not always be seen it is always felt. Motion-activated cameras within the thick underbrush preclude his emergence as visitors gain views directly into his world as they watch from the safety of the path. The thick vegetation of the Tigers habitat obscures him from most of the visitors until this beautiful animal begins to emerge from the darkness of his forest. Fig. 5.12 The presence of this majestic creature attracts not only the attention of the public but also of creatures living nearby. The Hanuman Langur’s spot the Tiger from the trees opposite of the exhibit and begin to warn their group. Their agitated calls reveal to the Spotted Deer (the tigers main prey item) that their nemesis has emerged. The natural cooperation and behavior of these two species helps to protect both groups and is important for avoiding capture and certain death. However this is no longer the case, since Spotted Deer have been hunted heavily by humans and has drastically reduced the Tigers access to food in the wild, along with a steep decline in suitable habitats the Tiger and all Fig. 5.13 associated species have seen a decline in population. Pg. 47
  50. 50. Pg. 48
  51. 51. 80 70 60 50 Avg Temp 40 Hours of Sun Rainfall 30 Days of Rain 20 10 0 Jan Feb Mar Arp May June July Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Nepal’s climate is as diverse as its animals, it ranges from dry and cold North of the Himalayan mountains to hot and humid in the lowlands. The sheer change in elevation of the land causes clouds condense and release moisture the higher the elevation becomes. The result is a lush tropical green environment from India to Thailand, and dry barren deserts beyond the mountain chain. Fig. 5.14 Pg. 49
  52. 52. Pg. 50
  53. 53. Snow pack melt from the Himalayas pours down the steep and rocky slopes of the mountains, coming together into fast moving streams of frigid water. To the locals and wildlife this area is of immeasurable importance since these streams quickly grow into the massive river known as the Mekong River. The Mekong River is the tenth largest river in the world, its turbulent waters originate high in the alps of the Tibetan Plateau over 4900 meters above sea level. Torrential rains fall along the eastern front of the Himalayas turning its landscapes lush and green with each drop joining the previous irrigating the lands and flowing into the rivers. Streams and tributaries flow through the dramatic gorges of China’s Yunan Province before flowing into the “Golden Triangle” between the borders of Burma, Laos and Thailand. All countries along the path of this river depend on the rivers water for its resources, transportation and economic benefits. Fig. 5.15 Pg. 51
  54. 54. Mekong stingrays, Large tooth Sawfish and the giant Carp have all been left defenseless against the ongoing sprawl of humans and all look towards a very uncertain future. The ongoing construction of hydroelectric damns and the effects of overfishing and pollution are quickly destroying this ecosystems ability to regenerate and survive. Visitors will experience the Mekong River from the perspective of these creatures as they progress through a series of underground habitats meant to bring humans right into their natural environments. Interactive displays and exhibits will educate the public of both the environmental and sociological issues surrounding the Mekong river system and how a sustainable future is the only way to guarantee these ecosystems survival. WWF. The Mekong River: An unknown and threatened kingdom. Fig. 5.16-5.20 Story by Zeb Hogan, Produced by Save Cambodia's Wildlife Pg. 53
  55. 55. 90 80 70 60 50 Avg Temp Hours of Sun 40 Rainfall Days of Rain 30 20 10 0 Jan Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec The climate along the path of the Mekong river is quite stable once it enters the flatlands of the “golden triangle” as it approaches the sea, the climate is hot and humid with a wet season between May and November. Temperatures remain above 70 degrees year-round with constant morning sun and afternoon shower. Here we see the WWF’s main Mekong Catfish protection area in an area where high levels of sediment provide good conditions for aquatic vegetation to grow. Pg. 54 Fig. 5.21
