Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Thesis on film studio

31,246 views

Published on

This is a thesis on film studio for the degree of Bachelors of Architecture. for more details check the thesis

Published in: Engineering
  • How to stop hair loss in just 2 weeks ●●● https://bit.ly/2N8ZrEt
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Is it possible to improve your memory? How can I improve my memory recall? more info... ■■■ https://tinyurl.com/brainpill101
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • my mail id. - Harshinireddy626@gmail.com
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • hello i like the way you presented with each and every detail, iam doing my architecture 4 th year and working on film city as my thesis topic it would be helpful if u send me any reference
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • DOWNLOAD FULL eBOOK INTO AVAILABLE FORMAT ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. PDF eBook here { https://tinyurl.com/y3nhqquc } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. EPUB eBook here { https://tinyurl.com/y3nhqquc } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. doc eBook here { https://tinyurl.com/y3nhqquc } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. PDF eBook here { https://tinyurl.com/y3nhqquc } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. EPUB eBook here { https://tinyurl.com/y3nhqquc } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. doc eBook here { https://tinyurl.com/y3nhqquc } ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... .............. Browse by Genre Available eBooks ......................................................................................................................... Art, Biography, Business, Chick Lit, Children's, Christian, Classics, Comics, Contemporary, CookeBOOK Crime, eeBOOK Fantasy, Fiction, Graphic Novels, Historical Fiction, History, Horror, Humor And Comedy, Manga, Memoir, Music, Mystery, Non Fiction, Paranormal, Philosophy, Poetry, Psychology, Religion, Romance, Science, Science Fiction, Self Help, Suspense, Spirituality, Sports, Thriller, Travel, Young Adult,
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here

Thesis on film studio

  1. 1. FILM STUDIO DESIGN Sanagaun, Lalitpur, Nepal by Pratik Lal Shrestha (08-223) A report Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Architecture Advisor Asst. Prof. Rabin Shrestha Department of Architecture Nepal Engineering College Changunarayan, Bhaktapur, Nepal (March 2014)
  2. 2. CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the project entitled “FILM STUDIO DESIGN” submitted by Pratik Lal Shrestha (08-223) has been examined by us and is accepted for the award of degree of Bachelor of Architecture of Pokhara University. ____________________________ ___________________________ …………… …………….. (External Examiner) (Advisor Asst. Prof. Rabin shrestha) ___________________________ ___________________________ Prof. Bharat Sharma Asst. Prof. Baburam Bhattarai (Thesis Coordinator) (Thesis Co- coordinator) Date: ……………………….
  3. 3. DECLARATION I declare that this dissertation has not been previously accepted in substance for any degree and is not being concurrently submitted in candidature for any degree. I state that this dissertation is the result of my own independent work/investigation, except where otherwise stated. I hereby give consent for my dissertation, if accepted, to be available for photocopying and understand that any reference to or quotation from my thesis will receive an acknowledgement. __________________________ PRATIK LAL SHRESTHA Date: March 2014
  4. 4. Table of content Title Page no Chapter 1 – Introduction 1.1 Background 1 1.2 Introduction 1 1.3 Aims and Objective of the study 2 1.4 Project justification 2 1.5 Methodology 3 Chapter 2 – Literature review 2.1 Motion picture 5 2.2 Motion picture making process 6 2.3 Crew members involved 9 2.4 Motion picture facilities 15 2.4.1 Pre production facility 16 2.4.2 Procuction facilities workshops 22 2.4.3 Post production facility 36 2.4.4 Other facilities 47 Chapter 3 – Case study 3.1 Nepal Film Development Company Ltd, Balaju 58 3.2 Three mills studio, London 63 3.3 Studio 4, Bhainsepati 72 3.4 Red studio, Narayangopal Chowk 75 3.5 Phoenix studio, Bagdole 79
  5. 5. Chapter 4 – Requirement And Area Analysis 4.1 Relation between spaces regarding to users,their task and their activities 84 4.2 Finalization of area requirement 92 Chapter 5 – Site Analysis Introduction to site 96 Site potential 96 Site data 96 Accessibility and approach 97 Site topography 97 Climate 97 Landuses and architecture 97 Utilities 97 Bye – laws 98 Analysis 98 Recommendations from mahony table 104 Chapter 6 – Design concept Bibiliography 107 Appendix I – Architectural drawings Appendix II – Photos of model Appendix III – climatic data Appendix IV – Mahoney Table Analysis of Climatic Data
  6. 6. List of figures Figure no. Description Page no Chapter – 1 1.a Study methodology 3 Chapter – 2 2-1 Dressing room adjoining sound stage 23 2-3 Process of making animation 28 2-4 Story boarding 29 2-5 Model seat 29 2-6 Modeling 30 2-7 Texturing 31 2-8 Rigging 31 2-9 Animation 31 2-10 Server room 33 2-11 Render farm 34 2-12 Sound stage 35 2-13 Recording studio 37 2-14 Home studio 37 2-15 Separate studio and control room 38 2-16 Scoring stage and control room 38 2-17 Linear editing system 42
  7. 7. 2-18 Non linear editing system 43 2-19 photography studio typical plan 45 2-20 Duplication machine 47 2-21 Screening room 48 2-22 Maximum viewing distance 49 2-23 Maximum viewing angle,first row 49 2-24 Site line clearance 50 2-25 Gang way requirement 50 2-26 Restaurant flow diagram 51 2-27 Parking type 54 2-28 Ramp gradient 54 2-29 Lock box assembly 55 2-30 Lock box unit B,C and D 56 Chapter – 3 3-1 NFDC site plan 59 3-2 NFDC sound stage 61 3-3 NFDC backlot 62 3-4 Three mills studio site plan 63 3-5 Three mills studio zoning 64 3-6 Studio 4 site plan 73 3-7 Office space 74 3-8 Sound stage 74 3-9 Red studio editing studio room 76 3-10 Red studio control room 77 3-11 Red studio dubbing room 77
  8. 8. 3-12 Red studio color grading room 77 3-13 Phoenix studio plan 80 3-14 Phoenix studio site plan 80 3-15 phoenix studio control room 81 3-16 Phoenix studio live room 81 Chapter-5 5-1 Site and site location 95 5-2 Temperature analysis 97 5-3 Humidity analysis 98 5-4 Rainfall analysis 99 5-5 Site zoning 100 5-6 Views from site 100 5-7 Utility supply 100 5-8 Sun and wind direction 101 5-9 Land use around site 101 5-10 Data collected for overlay technique 102 5-11 Overlay technique 103
  9. 9. List of Tables Table no. Description Page no Chapter – 1 2.a Floor to ceiling height according to office space 18 2.b Rest rooms with respect to number of seats 51 2.c Floor height of dining room with respect to floor area 52 2.d Walk up width with respect to dining floor area 52 2.e Proportional division of kitchen area 53 Chapter – 3 3.a Sound stages in three mills studio 69 3.b Rehearsel room in three mills studio 72 3.c prop store in three mills studio 72 Chapter – 4 4.a Spatial relationship 91 4.b Area requirement 94
  10. 10. Acknowledgement Sincere appreciation and acknowledgement is due to the following person and institution for their guidance and assistance in the accomplishment of this study To Asst. Prof .Rabin Shrestha, my thesis supervisor, for his competent guidance and support To the faculty and colleagues of the Department of Architecture for providing a congenial and competitive atmosphere for the study I am very gratified to Mr. Krishna Maharjan for his technical information regarding this topic. Again I would like to express my acknowledgement to Mr. Purusottam Khadka (Red studio), Sailesh Shrestha (phoenix studio) and all the staffs members of Nepal Film Development Co Ltd and Studio 4 and my colleagues who took interests in my topic and provided their valuable suggestion.
