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Urban Nature: The Final Frontier?

Advanced Brainstorm Carrefour (ABC): The Science of the City
Naples, March 2016

Presentation by Danny Czamanski

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Urban Nature: The Final Frontier?

  1. 1. Danny Czamanski 21 March 2016 Urban nature the final frontier? 1 complexcity.csregistry.org ABC – The Science of the City
  2. 2. complexcity.csregistry.org 2 Is “urban nature” an oxymoron? Urban scholars are concerned with the CBD and its surroundings Traditional ecology is concerned with “natural” ecosystems
  3. 3. 3 The spatiotemporal resolution in the classical urban story – cities are non-porous built-up spaces Traditional ecologists and urbanists agree - there is no room for nature in cities…
  4. 4. 1. Ecosystem services affect human well-being. 2. Ecosystems services change under various urban scenarios. 3. The interactions between humans and ecosystems are time and space dependent. Humans and nature in cities interact through ecosystem service
  5. 5. • Toger, M., I. Benenson, D. Czamanski and D. Malkinson. The connectivity of the Haifa urban open space network in Environment and Planning B, 47, 2015, pp 1–23 • Czamanski, D., D. Malkinson, D. and M. Toger. Nature in future cities – prospects and a planning agenda in Built Environment, 40:4, 2014, pp. 508-520
  6. 6. 6 There is nature us cities 1242 235 82 6 3217 33 721 99 137 50 978 90 149 10 28 33 2 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500
  7. 7. Mammal species in Haifa area BioGIS Our cameras Apodemus flavicollis Yellow-necked mouse ‫צוואר‬ ‫צהוב‬ ‫יערון‬ 1 Canis aureus Golden jackal ‫זהוב‬ ‫תן‬ 1 1 Canis lupus Gray wolf ‫מצוי‬ ‫זאב‬ 1 Felis silvestris Wild cat ‫בר‬ ‫חתול‬ 1 Gazella gazella Mountain gazelle ‫מצוי‬ ‫צבי‬ 1 Herpestes ichneumon Egyptian mongoose ‫מצויה‬ ‫נמייה‬ 1 1 Hyaena hyaena Striped hyena ‫מפוספס‬ ‫צבוע‬ 1 1 Hystrix indica Indian crested porcupine ‫מצוי‬ ‫דרבן‬ 1 1 Lepus capensis Cape hare ‫מצויה‬ ‫ארנבת‬ 1 Martes foina Beech marten ‫הסלעים‬ ‫דלק‬ 1 1 Procavia capensis Rock hyrax ‫סלע‬ ‫שפן‬ 1 1 Rattus rattus Black rat ‫מצויה‬ ‫חולדה‬ 1 Suncus etruscus Etruscan shrew ‫זעיר‬ ‫חדף‬ 1 Sus scrofa Wild boar ‫בר‬ ‫חזיר‬ 1 1 Vulpes vulpes Red fox ‫מצוי‬ ‫שועל‬ 1 1 Erinaceus concolor Southern white-breasted hedgehog ‫מצוי‬ ‫קיפוד‬ 1 Meles meles European badger ‫מצויה‬ ‫גירית‬ 1 1 Myocastor coypus Coypu ‫נוטריה‬ 1 1 19 11 http://www.biogis.huji.ac.il/
  8. 8. Animal city scape Source semi- natural Sink open spaces Transit agriculture, yards Hostile built, paved, roads
  9. 9. 2010201120122013
  10. 10. Boar sightings are a function of distance between patches Frequency Distance between patches  Over the years the distribution is becoming more “fat-tailed” (Lévy flights) compared to a “null” negative exponential
  11. 11. Perplexing question Why are wild animals leaving natural open spaces and entering the “unfriendly” cities? Where do they meander? Why?
  12. 12. Challenges Three issues for theory of urban nature: What is the most useful spatial resolution/scale for understanding cities/nature interactions? At what distances do feedbacks among biodiversity, ecosystem services and the built environment operate?  What are the characteristic times that govern each of the relevant systems?
  13. 13. What is the most useful spatial resolution/scale for understanding cities/nature interactions? •The environmental policy debate and land-use regulations are dominated by analyses of sprawl at a crude spatial resolution. •The appropriate spatial resolution is much finer – buildings and not building-lots.
  14. 14. When growing cities consume land, what is left behind? • Series of Haifa OS 1945 1962198619992004
  15. 15. Series of Haifa OS Network evolution 194519621986199920042010 (data Balter 2010) 323 542 806 877 888 862 1945 1962 1986 19992004 2010 811 2205 3614 39493896 3814 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 patches number links
  16. 16. Patch importance Betweenness centrality Component ID Node 1574 deleted Node 1584 deleted NodeID=1581 BC=0.55 NodeID=1574 BC=0.28 NodeID=1584 BC=0.37 NodeID=0593 BC=0.01 Year 2004 Betweenness centrality is a good proxy for node importance in the network