  56. 56. As the Mekong falls over Khone falls sediments in the water turn the river deep shades of umber before its fertile waters enter the delta of “Nine tails of the Dragon” before its waters flow into the South China Sea. The diversity of life within this river is only second to that of the Amazon River in South America, it is thought to contain over 1300 species of fish and is one of the most important and diverse fresh water ecosystems in the world. The most impressive of all freshwater fish call this river home; the Mekong Giant Catfish is thought to be the largest freshwater fish in the world. Growing to over 10 feet in length and weighing in at 650 pounds this Fig. 5.22 fish was once an important food resource for people of the area, however in the last decade stocks of this extreme fish have dropped by over 90%. The largest contributor to the decline of the Mekong Catfish has been the uncontrollable human expansion and spread that has occurred in the area. This once migratory fish could be spotted all along the length of the river until twenty-five years ago when damning projects began to block the rivers paths. Fig. 5.23 Pg. 52
  57. 57. Pg. 55
  58. 58. Fig. 5.24 Borneo is the third largest island in the world, at nearly 289,000 square miles it represents one of the most important biodiversity centers of the world. Of 200 world eco-regions Borneo contains 5 including the Lowland Dipterocarp forest which consists of Oak’s, Chestnut, and Myrtle trees which are over 200 ft tall and can support over 1000 species of Insects per tree. The Heart of Borneo has been made famous by its ability to support Elephants, Orangutans and Rhino’s in the same environment (this is the last place on earth that this occurs) Within Lambir Hills National Park in Sarawak the highest concentration of tree species were found, within a 52-hectare plot 1,175 species of tree were documented, the highest such diversity in the world. The interior of the island also supports a population of about 4 million Dayak or indigenous people who rely on the forest for most of their resources. Pg. 56 Fig. 5.25
  59. 59. In 2006 scientists working in Borneo discovered a total of 52 new species never before seen which adds to the impressive 200 birds, 100 mammals, 150 reptiles & amphibians endemic species already identified on the island. Despite the unique biodiversity of the island, Borneo also holds the highest rates of deforestation on earth. Between 1985 and 2005 an average of 850,000 hectares of forests were cut down yearly. Fig. 5.26 The largest contributor to the deforestation is the ongoing conversion of Fig. 5.27 the land to plantations for commercial production of Palm Oil, Rubber and Pulp production. Today there are nearly 1.6 million hectares which have been converted to Palm Oil production alone. Palm oil has now surpassed Soybean as the most widely produced vegetable oil. New uses including Bio-fuel production are threatening to expand the operations to un-sustainable levels effectively Pg. 57 destroying its ecosystems.
  60. 60. 80 In the years of 1997 and 1998 severe forest fires begun by people ripped through the 70 Kalimantan region of the island. The fire 60 destroyed over 6.5 million hectares of prime 50 Avg Temp Orangutan habitat and undeniably killed 40 Hours of Sun Rainfall hundreds of these creatures along with 30 Days of Rain thousands of others species. The fire 20 released considerable amounts of CO2 into 10 the atmosphere and resulted in Indonesia's 0 Jan Feb Mar Arp May June July Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec jump to third largest CO2 contributor in the world for the year. Constant hot and humid conditions keep Borneo’s forest lush and green, average rainfall on the island is over 12” per month and rain occurs nearly every day. Temperatures remain well over 75 degrees year-round and have the ability to support very complex ecosystems including Tropical Rainforests, Mangrove Forests, Peat swamps and freshwater swamps. The shrinking rainforest still cover nearly 30% of the total area of the island. Pg. 58 WWF. Forests of Borneo: Forest areas and Key facts.