  11. 11. Film Studio Design Chapter One B. Arch. Thesis 2010 Pokhara University, Nepal Engineering College 1 Chapter -1 Introduction 1.1. Background Ever since the first movie made in 1887 the need of film making facilities under single roof was felt so that it would be easy for the film makers to make films. In 1893 in West Orange, New Jersey Thomas Edison build first movie studio called “Black Maria” and asked circus, vaudeville, and dramatic actors to perform for the camera. He distributed these movies in different theaters and arcades. Till early 1900s movies were shot out door in sunlight although there were facilities for electric bulbs. The reason behind this was inappropriate and inadequate lighting of these electric bulbs. Till this date indoor shooting was not preferred for film making. It was only in 1920s, some good production companies like 20th Century Fox, RKO pictures etc were established and started their own studio, distribution division, theaters and contracted with performers and other film making personnel. Since then the film studio started growing technologically and in facilities too. In Nepal history on film studio is not so long. Some studios like Nepal Film Development company, Prime Broadcasting System, Birendra Aishwarya Kollyood studio etc evolved with time but they were not able to bring all the facilities necessary for film makers under one roof. 1.2. Introduction According to Wikipedia “A film studio (also known as movie studio or simply studio) is a major Entertainment Company or Motion Picture Company that has its own privately owned studio facility or facilities that are used to make films, which is handled by the production company.” A film studio consists of all the equipments and facilities required for pre production, production and post productions plus a primer theater. Some years before film studios use to have only indoor and outdoor shooting facilities. The advancement of technology brought major changed in the field of film making. Animation techniques such as green screen technology and development of sound system had given the touch of reality. In film studio we can find all the facilities required including office spaces, residence facilities for actors and other technicians. Here in film studio one can shoot a movie in a very fast pace as one can construct different indoor and outdoor scenes quickly by using the workshop facilities available here. Workshop
  12. 12. Film Studio Design Chapter One B. Arch. Thesis 2010 Pokhara University, Nepal Engineering College 2 facilities consist of wood and metal workshop, painting workshop and plastering workshop. Mostly these workshops are used for the construction of indoor sets. 1.3. Aims and Objectives of the study Basic objective of this thesis is to provide all the facilities that will be necessary from pre production stage up to the release of the movie so that film makers will not go through any kind of problems during the process of film making. • To design the facility that can accommodate the pre production, production, post production and release of the movie and that can also financially function on its own. • To provide platform for the new talents arising in the film sector • To facilitate film makers during the film making • To provide the facility of producing CDs and DVDs of the movies • To introduce the animation technology and facility. 1.4. Project justification Film industry is one of the big industries in Nepal. Lots of money and talents can be seen in present context of Nepali film industry. All these money and talents are suffering in the process of making movies. Especially moviemakers like producers and directors are suffering during film making due to lack of facilities and equipment necessary. The “Film Studio” as proposed will bring all the facilities necessary from pre production to release of movie for film makers under single roof. This will facilitate each and every film makers. Other scope of this kind of film studio can be seen internationally. Recently movies from Hollywood like expendables were shot in. This kind of movies and documentaries were shot before too but Nepal could not gain economically from this due to lack of such facilities. Thus this kind of facility under one roof will not only benefit existing film maker but also benefit young talents as they don’t have to wonder around in the film making process.
  13. 13. Film Studio Design Chapter One B. Arch. Thesis 2010 Pokhara University, Nepal Engineering College 3 1.5. Methodology Fig 1(a): Study Methodology Program Formulation Animation Center Literature Review Aims & Objectives Site Analysis Finalization of Functional Activities Design decisions/Guidelines Finalization of Area Requirement Design concept and development Master/Site Planning Architectural design and detailing Conclusion/ Recommendation Case Studies Latest Knowledge • Nepal film development company ltd • Red studio • Phoenix studio
  14. 14. Film Studio Design Chapter One B. Arch. Thesis 2010 Pokhara University, Nepal Engineering College 4 • Literature review Reading of various books, articles, news, videos and thesis on related subject from seniors will be referred so that it will provide information and standard data for designing. During literature review expert in related fields will be consulted so that it will help to address the problem in context of Nepal. • Case study Study of various existing institutions and space will be done so as to know the various functions and spaced in the real life cased and help in the design of my thesis topic “Film Studio”. • Analysis of case study Various aspects of case study will be compared with the standard data those were obtained from literature so that best solution would be found out for thesis program formulation • Program formulation From the analysis of both case study and literature review required spaces and its area for the design of “Film Studio” will be found out and project site will be finalized. • Project site analysis Project site will be analyzing parameters like geology, soil, topography, climate, manmade structures traffic flow patterns, acoustics, surrounding environment etc so that potential of site can be found out and spaces can be placed accordingly. • Design concept and development After all of the process design concept will be finalized and suitable design will be developed for “Film Studio”
  15. 15. Film Studio Design Chapter Two B. Arch. Thesis 2010 Pokhara University, Nepal Engineering College 5 Chapter -2 Literature Review 2.1. Motion picture Motion picture is a series of still pictures which, when shown on screen, creates the illusion of moving image. During the mid development phase, motion picture were recorded on to plastic film which was then shown on a large screen through projector. With the advancement of technology motions pictures are now filmed and stored digitally like red one camera which records captured images on the hard-disk or flash cards. Development of motion pictures has taken place gradually to the state now it is. The credit of origination of motion picture can be given to the early plays and dances. They use to have elements common to motion pictures like scripts, sets, costumes, direction, actors, audiences, storyboard and scores. In spite of this due to the lack of technology, plays and dances could not be recorded for future. During mid 19th century invention of devices like pinakistoscope and zoetrope showed that a carefully designed sequence of drawings, showing phases of the changing appearance of objects in motion, would appear to show the objects actually moving if they were displayed one after the other at a sufficiently rapid rate. Limitation of these devices were that, they could show limited number of drawings usually twelve, so it could only show endlessly repeating cyclical motions. The use of sequence of photographs was limited to some numbers only due to the lack of sensitivity that shows the motions. The sensitivity was increased gradually and it was only in late 1870s Eadweard Muybridge created the first animated image sequences photographed in real-time. During 1880s invention of celluloid photographic film and motion picture camera made possible to capture an indefinitely long rapid sequence of images using only one lens due to this it became possible to record several minutes of actions in a single compact reel of film. The earliest films were simply one static shot that showed an event or action with no editing or other cinematic techniques. Around 20th century, films started stringing several scenes together to tell a story. The scenes were later broken up into multiple shots photographed from different distances and angles. Other techniques such as camera movement were developed as effective ways to tell a story with film.
  16. 16. Film Studio Design Chapter Two B. Arch. Thesis 2010 Pokhara University, Nepal Engineering College 6 Till this time sounds in motion pictures could not be heard and were purely visual arts. It was only in late 1920s, sound recording technologies were invented for motion pictures and incorporation of dialogue and sound effects became possible. Although the combination of sound and picture became possible motion pictures were not considered to gain its full height because motion pictures could only be viewed in black and white. The introduction of natural color in the field of motion picture brought revolution. Audiences could now see motion pictures in the color that they can see around them. In 1950s invention of black and with television brought serious problem to the motion pictures. People stopped going to theaters and cinemas to overcome this problem bigger screens were installed, widescreen processes, polarized 3D projection and stereophonic sound were introduced, and more films were made in color, which soon became the rule rather than the exception. 2.2. Motion picture making process According to Wikipedia “Film making is the process of making a film. Filmmaking involves a number of discrete stages including an initial story, idea, or commission, through scriptwriting, casting, shooting, editing, and screening the finished product before an audience that may result in a film release and exhibition. Filmmaking takes place in many places around the world in a range of economic, social, and political contexts, and using a variety of technologies and cinematic techniques. Typically, it involves a large number of people, and can take from a few months to several years to complete”. Making of movie consists of complex processes with different individuals or departments working. All of these individuals and department works together under a film director and is also known captain of ship. All the processes are divided into three steps according to their execution i.e. • Development • Pre production • Production • Post production • Distribution
  17. 17. Film Studio Design Chapter Two B. Arch. Thesis 2010 Pokhara University, Nepal Engineering College 7 • Development This is the first and the most important step of film making. During this step idea of film is generated. That may be an original idea or may be derived from somewhere like novels, story, existing movie but old one. If the movie is derived then permission is taken from the original creator. After that producer hires a writer, they work together and prepare a synopsis of the story. Here changes are made to the story if there is one. After the satisfying synopsis a step outline is prepared because synopsis is more like an abstract and step outline is a detailed form. But step outline don’t have any kind of dialogue and is just a detail story of a film. After the satisfying step outline, a 25 to 30 page treatment is prepared. Treatment contains more stage directions and less dialogue. If felt necessary, drawings are also attached with it so that one can understand key point of the story. The next step in the development phase is to arrange the finance necessary for the movie. After the completion and approval of the treatment producer and screenwriter visits potential financers to seek the financial help for the movie. After the approval by potential financers, they sign different contracts and agreements under different financial terms and conditions. Then a screenplay for the movie is prepared by screenplay writer so that writing work for the movie is completed and film gets a full story. After this, film proceeds towards the pre production phase of film making. • Pre production During this phase of film making preparations are made for film making. Cast and crews are hired, location is finalized and permissions are taken and sets are built for indoor shooting of the film. To control all these activities and all other activities during film making and promotions a production office is established which controls all the activities and does all the paper work necessary during film making. After this a film is pre visualized using storyboard method for which sketch artists are hired. The process of pre visualization is done so that actors, directors, makeup artists etc responsible for film making can get the story clearly. During this phase, a budget plan is drawn up to manage the budget and cutoff the unnecessary expenditure of the film. After all this, film is ready for the production phase.