  17. 17. At what distance do feedbacks among biodiversity, ecosystem services and the built environment operate? • Nature generates benefits for people at distances that do not exceed several hundred meters. • People affect nature at much greater distances.
  18. 18. What are the characteristic times that govern each of the relevant systems? Built environment - - - the time from the purchase of property rights until realization of return on investment. The main component - - - planning board decisions concerning land-use variance decisions and building permits.
  19. 19. Analysis of pig movement based on cost minimization alone….
  20. 20. Urban consumption of land - - what is left behind? Urban morphology is the key player
  21. 21. What is a link?
  22. 22. The unbuilt part of the lot enables passage
  23. 23. Indian crested porcupine (Hystrix indica)
  24. 24. complexcity.csregistry.org 26 Land-use and Land Cover classification and cost values per meter code Land use Description cost category 30 Veg OS Semi-natural vegetated 0.001 OS 31 Forest Semi-natural and planted forests and woodlands 32 Shrubs Mediterranean scrubland 33 Grassland Herbaceous vegetated areas, burnt land, grasslands 22 Orchard Vineyards and orchards 0.1 transit 13 Garden Managed vegetated areas: parks, gardens, lawns, sport facilities, monuments, recreation, and yards. 0.25 41 Wasteland Garbage, dunes, beach, mines wasteland open areas 42 Fallow Abandoned and fallow fields 11 Backyard Backyards, squares, logistic spaces around buildings 0.5 21 Field Agricultural cropland and cultivated open areas 63 Dirt road Unpaved roads 64 Foot path Paved foot paths 65 Trail Unpaved foot paths and trails 15 Transport Railroads, parking lots, transport logistic space, air and sea ports 0.75 61 Roads paved roads 111 Buildings building footprints ∞ Obstacles 12 Industry Industrial areas, cemeteries, prisons, exurban commercial areas 14 Construction Construction sites 23 Built agriculture Greenhouses and warehouses 51 Water Water reservoirs, rivers, lakes and sea 999 NoData No Data
  25. 25. Cost minimizing behavior does not explain the movement of wild boars in Haifa complexcity.csregistry.org 32
  26. 26. Major processes in the model complexcity.csregistry.org 33 Dusk: Food sources appear in the city… Pigs wake up in open spaces Dawn: Pigs return to open spaces for the day Dusk to dawn: Pigs detect food… Pigs go to food and feed
  27. 27. Optimal foraging complexcity.csregistry.org 34 𝐸𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑦 𝑡𝑖𝑚𝑒 = 𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑦𝑓𝑜𝑜𝑑 –𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑦𝑠𝑒𝑎𝑟𝑐 ℎ–𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑦𝑓𝑜𝑜𝑑 ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑑𝑙𝑖 𝑛 𝑔 𝑡𝑠𝑒𝑎𝑟𝑐 ℎ + 𝑡𝑓 𝑜𝑜𝑑 ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑑𝑙𝑖 𝑛 𝑔 Max net energy intake per unit of time
  28. 28. Model space The space consists of actual Haifa morphology Urban zone of urban uses Open spaces NetLogo platform
  29. 29. Model basics complexcity.csregistry.org 36 Pigs are distributed randomly at the outer edges of the built areas Food – garbage bins are distributed to reflect the distribution of households Pigs enter the built-up area in search of food and obey 2 rules:  first come first serve;  No fighting – if site is occupied go to next site.
  30. 30. Simulations without memory complexcity.csregistry.org 37
  31. 31. complexcity.csregistry.org 38 Depth of penetration of boars into the city
  32. 32. complexcity.csregistry.org 39 Total distance traveled by boars
  33. 33. complexcity.csregistry.org 40
  34. 34. complexcity.csregistry.org 41 Land-use/land-cover composition of the Haifa sample (LEFT) versus measured composition of the average path of pigs (RIGHT)
  35. 35. Model improvements complexcity.csregistry.org 42 Inclusion of memory of sites visited; Complex behavior due to group interactions; Policy design issues and means;
  36. 36. 43http://complexcity.csregistry.org/ Thank you!

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Advanced Brainstorm Carrefour (ABC): The Science of the City Naples, March 2016 Presentation by Danny Czamanski

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