  61. 61. Pg. 59
  62. 62. To create a sequence of spaces for the support structure of the modern zoo where keepers can have easy and efficient contact with both the animals and the visitors. By consolidating of some of the keepers roles through the habitat’s design, we can minimize contact with the animals environment and maximize time spent on animal enrichment and visitor education. AZA standards for curatorial responsibilities and contact with animals must be adhered to, life Fig. 5.29-5.32 safety issues must also be supplemented beyond those specified by the building code. However physical resources such as graphics and audio/visual exhibits can fill the educational requirements in visitor areas where little keeper impact occurs. Areas where high levels of security must occur visitor contact will diminish. Pg. 60
  63. 63. Fig. 5.33-5.39 Pg. 61
  64. 64. Pg. 62
  65. 65. Species Status Diet Outdoor Indoor/Den Water Exhibit Size Space Space Access Height Gibbons & Critically Herbi 860 sf / Pair + 322 sf / Pair Moat 16 ft Siamangs Endangered vore 10% / Adult optional on 13 lb – 15 lb exhibit (White-Handed, Crested) Indian Near Omni 215 sf/ Pair On exhibit Running 10 ft 6.5 lb Hornbill Threatened vore Water Hanuman or Least Concern Herbi 1000 sf / 5 Pool 10 ft Douc Langur Endangered vore adults On exhibit 25 lb Bengal Tiger Endangered Carni 5400 sf/ Pair 160 sf/ Pair Pool or 16 ft w 220 lb – 550 vore Moat turn-back lb Asian Herbi 33,000sf / 3 550 sf/ Adult Pool & ------- 9000 lb – Elephant Endangered vore adult females or Mudbath 11000 lb 1 Male Indian Herbi 10800 sf / pair 550 sf/ Adult Pool & ------- 4000 lb – Rhinoceros Endangered vore + 10%/ adult Mudbath 6000 lb Gaur/Water Herbi 8700 sf / pair + Running ------- 1300 lb – Buffalo. Vulnerable vore 550 sf / adult On exhibit Water 2200 lb River Dolphin Vulnerable Fish 2150 sf/4 Min 3 individual 2150 sf/4 8.5 ft 10 ft adults draining pools. adults deep 190 – 300 lb Gharial Endangered Fish 161 sf/ + 50sf/ Mixed Species 215 sf + 12 ft 15 ft - 25 ft adult of Land 50sf/ adult deep Pg. 63
  66. 66. Species Status Diet Outdoor Indoor/ Water Exhibit Size Space Den Space Access Height Clouded Vulnerable Carniv 2150 sf / Pair + 322 sf / Pair Running 13 ft net ore 550 / Adult optional on Water cover 33 lb – 50 Leopard exhibit lb Leopard Least Carniv 5400 sf/ Pair + On exhibit Running 14 ft w/ 66 lb – Concern ore 550 sf/ Adult Water turn-back 180 lb Carniv 3250 sf / adult. Vulnerable ore Solitary On exhibit Pool ------- 145 lb Sun Bear Asian Black Vulnerable Omniv On exhibit Pool or 16 ft w/ 140 lb – ore 3250 sf/ Pair Moat turn-back 330 lb Bear Dugong Herbiv Min 3 individual 2150 sf/4 10 ft deep 10 ft Vulnerable ore 2150 sf/4 draining pools. adults 550 – 650 adults saltwater lb Lowland Endangered Herbiv Pool ------- 330 lb – SSP ore 3300 sf/ Adult On exhibit 660 lb Anoa Proboscis Herbiv 322 sf / Pair on Running 17 ft 26 lb – 53 Endangered ore 5300 sf/5 exhibit Water lb Monkey Adults Lesser/Red Endangered Herbiv 450 sf/pair + Min 3 individual Running 8.5 ft high 6lb - 14lb ore 20%/adult draining pools. Water walls Panda Siamese Critically Carniv 161 sf/ + 50sf/ Mixed Species 215 sf + 6 ft deep 5ft - 10 ft Endangered ore adult on Land 50sf/ Crocodile adult in water Pg. 64
  67. 67. Species Status Diet Outdoor Indoor/D Water Exhibi Size Space en Space Access t Height Saurus Critically Herbiv 860 sf / Pair + 322 sf / Pair Moat 16 ft Endangered ore 10% / Adult optional on 13 lb – 15 lb Crane exhibit Greater Near Omniv 215 sf/ Pair On exhibit Running 10 ft 6.5 lb Threatened ore Water Flamingo Flying Lemur Herbiv 1000 sf / 5 Running Endangered ore adults On exhibit water 10 ft 25 lb Shrews Endangered Carniv 5400 sf/ Pair 160 sf/ Pair Pool or 16 ft w 220 lb – 550 ore Moat turn- lb back Malayan Herbiv 33,000sf / 3 550 sf/ Adult Pool & ------- 9000 lb – Endangered ore adult females Mud bath 11000 lb Tapir or 1 Male Small Herbiv 10800 sf / pair 550 sf/ Adult Running ------- 4000 lb – Endangered ore + 10%/ adult Water 6000 lb clawed Otter Owston’s Insecti 850 sf / pair + Running 15 ft Vulnerable vore 50 sf / adult In exhibit Water 4.5 lb – 8 lb Civet Rainbow Least Nectar 215 sf/ Group In exhibit Running 8.5 ft 10 ft Concern Water deep 190 – 300 lb Lory Palm Endangered Herbiv 215 sf/ Pair In exhibit Running 12 ft 15 ft - 25 ft ore Water deep Cockatoo Program recommendations by The WAZA (World Association of Zoo’s and Aquariums.) Pg. 65