  18. 18. Film Studio Design Chapter Two B. Arch. Thesis 2010 Pokhara University, Nepal Engineering College 8 • Production Work of film actually starts from this phase. During this phase, raw footage for film is recorded. More crew members like property master, script supervisor, assistant director etc are recruited. A typical day of shooting starts with the arrival of technical crew members like lighting persons, art director, dress super visors etc in a set or location as they have to prepare set/location for shooting. It may take hours and in some cases it may take days too. After this, actors arrive in the set/location at the time of their calling. Usually actors are called according to the schedule of shooting on that day. Then they go to the dressing area and put on their dress and makeup according to scene. They then rehearse with their co-actors, director, camera man and sound crew. After this when the set/location is ready for final take all the crew members arrives at the place. Assistant directors then instruct everyone to be quite. Then he informs sound and camera to be record respectively. After that director says “action” and actors acts for the final take. When the take is over the director says “cut” and sound and camera stops recording. If the director decides to take the additional take whole of the process starts again. Once the director is satisfied the crew moves to next camera angel or setup. While actors and crew members are taking final shot in one setup, another group of crew members prepares set/ location for another shot so as to save the time. When shooting is finished for the scene assistant director declares that the scene is over and crew members dismantle the set and moves on to next setup. At the end of the day director approves next day shooting schedule and a daily progress report is sent to production office. After the completion of this phase it is customary to give wrap up party by production office to the entire crew and cast for their efforts and hard work. • Post production In this phase of film making final touch is given to the movie like assembly of raw footage, editing and dubbing of dialogue, visual effects etc and finally all sound elements are mixed and the movie is fully completed • Distribution In this phase the movie is finally released in cinemas or occasionally to media in the form of DVD, CD, VHS, Blue ray or direct download from the internet website. The film is duplicated and distributed to the cinemas as required. Press kits, posters, and other
  19. 19. Film Studio Design Chapter Two B. Arch. Thesis 2010 Pokhara University, Nepal Engineering College 9 advertising materials are published and the film is advertised and promoted. After all of these processes finally the movie enters the market. 2.3. Crew members involved Hiring of crew members entirely depends upon the budget of the movie. If the budget of the film is low then crew members are hired on the individual basis as per necessity and if the film is of big budget then department heads are hired and they hire rest of the crew members as per the necessity of film. Key department heads are • Director of photography • Production manager • Assistant director • Production designer Following are the crew members for film making working in different phase. • Pre production crew members Story editor The story editor supervises several story analysts who work for the studios. The analysts read screenplays, books and other literary efforts looking for potential movies. The analyst then writes a synopsis of the material. The story editor reviews the synopsis and passes on promising prospects to the producer for possible development into a film. Writer The writer creates and shapes an original story, or adapts a book, play or other work for use on the big screen. A script may go through many writers. Dialogue coach The dialogue coach helps actors learn their lines and master accents and dialects that are necessary for their roles. Location manager The location manager reads the script, decides what locations are necessary for the film, then scouts for them. The location manager visits possible locations and takes pictures to help the director find the best setting. After locations are chosen, the location manager acquires all the permits and permissions necessary for filming.
  20. 20. Film Studio Design Chapter Two B. Arch. Thesis 2010 Pokhara University, Nepal Engineering College 10 Set designer The set designer takes direction from the art director about the look of the set, and then plans its technical construction. Art director The art director, or production designer, designs and supervises the construction of sets for a movie. This person needs to be well-versed in a variety of art and design styles, including architecture and interior design. He or she works with the cinematographer to achieve the right look for the production Costume designer The costume designer creates all the costumes worn by the cast on a production. This person contributes to the overall look of the film, as well as the style and interpretation of the film's characters. • Production Crew Members Unit production manager The unit production manager (U.P.M.) reports the daily financial operation of a production to the production manager. Sometimes the U.P.M. will scout for locations and help the production manager with overall planning. Line producer The line producer supervises the movie's budget. This includes unique expenses like a star's salary as well as daily costs like equipment rentals. The production manager reports his or her expenses and needs to the line producer. Production manager The production manager (P.M.) makes business deals with the crew and arranges for the production's technical needs. This includes everything from obtaining the right technical equipment to renting accommodations for actors and crew. Director The director is responsible for all creative aspects of a movie. The director usually helps hire actors, decides on locations and plans the shots before filming begins. During filming the director oversees the actors and crew, sets up shots and keeps the movie on schedule and on budget. The director is usually hired by a producer, unless he or she is also producing the film. Assistant director The assistant director works to make the director more efficient. The A.D. plans a shooting schedule by breaking the script into sections that can be filmed in a single day
  21. 21. Film Studio Design Chapter Two B. Arch. Thesis 2010 Pokhara University, Nepal Engineering College 11 and in the most efficient order. During filming the A.D. manages the set, helps line up shots for the director, calls for quiet on the set and coordinates the extras. Second assistant director The second assistant director (second A.D.) is a liaison between the production manager and the first assistant director. The second A.D. usually works with the cast and crew and handles paperwork, including call sheets (who needs to be on the set and when), actors' time sheets and production reports. This person also helps the First A.D. place extras and control crowds. Continuity person The continuity person tries to prevent embarrassing shots in the final film, such as an actor wearing a hat that mysteriously disappears in one shot then reappears in another. The continuity person logs how many times a scene was shot, how long the shot lasted, which actors were in the scene, where they were standing and any other details Cinematographer The cinematographer, or director of photography (D.P.), helps create the look of a movie. The D.P. directs the lighting for each scene, helps frame shots, chooses lenses, selects film stock and ensures that the visual look of the film conforms to the director's vision. The cinematographer usually does not operate the camera on set. Gaffer The gaffer is the chief electrician on the set, and is responsible for lighting the set according to the instructions of the cinematographer. Camera operator The camera operator is a member of the camera crew and runs the camera as instructed by the director and the cinematographer. The camera operator is responsible for keeping the action in frame, and responding quickly to the action as it unfolds. Assistant cameraman Often there is a first and second assistant cameraman. The first assistant cameraman is generally responsible for the maintenance of the camera. The first assistant cameraman also changes lenses, maintains focus during shots, marks the spots where actors will stand and measures the distance between the camera and the subject matter. The second assistant cameraman fills out camera reports and is often responsible for loading and unloading camera magazines, which contain the film. (Also see film loader.) Film loader The film loader is a member of the camera crew in charge of loading and unloading the camera's film magazines. The film loader also keeps the loading room in good, clean condition.
  22. 22. Film Studio Design Chapter Two B. Arch. Thesis 2010 Pokhara University, Nepal Engineering College 12 Production sound mixer The production sound mixer (or recordist) records sound during filming. This person is also responsible for mixing the various soundtracks into the film's composite soundtrack, which is then put onto the film with either a magnetic or optical stripe. Boom operator The boom operator is a sound crew member who handles the microphone boom, a long pole that holds the microphone near the action but out of frame, allowing the microphone to follow the actors as they move. Key grip The key grip is the chief grip on the set. Grips create shadow effects with lights and operate camera cranes, dollies and platforms as directed by the cinematographer. Dolly grip The dolly grip places and moves the dolly track, then pushes and pulls the dolly along that track. The dolly is a cart that the camera and sometimes its crew sit on. It allows the camera to move smoothly from place to place during a shot. Best boy There are actually two separate best boy positions -- the best boy/electric and the best boy/grip, which is second in command to the gaffer and to the key grip. The best boy/grip is in charge of the rest of the grips and grip equipment. The best boy/electric is in charge of the rest of the electricians and the electrical equipment. Stunt coordinator The stunt coordinator lines up professional stunt people to take the risks that make the movies so exciting. The stunt coordinator makes sure that all safety regulations are followed and that all safety equipment is on the set and ready for action. Visual effects director The visual effects director's job varies according to the needs of the production. Sometimes the visual effects director helps with effects on the set. But he or she could also be called upon to supervise separate teams of effects technicians working away from the set. FX coordinator FX is film shorthand for special effects. The job of the FX coordinator differs from film to film. Special effects range from complicated computer animation to helping Superman fly to simple on-set logistics like making a shower work.
  23. 23. Film Studio Design Chapter Two B. Arch. Thesis 2010 Pokhara University, Nepal Engineering College 13 Property master The property master finds, maintains and places on the set all essential props for a scene. A prop is a moveable item that is essential to a scene. Leadman The leadman answers to the set designer and heads the people who set up and take down the set and the set dressing department. Set dresser The set dresser is responsible for everything on a set except props that are essential to the scene. The set dresser selects items like drapes, artwork, bed linens, dishes and anything else, to make the set a realistic environment. Costumer The costumer, or wardrobe person, takes care of the costumes on the set, keeping them in good, clean condition, and making sure the right actor gets the right costume. Make-up artist The make-up artist is usually a licensed professional who applies any make-up to an actor above the breastbone to the top of the head and from the tips of the fingers to the elbow. Body make-up artist The body make-up artist applies any make-up below the actor's breastbone, or above the elbow. Hairdresser The hairdresser is licensed to cut color and style the hair of actors in a production. He or she also styles and cuts wigs when necessary. Usually the hairdresser provides all the necessary equipment and rents it to the production on a weekly basis. Production assistant Often called a gofer or a runner on the set, the production assistant (P.A.) performs small but essential tasks for the cast and crew. Production office coordinator The production office coordinator (P.O.C.) handles the production's office duties and stays behind when a production goes on location. He or she coordinates the crew, makes sure paperwork gets done and answers the phone. The P.O.C. also puts together new versions of the script as changes are made. Unit publicist The unit publicist makes sure the media are aware of a production by sending out press releases, arranging for interviews of cast and crew, setting up on-set visits and organizing media kits, which include publicity pictures, video and audio clips and plot summaries.
  24. 24. Film Studio Design Chapter Two B. Arch. Thesis 2010 Pokhara University, Nepal Engineering College 14 Second unit director The second unit director heads the second unit, a separate production crew that shoots sequences not involving the main actors. These can include background shots at remote locations, shots used for special effects and scenes that are not essential to the plot. Production caterer The production caterer provides all the meals for a production, especially for on-location shoots. The caterer makes sure that the food provided meets the needs of the cast, often including special items for the star of the movie. Craft services The people responsible for coffee, beverages and snacks on the set. They also perform various small chores. Transportation coordinator The transportation coordinator makes sure that actors, crew and equipment have some way of getting to the location shoot. He or she coordinates the use of everything from limos to semis. Day player A day player is an actor hired on a daily basis. This actor only has a few lines or scenes. The day player must be notified that they are finished by the end of the day; otherwise they are automatically called back for another day of work. • Post production Crew Members Post-Production Supervisor The post-production supervisor oversees the finishing of a film once shooting ends. He or she attends editing sessions, maintains quality control, and coordinates audio mixing, computer graphics, and all other technical needs. Editor The editor works with the director in editing the film. The director has the primary responsibility for editing decisions, but the editor often has significant input in the creative decisions involved in putting together a final cut of a movie. The editor often starts work while the film is still being shot, by assembling preliminary cuts from the daily footage. Increasingly, editors work on computerized editing consoles without touching the actual film. Color timer The color timer works with the cinematographer. He or she works in the lab to correct and balance the color of the film to the director's wishes for the look of the scene.
  25. 25. Film Studio Design Chapter Two B. Arch. Thesis 2010 Pokhara University, Nepal Engineering College 15 Negative cutter The negative cutter takes the negative of a movie and conforms, or matches, it to the final cut of the film as decided by the director, editor, producer, studio and anyone else who may be involved. Final prints of the film are made from this conformed negative. Foley artist The foley artist creates sounds that cannot be properly recorded during the shoot. This often includes creating footsteps, thunder, creaking doors and even the sound of punches. ADR editor ADR is an acronym for automatic dialogue replacement. In this process the actors are called back during the post-production process to re-record dialogue that wasn't recorded properly during the shoot. The editor supervises this process and matches the newly recorded lines to the actor's mouth on film. Music mixer The music mixer is part of the team that prepares the final soundtrack for a movie. The music mixer carefully balances and mixes the film's musical score to integrate with the dialogue. Matte artist The matte artist is a member of the special effects department who helps create locations that never existed. He or she constructs backgrounds that integrate with the live action filmed on a set. These are the list of crew members that works hard in a movie to make it a success. In low budget movies all of them are not hired. They are hired on the individual basis as per the need of movie but in a big budget movie almost all of these persons are hired. 2.4. Motion picture making facilities While going through the phases of film making i.e. from development phase to the distribution phase different facilities are needed like office space for establishing production office, indoor and outdoor shooting area, green studios etc. so that film can be completed in effective way. Following are the facilities needed for the completion of any motion picture and are arranged according to the phases of making motion picture. 2.4.1. Pre production facilities • Office space 2.4.2. Production facilities • . Workshops • Dressing room
  26. 26. Film Studio Design Chapter Two B. Arch. Thesis 2010 Pokhara University, Nepal Engineering College 16 • Animation studio • Equipment rental • Backlot • Sound stage 2.4.3. Post production facilities • Post production studio • Photography studio • Film development lab 2.4.4. Other facilities • Screening room • Restaurant • Parking • Post room 2.4.1. Pre production facilities • Office space During pre production phase of making motion pictures, cast and crews are hired, location for shooting the movie is finalized, permission for the location is taken, sets are built for indoor shooting etc. To control all of these activities during the pre production phase and during all other phase an office space is required. From here producers and other members of crew controls the movie making process. For work room the minimum area of 8.00 sqm should be allowed and free circulation space should be of minimum 1.5 sqm per employee and width of the corridor should be such that tow person can pass each other easily. Computers and screens should not be placed directly opposite to the window in work room because die to this a shadow of window is casted on the screen which will disturb our work. To know the depth of light penetration following formula can be used. D = 1.5H Here, D = depth of light penetration from window H = total height of the window Above is a general formula if there is no obstruction i.e. for normal condition and depth of light penetration can be affected by the location of building. Generally an office space contains following spaces
  27. 27. Film Studio Design Chapter Two B. Arch. Thesis 2010 Pokhara University, Nepal Engineering College 17 Record area In this area of office all records are stored and should be placed centrally. As this space contains such important documents it should safe from water, bacteria and other thing that can harm the records. For the record area rooms in attics and basement are not suitable. Generally records like files, drawings, microfilm, document reproduction etc are stored. For the storage of such documents deep moveable filing systems are considered to be very economical and space saving. They can save space from 100% to 200%. For the better and easy access it is necessary to arrange stored documents in a clearly label system with short circulation routes and efficient use of space. As cabinet increases, the aisle between cabinet should get wider. Following formula from neufert architect’s data can be helpful to estimate the space requirements L x W (Filing equipments) = space for furniture + ½ L x W + 0.5 = aisle space ___________________________________________________ Total requirement = space for furniture + aisle space The choice of filing system in record area can save space very effectively. So it is necessary to choose appropriate filing system. For vertical filing system ratio of floor area required for filing to the aisle space should be 100:90 and for flat filing system ratio of floor area required for filing to the aisle space should be 90:100. From above we can easily say that vertical filing system can save the space more than flat filing system and can hold files more than flat filing system. For tall office buildings it is better to move files in paternoster elevator so that files can be transported safely and easily from one floor to another. Central clerical area This area contains the facilities that are used by whole office like dictating, duplicating, printing, photocopy equipments and personals computers. These kinds of spaces should be placed such that they may be easily accessed from work spaces of other areas because this space contains such facilities that will be needed by whole office frequently. Corporate display area This area contains board rooms with moveable walls, exhibition areas, conference rooms and meeting rooms. Social facilities like cloak rooms, a kitchen, toilets, rest areas for employees, refreshment rooms, sports facilities and a dining room with kitchen. Central service area This area contains technical equipment, air conditioning and ventilation, heating, electric power, water supply, data processing, the computer center, telecommunications and cleaning and maintenance etc facilities necessary to keep office space in comfortable
  28. 28. Film Studio Design Chapter Two B. Arch. Thesis 2010 Pokhara University, Nepal Engineering College 18 condition. Usually these kinds of spaces makes lots of noise and can disturb working areas of the office so this kind of space should be kept away from the working areas. Work stations This is the space where staffs works for the office and contains working desk along with computers. There is no such specific standard for work stations because the space requirement varies widely depending upon the nature of work. For easy and better working in work stations it should be kept in mind that items that are used frequently should be placed within preferred field of vision and reach area. For better working conditions properties of materials like reflection, refractions etc should also be kept in mind. Items close to the user should have a 20% to 25% reflection, illumination 300 Lux to 500 Lux and glare from light must be limited. Following considerations should be done while deciding the floor to ceiling height of the office space Office space Floor to ceiling height Up to 50 sqm 2.50m Over 50 sqm 2.75m Over 100 sqm 3.00m Over 250 and up to 2000 sqm 3.25m Table 2(a): Floor to ceiling height according to office space Office space arrangement according to planning approach According to the planning approach office space can be divided into three types. Modern office building falls into these three categories according to flexibility, visual and acoustic privacy and initial and lifecycle cost. Three types of office spaces according to planning concept areas follow • Close plan office • Open plan office • Modified open plan office • Close plan office In this type of planning spaces are divided into offices by wall of full height with doors. In this type of offices generally private offices are typically located along the window wall and administrative supports are housed in workstations along with corridor or in shared room.