  68. 68. Photosynthesis and Plant Tectonics Plants make up the base of the worlds entire food chain and a huge proportion of the worlds oxygen. Their ability to convert the energy of the sun into food is unique to the earth. By spreading and aiming their leaves into the rays of the sun they collect light which stimulates Chlorophyll and its absorption of Carbon Dioxide. Using water as a transportation system the plant stores this energy and releases Oxygen as a byproduct. Passive Communities Coral reef systems are made up of millions of individual polyps, each of these polyps is dependent on the recycled bones of its ancestors for a home. Though the polyps life may be short, its body will become a part of this structure and further the growth of new polyps. These coral colonies live their life passively in the oceans, feeding from tiny particles of organic matter in the currents. As time passes and the colonies grow, more and more creatures become dependent on these unique structures and they effectively make up the base of all coral reef ecosystems. Pg. 66
  69. 69. Active Sense The Venus Flytrap is one of those plants that makes us rethink all that we know of the passive nature of plants. These amazing organisms have evolved from their infertile environment and have developed the ability to hunt prey. This diagram shows the mechanics behind this adaptation, where a small amount of liquid at the joint of the flower sits dormant until a fly or other stimulus trips over one of its sensitive fibers, once triggered the plant instantly releases the liquid allowing the flower to quickly close and effectively trap its prey. Slowly the prey will die and release nutrients which the plant can consume. Annual Growth Of all the plants on earth none are more known or visible as the trees of the earth, these massive organisms take decades to reach their mature size. Every year a tree is alive it records facts about its environment that year, effectively writing a climatic journal of its life. Scientists use these rings to gauge and study changes in the climate of each individual specimen. Pg. 67
  70. 70. Modular Growth By examining the growth patterns of certain cacti we can isolate the growth of each individual segment that makes up the surface of the plant. These segments originate at the top of the plant, where the soft fresh tissues are protected by the growth of the previous segment. As the segments grow and new ones emerge they move downward adding to the size of the plant and create a reinforced system of modules which protect the water within its frame. Spiral Growth The geometry of the pinecone is made up by two inversed spirals running from its base to its tip which distribute scales along its entire surface. The seeds are mostly small and winged for wind-dispersal, but other types are larger and have only a vestigial wing, and are bird-dispersed. At maturity, the cones usually open to release the seeds, but in others, the fire climax pines, the seeds are stored in closed cones for many years until a forest fire kills the parent tree. These stored seeds are then released in huge numbers to re-populate the burnt ground. Pg. 68
  71. 71. Water and its Tectonics Water is the basic building block of all life on earth, it is the prevalent cover of the earth and the primary ingredient in our bodies. This diagram shows the most basic of waters tectonics as rain. As a single drop of water condenses high in the atmosphere and falls onto the still surface of a lake, the reaction creates concentric waves which radiate from its epicenter. This diagram is meant to remind us of the importance and uniqueness of our liquid planet. Rhythmic Partners All beings on earth have developed some sort of a circulatory system, here we see the basic rhythm held between the heart and the lungs. It is the essential piece which connects the being with the global system, absorbing oxygen into the blood and releasing Carbon Dioxide back into the system. Pg. 69