  29. 29. Film Studio Design Chapter Two B. Arch. Thesis 2010 Pokhara University, Nepal Engineering College 19 • Open plan office In this type of planning of office space, all the workstations are located in open space without floor to ceiling divisions and doors while administrative supports are located in rooms with floor to ceiling partition with doors. These types of spaces are suitable for the staffs with high division of labor and performing routine works with low level of concentration. • Modified open plan office This type of planning of office combines the elements of both of the above planning. Workstation is placed in an open plan with system furniture and others in private offices and administrative support is also located in enclosed room. Layout of office spaces by function Generally any kind of office has following six basic functions according to which the office spaces should be allocated. Six basic functions are • Management • Finance • Sale • General services • Technical services • Production • Management In the office buildings offices for top managements are usually arranged together in a sort of chain of command and are frequently around edge office but according to the need of office they can also be located in the center. Top executives like chairman, managing directors etc should be allocated more space not only for their prestige but also for meeting as they have more than usual amount of visitors. • Finance This part of the office takes care of all the financial works and decision and is one of the most important functions of office. It is more important to the accounting function near where it picks up the order from sales department. The purchasing departments usually have lots of visitors and contact with vendors so it should be placed near entrance or reception. Purchasing department not only has contacts with vendors but they also work closely with accounts department like vendor’s invoice, handling requisitions etc. • Sales This section in the office has more and frequent no of visitor than other sections and requires spaces for catalogue, specification, files etc so each person working should be provided with the extra amount of space than average. Due to their duties sales
  30. 30. Film Studio Design Chapter Two B. Arch. Thesis 2010 Pokhara University, Nepal Engineering College 20 department needs conference hall or a multipurpose hall for training, meeting, demonstration and conference with different persons. • General service area This area of the office provides service for other areas and functions like central files stenographic service, duplications etc. Due to this, it should be placed centrally so that it can serve other areas effectively. In case of duplication services, they should be isolated because they make noise and produce fumes which may disturb other areas • Technical service area Technical service area like engineering, drafting and designing should be placed near area which they serve. General design principle According to time saver standard for building types followings are the general design principle that should be followed for designing office spaces Work flow By the systematic study of the operation, process and procedure involved in individual task, the planner can assist management by providing workstation patterns which ensure a smooth, straight line flow of work. Straight line principle In a well planned office, paper goes from one desk to another with least amount of handling, travelling and delay, work should progress in series of straight lines with a general forward movement, avoiding crisscross motions and backflow. Work stations The following general rules are applicable in positioning desk • Desk should face the same direction unless there is a compelling functional reason to do otherwise. The use of this technique provides for straight work flow patterns, facilities communication and creates neat and attractive appearance. • In open areas, consideration should be given to placing desk in rows of two. This method will permit the use of bank type partitions as a divider for those activities which requires visual privacy while still obtain Maximum utilization. • Desk should be space at a distance of 6 ft from the front of a desk to the desk behind it. This distance should be increased to 7 ft when desk are in rows of two ingress and egress
  31. 31. Film Studio Design Chapter Two B. Arch. Thesis 2010 Pokhara University, Nepal Engineering College 21 is confined to one side of aisle or in instances where more than two desks side by side cannot be avoided. • In private offices the desk should be positioned to afford the occupant a view of the door. • In open work areas the supervision should be located adjacent to the receptionist or secretary. Access to supervisory work stations should not be through the work areas. • Desk of employees having considerable visitors contact should be located near the office entrance. Conversely, desk of employees doing classified work should be away from entrance. • Where frequent interviews with the general public are required as in personnel offices, the use of interview cubicles should be considered. Such cubicles needs only be large enough for interviewer, the applicant and a small desk or table. • Office space housing for more than 50 persons should be sub divided either by use of file cabinets, shelving, railing or low bank type partitions. • The following standard with regard to internal circulation will be applied in space planning survey • Main aisle should be 60" wide • Intermediate aisle should be 48" wide • Aisle between rows (secondary aisle) should be approx 36" wide. • Access to conference room should be through corridors or through reception areas. Guide lines for locating office spaces • Those departments having the greatest no of visitors should be located so the visitors have a short, direct and convenient route from the main entrance. The sales, purchasing and employment personnel department usually have the most visitors. • Department having closest working relation should be placed closest together. When this is done work flow with minimum waste of time can be achieved. Sales and advertising department works together
  32. 32. Film Studio Design Chapter Two B. Arch. Thesis 2010 Pokhara University, Nepal Engineering College 22 • Sections and facilities that serves entire office should be centrally located and easily accessible to all who use them. Data processing, central files and cost accounting are examples. • Certain functions of a business may be of confidential nature that requires them to be isolated from others in the office and from general public, central files , legal offices are the examples • Conference and training room should be near to those departments that use them the most • Departments receiving and delivering quantities of material should be located near the freight areas for the ease of handling, less time and labor and less distraction of other workers. Mail, stock room and machine department are in this category. • When an office occupies more than one floor, elevator service will be more effective when the department with large clerical force are on the lower floor 2.4.2. Production facilities • Workshops Workshops like metal workshop, wood workshop and painting and plastering workshop are very essential for film studio. Here sets for indoor and outdoor shooting are prepared according to the design of art director. In the case of film studio it will be economic to have compact and courtyard planning of workshops as it will be easy to make the sets sequentially Architectural consideration for workshops • Natural light should be provided in enough quantity and through ribbon window • Space like storage, cutting , finishing etc should be arrange according to sequence of work • For small workshop up to 10 staffs production flow is in line or L shape and for medium workshop having more than 10 staffs production flow is in U shape, circular or square. • Workshop should have height of 15’ • There should be enough space to make possible trial setup of an entire set without disturbing other work.