  72. 72. Plate Tectonics Of all the systems of the planet the most impressive, destructive and responsible for life and geographical uniqueness of our planet are the actions of the ground right below our feet. This study shows the effects of two plates engaged in immeasurable forces. As the two pieces come together each must give, one is forced into the molten core of our planet the other is forced high into the sky. The result of these forces create mountains, valleys and expend massive amounts of energy in the form of earthquakes. Evolution, Genetics and the Environment. This diagram is a simple representation of a phylogenetic tree which traces the lineage of every living being on earth. The earth and environment supports the “tree” whose length symbolizes time, its branches are made up of an extensive system of species each evolving from the previous. Each main branch makes up an ever expanding family. Extinctions would abruptly end the process of evolution or growth of the tree. Pg. 70
  73. 73. Geographic Juxtaposition An overlay of the and Natural Systems zoogeographical regions was placed over the proposed masterplan for the Metrozoo redevelopment plan. In this study we can examine Symmetry how different climatic zones should be interwoven into the infrastructure of the park. By creating differing zones from the lush jungles of the Amazon through the Balance arid regions of the Sahara in a manner that reflects the natural transitions between these climatic regions, both animals and visitors can experience a Harmony more realistic and comprehensive experience. Pg. 71
  74. 74. In a study performed by the American Zoo Maserplan Overlay Association entitled “Why zoo’s matter,” visitors of zoo’s were divided into five taxonomies which define the reasons why so many people visit zoo’s today. These definitions were used to create spaces that would embrace each taxonomy. “Explorers” are curiosity-driven and seek to learn more about whatever they might encounter at the institution. “Facilitators” are focused primarily on enabling the experience and learning of others in their accompanying social group. “Professional/Hobbyists” feel a close tie between the institution’s content and their professional or hobbyist passions. “Experience Seekers” primarily derive satisfaction from the fact of visiting this important site. “Spiritual Pilgrims” are primarily seeking a contemplative and/or restorative experiences. The design of the masterplan takes into account the needs and desires of these five visitors taxonomies. Within the three spaces of the Southeast Asian lobe, visitors will be given an opportunity to explore their own individual goals for their visit of the zoo. In an effort to further enhance the visit the Village design and programming will support the endeavors of the main exhibit spaces and freely adapt to changing exhibits and missions of the zoo. Pg. 72
  75. 75. Form and Thematic Structure To accurately represent the current condition of Asian ecosystems the design must take into account the relationship between our urban cores and their dependence on the natural resources available from the forests. A perceived and drastic sense of transition between the village and the jungle ecosystem will be useful to convey the message of conservation and stewardship. The enlightenment trail will transport visitors and expose them to both the issues facing man and nature and will begin to outline the reasons for these issues while outlining sustainable solutions and giving them the tools to become stewards of the Pg. 73 planet.
  76. 76. Preliminary Design studies. A series of studies were performed to examine different modes of both animal and human circulation through the aviary space. This study uses parallel plains held together by tensile cords, the circulation weaves between wall panels as it takes visitors through each individual animal module. This scheme though effective in human circulation and thematic transitioning failed to allow smaller animals passage throughout Pg. 74 the length of the exhibits.