  33. 33. Film Studio Design Chapter Two B. Arch. Thesis 2010 Pokhara University, Nepal Engineering College 23 • Dressing room Dressing room is used in a film studio for changing the dress and for hair and makeup by actors. This facility is available for actor in sound stage of film studio and for location shooting vanity van is provided for actors for changing and make up. Dressing room specially consist of wardrobe, changing space and makeup area Architectural consideration for dressing room • For wardrobe 2’ is the standard depth or 2’- 6” if a hook strip to be used • Clothes closet width parallel to the doors should be from 3’ to 6’ per person • Wardrobe for man’s cloth should be 5’ – 9” in height with 9” clearance at the bottom of wardrobe to cloth and 3” clearance from top of the wardrobe to hanging rod • Wardrobe for women’s cloth should be 6’ in height with 6” clearance at the bottom of wardrobe to cloth and 3” above clearance from top of the wardrobe to hanging rod • Wardrobe for children should be 4’- 6” in height with 6” clearance at the bottom of wardrobe to cloth and 6” above clearance from top of the wardrobe to hanging rod • Minimum 20 sqft should be allowed per person to change the dress • Minimum 22 sqft should be allowed for hair and makeup purpose • Animation studio According to Wikipedia “Animation studio is a company producing animated media”. This company also own rights over merchandising and creative rights for characters created/held by the company like authors holding copyrights. The idea of a studio dedicated to the cartoons was first brought by Raoul Barre by establishing Barre studio along with Bill Nolan. Sometimes after Earl Hurd working for Bray’s studio came up with the patents design for mass producing the output of the studio. This is much like the copyright system. The patents for animation system using drawings on transparent celluloid sheets and a registration system that kept steady were held under this firm. Bray also developed division of labor in animation studio still used in today’s animation studio like animators, layout artist etc. Fig 2-1: Dressing room adjoining sound stage
  34. 34. Film Studio Design Chapter Two B. Arch. Thesis 2010 Pokhara University, Nepal Engineering College 24 The biggest name in animation studios during this early time was Disney Brothers Animation Studio which we know as Walt Disney Animation Studio. They made some short animated movie but the real breakthrough was in 1973 A.D. when the studio was able to produce a full length animated feature film called Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, which laid the foundation for the other studios to try to make full length movies. Today animation as an industry has grown to very big industry of billions of dollars and uses computers with central storage devices in networking using different kinds of software. To get an idea about the animation studio at first we should know about the animation, its types, software used by them and many other things explained below. Animation The term animation is derived from the Latin word animatio “the act of bringing to life”. According to Wikipedia “Animation is the rapid display of a sequence of static images and/or objects to create an illusion of movement.” The sequence of change of these static images through any medium like computer, hand rendered art etc makes animation. Usually, viewing devices displays these static images rapidly i.e. from 24 to 30 frames per second. The attempt to make animation dates back to Egyptian age when they use to make paintings on walls showing series of images. However there were no such devices which could show the images in motion. So these kinds of images cannot be called animation. For example we can take Voynich manuscript that dates back to between 1404 and 1438 which contains series of illustrations of the same subject matter and even few circles that when sinned around the center would create an illusion of a motion. With the invention of devices like pinakistoscope and zoetrope movement of static images became possible. Inspite of this they were not so good for animation and could not support sound. The invention of cinematographe brought drastic change in the field of animation and showed the direction for future. Fig2-2: Animation studio
  35. 35. Film Studio Design Chapter Two B. Arch. Thesis 2010 Pokhara University, Nepal Engineering College 25 A French artist Emile Cohl a movie called Fantasmagorie by drawing cartoon strips which became a big hit. Following his success many artists started making movies similar to him. One of them were Winsor McCay, he along with his team made an animated movie but this time each frame was drawn on paper and was presented frame by frame as done today through computers. The production of cartoons films started much later in the film industry in 1910s and in 1955 when an animated movie called toy story was made using computers it spread throughout the world. Today animation has taken huge market throughout the world. Software used in animation Today animations are done with the help of computers and different software. Following are the most used animation software by the animation studios Houdini This is the software used by animations studios like dreamworks animations, Blue sky studios etc for animation works. It has a very strong particle and smoke system due to its powerful animation, and VFX tools and its lighting effects are also pretty decent. 3Ds max 3Ds max is a well known name in the animation and modeling. This software is commonly used in video game development. 3Ds max is also starting to be used more and more in film productions as it has powerful controls over dynamics and shading as well as realistic lighting Maya 3D Maya is very powerful tool used for making animations in animation studio and even top 3D animators continue to learn and progress their skills from using it. A great deal of work we see on our cinema and TV has been produced using Maya spider man, lord of the rings are few examples. Cinema 4D This is animation software used by animation studios for making animations and animated movie. This software gives you option and resources character tools, physic engines, hair, eyes, and an unlimited network for rendering which is very useful for render farm. Blender 3D Blender 3D is another software used by animation studios and was released in 1995 by blender foundation as a free software for animators.
  36. 36. Film Studio Design Chapter Two B. Arch. Thesis 2010 Pokhara University, Nepal Engineering College 26 Flash This is one of the famous software mostly used for animation on the web page which was produced by macromedia. Types of animation Talking about animation, there are three different types of animation which differs from each other with respect to technique, technology and equipments • Cel animation • Stop animation • Computer animation • Cel animation This is a traditional way of animation and was used for creating early Mickey Mouse cartoons. For animation, cartoons are drawn on transparent sheets called cel. It used to save time and effort as artist has to draw many frames to make animated movies. After that characters are colored on the opposite side of the cel. Coloring the background may be a more difficult task than a single drawing as it covers the whole picture and requires shading and lighting and will be viewed for a longer duration. Then for final touch these drawings are photographed • Stop motion animation According to Wikipedia “Stop motion is an animation technique to make a physically manipulated object appear to move on its own. The object is moved in small increments between individually photographed frames, creating the illusion of movement when the series of frames is played as a continuous sequence. Dolls with movable joints or clay figures are often used in stop motion for their ease of repositioning. Stop motion animation using plasticine is called clay animation or "clay-mation". Not all stop motion requires figures or models; many stop motion films can involve using humans, household appliances and other things for comedic effect. Stop motion using objects is sometimes referred to as object animation”. This is also an old technique of animations and is not used these days. • Computer animation Computer animation is the latest technique that includes 2D and 3D animation. These not only enhance the hand drawn characters but also make them appear real as compared to above mentions animations. 2D Animation Process of making 2D animation The process of making 2D animation is divided into three parts namely pre-production, production and post production.
  37. 37. Film Studio Design Chapter Two B. Arch. Thesis 2010 Pokhara University, Nepal Engineering College 27 Per production Under the pre production process for animation are the script, storyboarding, audio recording, animatics, character, prop and location design, color styling and color model sheet. The pre production sets the tone for the animation production process, if it is not well conceived and done, there will be lot of retakes and correction to be done in the production process. Production Under the production process are the background layout and positing, animation, line test, digital background, cleanup in between, scaling, ink and paint, compositing and export rendering. If the artists are not good there will be lot of retakes in the clean up in between stage. Compositing also takes long time as errors are found out and corrected before the final rendering. Post production Under the post production process are the musical score, sound effects, editing and color grading. 3D Animation According to ask.com “3D Animation is a computer generated illustration that gives objects space. In 3D, the images and the graphics use three dimensions that give characters a depth, which makes them appear to be real and living. The graphic designers usually use computer software to give their pictures and image a life” Process of making 3D animation Same as motion picture animation or animated movies are made in four steps they are • Development • Pre production • Production • Post production
  38. 38. Film Studio Design Chapter Two B. Arch. Thesis 2010 Pokhara University, Nepal Engineering College 28 • Development Development is the first and important phase of making animated movies. In this phase idea for the movie is developed. The idea may be the original, may be adopted from play, novels or any other sources. In case of adopted story permission is taken from the person who holds the copyright. After this producer along with writer works out and prepares a synopsis which is an abstract form of a story. After the satisfactory output of synopsis, a step outline is prepared, which is a detail form of a story but it doesn’t contain dialogue. The step outline is then reviewed by producer and correction is done until he satisfies. After that a 20 to 30 page treatment is prepared which consist of more stage directions and less dialogue. Drawings are also attached with it so that one can understand the key point of the story. After all this process a treatment is presented to the potential financer who may finance the movie. If enough finance is arranged then screenplay is written by screenplay writer. After completion of this phase movie proceeds towards pre production phase. • Pre production In this phase of making animated movie preparations are done for the production phase and visualization process is carried out. Pre production phase of animated movie consists of storyboarding, layouts, model sheets and animatics. These four steps helps crew members involve in the production phase to visualize the story and carry it out exactly throughout the production phase. Pre- Story Layouts Models Animatics Productio Post Layout Modeling Rigging Animatio Simulation and Effect Texturing Lighting Composit Sound Video Fig 2-3: Process of making animation
  39. 39. Film Studio Design Chapter Two B. Arch. Thesis 2010 Pokhara University, Nepal Engineering College 29 • Story boarding In this step of pre production, drawings area prepared in form of comic strip i.e. story is converted into drawings. They are often accompanied by text notes describing things occurring within the scene itself, such as camera movement. It not only helps to visualize the animation clearly but also help to communicate the idea clearly within crew members and provides a visual reminder of original plan which can be referred back throughout the production phase. • Layouts After the process of story boarding it is sent to layout department. Here crewmembers of layout department work closely with director and designs location and costumes. With this done they begin to stage the scenes, showing the various characters’ positions throughout the course of each shot. • Model sheets It is a precisely drawn group of pictures that shows all the expressions, positions and expression a character can take throughout the movie. They are prepared so as to accurately maintain the character detail throughout the movie because more than one animator will be working on the same mo vie during the process of production. After the preparation and approval of model sheet it is sent to modeling for the creation of 3d models of characters. Fig 2-4: Story boarding Fig 2-5: Model seat
  40. 40. Film Studio Design Chapter Two B. Arch. Thesis 2010 Pokhara University, Nepal Engineering College 30 • Animatics Shortly after the process of story boarding simplified mockups are prepared called “Animatics” so that it can give better visualization of the story to the entire crewmembers working on the animation movie. This helps director to plan how they will go in further sequence and also helps to get knowledge about how visual effects will be integrate in the final shot. • Production The main process of making movie starts here. In this phase 3d models of the characters are prepared, texture, lighting etc are added and animation is done. Production phase of a animated movie consist of layout, modeling, texturing, lighting, rigging and animation. During this phase, a final character is created and animation is done and sent for the process of final rendering. • Layouts In this phase of production of animated movie layout artists create rough animations using low resolution models or block of geometry so that can act as guide to the animators. In another way we can say that they prepare the 3d version of what storyboard artist have prepared. During this director finalize camera move, depth of field, props, dresses of character etc. after completion and approval it is passed to modeling department. • Modeling In this phase of production modelers turns 2d concept into highly detailed topologically sound 3d models by referring all the materials from above processes. Usually modelers are split into departments. First one is organic modelers. They are specialized in building the character like people, animals etc. and other free forms. Second one is hard surface modelers. They have architectural background or industrial background. They design vehicles, props, weapons, buildings etc. Once the model is approved it is then handed to rigging and texture paint department who complete the final stages in preparing the model for animation and rendering. Fig 2-6: Modeling
  41. 41. Film Studio Design Chapter Two B. Arch. Thesis 2010 Pokhara University, Nepal Engineering College 31 • Texturing Working closely with surfacing and shading department texture artist creates texture either form the scratch or form the existing text ure to match the concept of art and design which has passed by the art department. • Lighting Light artists usually add lighting to the scene but they also have to consider how to bring together all the elements that have been created by other departments. Lighting artists have a responsible and tough job. They not only have to place lights but also have to define light property, define how light interact with different types of materials and how intensity of light affects the mood and believability. They also have to arrange the reflection and refraction properties due to the light for each assigned shot ensuring that each shot fits within the continuity of a sequence, all the while aiming to fulfill the vision of the Directors, Production Designers, Art Directors and VFX Supervisors. • Rigging According to www.cg.tutsplus.com “Rigging is the process of adding bone to the character or defining movement of a mechanical object, and it’s central to the animation process”. It is this step through which a character can move in animated movies. A character TD will make test animation how the 3Dcharacter will move and take a different poses during the movie. It the results are not satisfying more adjustments and corrections are done. Responsibility of rigging department does not end here. They are also responsible for cloth simulation and it is their duty to make the cloths move in the believable manner during the movie and are also responsible for the movement of characters like clenching their fist or rotating their arms etc. • Animation The concept of animation is same as in 2D animations i.e. frame by frame. Animation of character takes place frame by frame. Let’s Fig 2-9: Animation Fig 2-7: Texturing Fig 2-8: Rigging
  42. 42. Film Studio Design Chapter Two B. Arch. Thesis 2010 Pokhara University, Nepal Engineering College 32 suppose an animation shows a character is walking and takes four steps. For this animation, in a first frame animator takes character’s first leg at the front in the second frame he takes its second leg at front and first leg to the back. In this way animation completes frame by frame. • Post production This is the final phase of making animated movie. In this phase final adjustments are done in movie to make it more attractive like editing of raw footage to cut the scene together, inserting translation effect, working with voice and sound actors for dubbing etc. Post production of a animated movie consist of composing, sound editing and video editing. a. Composing The main responsibility of composing department is to bring all the 3D images and prepare the final render images ready for the film and also includes paint fixes, rotoscoping and compositing of FX elements and general color grading. b. Sound editing During this phase sound editors adds sounds to the characters that had been recorded previously and makes sure that the sound is matching to the movement of lips. This department is also responsible for adding all other sound effects to the movie as per the direction given. c. Video editing In this phase videos are manipulated, rearranged and unwanted footage are removed so that film flows through according to requirement and makes sure that it is prepared for the final release. Spatial requirements Animation studios today use different kinds of technology to get their job done. So spaces must be allocated according to the technological requirement of an animation studio for which the technological requirements are calculated by the expert and on the basis of that planning is done. Following are the most important spaces in animation studio without which it cannot operate • Workstations • Server room • Executive offices • Backup rooms
  43. 43. • Workstations Workstations in animation studio consist of a powerful desk top and one to two monitors depending upon the work. These workstations are used for content creation and editing making animated movies. Windows and other artificial light sources should be placed such that they will not produce glare on screen and necessary thing should be within the reach area of the artist. 3Dmodeling unit, story board and development unit, art and design unit. • Server room This is the room where the distribution of internet, networking and central storage of a studio is controlled technology running in the studio. storage units used and the networking devices used. This room should be air tight and use of double the dust and other harmful thi other devices in the server room. area where visitors can easily access them as this room controls all the technology running in the studio. • Executive offices Executive offices are used by executive members, supervisors and othe staffs who controls whole of same as discussed above in office space of preproduction facilities B. Arch. Thesis 20 Pokhara University, Nepal Engineering College Workstations Workstations in animation studio consist of a powerful desk top and one to two monitors depending upon the work. These workstations are used for content creation and editing purpose for making animated movies. Windows and other artificial light sources should be placed such that they will not produce glare on screen and necessary thing should be within the reach area of the artist. Generally workstations in animation studio i 3Dmodeling unit, story board and development unit, art and design unit. Server room This is the room where the distribution of internet, networking and central storage of a studio is controlled. It can be said that this room controls all the technology running in the studio. The size of this room depends upon the storage units used and the networking devices used. This room should be air tight and use of double door with lobby in between is practiced to keep away the dust and other harmful things which can damage the storage device and other devices in the server room. This room should be placed away from the area where visitors can easily access them as this room controls all the technology running in the studio. Executive offices offices are used by executive members, supervisors and othe staffs who controls whole of the studio. Requirements and other things are same as discussed above in office space of preproduction facilities Fig 2-10: Server room Film Studio Design Chapter Two B. Arch. Thesis 2010 l Engineering College 33 Generally workstations in animation studio include 3Dmodeling unit, story board and development unit, art and design unit. This is the room where the distribution of internet, networking and central . It can be said that this room controls all the The size of this room depends upon the storage units used and the networking devices used. This room should be air is practiced to keep away ngs which can damage the storage device and be placed away from the area where visitors can easily access them as this room controls all the offices are used by executive members, supervisors and other Requirements and other things are same as discussed above in office space of preproduction facilities Server room
  44. 44. Film Studio Design Chapter Two B. Arch. Thesis 2010 Pokhara University, Nepal Engineering College 34 • Backup room This is the most important part of the animation studio because during the process of making animated movies and animations processes like rendering needs continuous power backup. For this, backup room must be able to handle the backup system that can give backup to all the computers in the animation studio. As backup system makes lots of noise it should be kept away from the working areas. • Render farm Render farm is a group of computer networked together, called nodes, all rendering some part of all of a frame of animation. Animation studios use render farms for rendering the final animations. Render farm uses three software first is application software like Maya, 3ds max etc second is render engine which takes information created by animator and then renders it into cinematic, high definition or TV quality, third and last one is render manager which schedules and distributes render jobs to render nod es. Along with these software four piece of components are used • Dispatcher – main control computer or dispatcher to distribute jobs • Render nodes- rendering slave responsible for rendering job • Network- communication between render nodes and dispatcher • Storage- a shared location for sourced files and output files Render farm should be placed near or if possible right next to the server room because render farm contains large no of render nodes which needed to be networked with central storage device and other computers of the studio. Size of Fig 2-11: Render farm
  45. 45. Film Studio Design Chapter Two B. Arch. Thesis 2010 Pokhara University, Nepal Engineering College 35 the render farm depends on the no of stacks used for staking render nodes in them. To render 90 minutes animated movie 225 render nodes are necessary. These render nodes are stacked in shelve made to hold these render nodes. Each self can hold 15 render nodes and is of height 6’-6”, length is 1’8” and width is 1’6”. Height of 1 unit in shelves 5”. The space between two rows of shelves should be 4’ so that it provides easy circulation and space if some minor adjustment is to be done. Architectural considerations for animation studio • It should accommodate a drawing table for A0 size for layout process • It should accommodate file cabinet • Workstations with computer should be provided • A good A/C system should be provided in render farm. • Backlot According to Wikipedia “A backlot is an area behind or adjoining a movie studio, containing permanent exterior buildings for outdoor scenes in film making or television production or space for temporary set construction”. The buildings on backlot are usually constructed with three sides and a roof, often missing the back wall and one of the side walls. All the sets on a studio backlot are built so that what looks large or as if it covers miles of ground on the big or small screen in reality only takes up a few acres of the backlot. There is no such specific requirement for backlot but it should be enough to hold sets for outdoor shooting along with camera and all the equipment. • Sound stage Sound stage is a building or portion of a building usually insulated from outside noise and natural light for use by the entertainment industry for the purpose of motion picture, television and commercial production. Sound stages are classified according to floor area as small, medium, large and extra large. For more requirements of big budget films Fig 2-12: Sound stage
  46. 46. Film Studio Design Chapter Two B. Arch. Thesis 2010 Pokhara University, Nepal Engineering College 36 super stages are also used which has area more than 1800 sqm. These are built basically for re-creating outdoor setting in feature films. Sometimes super stages are made up of block of two or three sound stages of increased ceiling height separated by sliding or roll up soundproof partitions which enable the block to be used either as two or three separate sound stage or as single stage. The basic equipment of sound stage serves to facilitate the assembling and dismantling of sets and the mechanized operation of light equipment and to supply electrical power as need. It is installed on the working ceiling, which is either suspended from or built into the roof. Architectural considerations for sound stage • Area of small soundstage should be 400 sqm, medium should be 820 sqm, large should be 1400sqm and extra large should be 1800 sqm. • Clear height for these categories should be proportional to diagonal length and should not be less than 0.23D • For super stages span should be 38m to 48m and length should be 54m to 72m. • Height should be up to 25m • Soundproofing should be done to keep away outside noise • A powerful and noiseless air conditioning system should be provided 2.4.3. Post production facilities • Post production studio In this studio final works of motion picture editing is done. This studio contains recording room, control room, video editing room, mastering room and color grading room. This studio should be completely sound proof and light proof so that best quality of work can be delivered to the client. This studio have frequent visitors that are involved in film especially actors, director, producers, singers and musicians so they should be placed in a site in such a way that visitors coming here would not disturb other spaces like outdoor shooting, indoor shooting etc.