  77. 77. In this study an examination of existing techniques in exhibit design were utilized to simulate a dually thematic exhibit. In this scheme we find two separate circulation paths, one above the constructed terrain in the form of a path and the second filling the space left by the constructed mound. Though this scheme succeeds in its animal spaces, the human spaces may loose the quality of the thematic portrayals within the spaces and experience a loss of connection with exterior zones. Pg. 75
  78. 78. A final study examined the axis of the river and canopy themes with the village and theatre. This scheme used the theatre as the main tensile anchor of the structure and effectively divided the aviary into two portions. This scheme drove the theatre to detach from the structure and evolve into a freestanding gem within the aviary structure. Pg. 76
  79. 79. Conceptual Design Synthesis and Programming This figure shows the quantification and juxtaposition of the zones and functions critical to the design. The enlightenment path passes through the village and under the monorail station before it divides evenly between the sub zones in figure eight form. The theatre becomes the central organizing feature between the two zones, it represents the assault that nature endures at the hand of man but stands in reverence and balance with the exhibit and content. Pg. 77
  80. 80. Integrated within the programming of the village will be an artisan shop that will sell a variety of fair trade gifts and souvenirs from the region. A themed café will allow visitors to sit and enjoy a healthy meal composed of organic ingredients grown locally or onsite and cooked with traditional southeastern Asian recipes. “ZooHotel” rooms would provide an accurate architectural expression of accommodations from the region, these rooms may range from double occupancy up to 4 person bunk rooms. Classroom spaces will allow for both educational, exhibit or rental spaces, while utilizing biological concepts and subjects based to the current theme to further encourage overnight stays and camps at the zoo. Village Size & Classification Purpose Program Number Classrooms 500sf Semi-private Multi 3 Restrooms 500sf Public Storm shelter 2 Gift Shop 1200sf Public Sales 1 Facilities 500sf Private/ Security and Management 1 Restricted First Aid Eco-lodge 300sf Overnight rooming house 6 Private Visitor rooms Café 1200sf Public Eco-lodge 1 Support Mekong 1000sf Public Transportation Station 1 and storage Dr. Wilde’s 3000sf Public Exhibit and Asian cultural 1 performance center Space Facilities management spaces will contain control and surveillance equipment alongside, Restrooms and mechanical/storage spaces. Standing between the rock garden and the mekong station will be Dr. Wilde’s Asian cultural center which will contains a concise collection of Asian artifacts and cultural exhibits which tie the resource demands of the people to the natural areas of the world while presenting alternatives that better preserve resources and protect wildlife. Opposite of the Cultural center is the biology center, in this space visitors will be shown some examples of conservation projects which the zoo has embarked on and will Pg. 78 give visitors the opportunity to join in the zoo’s projects.
  81. 81. Building Size & Classification Purpose The design of the Aviary structure Program Number moved past the original iteration of Mekong River 10000sf Semi-private Mekong river fauna Tour 1 balance between the arch and the Biodiversity 1000sf Public Theatre post and lintel form into a more Theatre 1 Hanging 20000sf Private Southeast Asia fitting and engaging representation Gardens of 1 rainforest fauna Asian tour of the emergent trees of the Keeper Space 500sf Restricted Visitor Interface and rainforest. The circulation and path 4 Animal husbandry Visitor Service 1000sf Public Ticket sales and through the Mekong river and 1 storage hanging gardens remained in the Leopard 4000sf Public Viewing Gallery Gallery 1 same path originally iterated in the River Gallery 4000sf Public Viewing Gallery conceptual studies and schematic 1 Mekong 3000sf Public Viewing Gallery design. Gallery 1 Pg. 79
  82. 82. Code Ecology Aviary Enlightenment Theatre Structure Village Analysis A1 A5 Occupancy A2 Construction Assembly IA IA IV Heavy Timber Height & Area 32 ft, 3 stories, restrictions Unlimited Unlimited 15,000 sf Fire I.B.C Occupancy Resistance exception 411.1 Wall 3 Hours N.A. HT or 2 Hours Floor 2 Hours N.A HT Roof 1.5 Hours N.A HT Partitions 2 Hours N.A 1 Hour Structure 3 Hours N.A HT Pg. 80

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