  47. 47. • Sound editing and recor editing is another part of the post production process. For this a recording studio is used. Recording studios can be used to record musicians, voice over artist, dubbing, etc. According to Wikipedi recording studio is a facility for sound recording and mixing. Ideally both the recording and monitoring spaces are specially designed by an acoustician to achieve optimum acoustics properties”. Basically a recording studio consists of, live room where instrumentalist and performs; control room where sound engineer controls and records sounds by using mixing console along with computer and special software in it; isolation booth use to accommodate loud musical instruments too. It is also used for recording vocals while performing. In totality we can say that singer along with his musicians can perform together here. Recording studios can be classified in to be recorded as follows • Home or project studio • Separate studio and control room • Scoring stage and control room Home or project studio It is a very small scale recording studio generally used by music persons in their home for their projects and albums. In this type of recording studio we can see small mixing console, voice recording facility with microphone and filter and a computer with software. B. Arch. Thesis 20 Pokhara University, Nepal Engineering College editing and recordingSound editing is another part of the post production process. For this a recording studio is used. Recording studios can be used to record musicians, voice over artist, dubbing, etc. According to Wikipedia “A studio is a facility for sound recording and mixing. Ideally both the recording and monitoring spaces are specially designed by an acoustician to achieve optimum acoustics properties”. Basically a recording studio consists of, live re instrumentalist and performs; control room where sound engineer controls and records sounds by using mixing console along with computer and special software in it; isolation booth use to musical instruments like drums, electric guitar and silent musical instruments too. It is also used for recording vocals while performing. In totality we can say that singer along with his musicians can perform together here. Recording studios can be classified into three types according to music intended to be recorded as follows Home or project studio Separate studio and control room Scoring stage and control room Home or project studio It is a very small scale recording studio generally used by music persons in their home for their projects and albums. In this type of recording studio we can see small mixing console, voice recording facility with microphone and filter and a computer with Fig 2- 13: Recording studio Fig 2- 14: Home studio Film Studio Design Chapter Two B. Arch. Thesis 2010 l Engineering College 37 control room where sound engineer controls and records sounds by using mixing console along with computer and special software in it; isolation booth use to instruments like drums, electric guitar and silent musical instruments too. It is also used for recording vocals while performing. In totality we can say that singer along with his musicians can perform together here. to three types according to music intended Recording studio Home studio
  48. 48. Separate studio and control room It is a medium scale recording studio which we can see generally around us. In this type of recording studio musicians play their musical instruments and recorded in a storage device (generally a hard disk of a computer) through microphone or transducers built in their instruments. In this type of recording studios musical instruments can be recorded in different time and could be mixed together afterwards playing musical instruments at same time loud musical instruments like drums are played in isolation booth so that it does not overlap with the sound of other musical instruments. All of these musical ins controlled and mixed in the recording room. Scoring stage and control room This is a large scale recording studio. In this type of recording studio we can see a hall for playing music by the group of musicians called “s and control room. In scoring stage musical instruments are recorded through microphone by using transducers. instruments use separate microphone. In scoring stage sometimes music portable partitions called “gobos” but mostly it is not used because use of gobos cannot give better quality. B. Arch. Thesis 20 Pokhara University, Nepal Engineering College Separate studio and control room It is a medium scale recording studio which we can see generally around us. In this type of recording studio musicians play their musical instruments and recorded in a storage device (generally a hard disk of a computer) through microphone or transducers built in their instruments. In this type of recording studios musical instruments can be recorded in different time and could be mixed together afterwards through computer software. If all the musicians are playing musical instruments at same time loud musical instruments like drums are played in isolation booth so that it does not overlap with the sound of other musical instruments. All of these musical instruments and vocals are recorded, controlled and mixed in the recording room. Scoring stage and control room This is a large scale recording studio. In this type of recording studio we can see a hall for playing music by the group of musicians called “s coring stage” and control room. In scoring stage musical instruments are through microphone or by using transducers. All of the instruments use separate microphone. In scoring stage sometimes musicians are separated by using portable partitions called “gobos” but mostly it is not used because use of gobos cannot give better quality. Fig 2- 15: Separate studio and control room Fig 2- 16: Scoring stage and control room Film Studio Design Chapter Two B. Arch. Thesis 2010 l Engineering College 38 through microphone or transducers built in their instruments. In this type of recording studios musical instruments can be recorded in different time and could through computer software. If all the musicians are playing musical instruments at same time loud musical instruments like drums are played in isolation booth so that it does not overlap with the sound of other truments and vocals are recorded, ians are separated by using portable partitions called “gobos” but mostly it is not used because use of gobos Separate studio and control room Scoring stage and control room
  49. 49. Film Studio Design Chapter Two B. Arch. Thesis 2010 Pokhara University, Nepal Engineering College 39 Architectural considerations for sound editing and recording studio • Studio should be designed around the principles of room acoustics and should be light proof i.e. no light should enter the spaces in the recording so that best quality of sound and visual can be delivered. • Minimum ceiling height should be 19’ • For visual connection between control room and recording room observation window with glass should be provided and should be of size 6’ x 9’ • The glass panel of size 8mm thick and 12mm thick with air gap of 30cm separating them. • All doors in the studio contain double glass with gap between them as mention in above point with glass wool inside. • Ceiling should be of RCC and should be acoustically treated • Walls should be double leaf • Flooring should be of carpet with sponge of good quality to make it noise proof. • A constant temperature of about 18o c and low humidity should be maintained inside the studio all the times • The working plane should be well illuminated Acoustic It is very important to have acoustic consideration in recording studio for better quality of sound. For acoustic treatment and consideration various acoustic properties and treatment materials should be known. Acoustic in the building fan be controlled by controlling two kinds of noise i.e. air borne noise and structure borne noise. Air borne noise transfers from one space to another through air from source and structure borne noise travels through vibration of the structure of building due to impact of source Goals of acoustic treatment • To prevent standing waves and acoustic interference from affecting the frequency response of recording studios and listening rooms. • To reduce reverberation time in large studios and auditorium • To absorb or diffuse sound in the room to avoid ringing and flutter echoes • To keep sound from leaking into or out of a room.
  50. 50. Film Studio Design Chapter Two B. Arch. Thesis 2010 Pokhara University, Nepal Engineering College 40 Following materials can be used to keep away the air borne noise in the space so that the quality of sound inside the studio improves Acoustic plaster Acoustic plaster is available in the market in the form of which can be applied of the wall of any shape either with the help of trowel or with the help of spraying equipment. Composite or assembled unit They are made up of sound absorbing materials like rock wool, glass fiber blanket etc fasten to an acoustically transparent facing. These facings are perforated to allow the penetration of sound waves. By varying the thickness of the sound absorbing element and the spacing between the panels and the wall, come variation in the overall absorbing and the absorbing at different frequency can be obtained. Prefabricated boards and tiles They are made up of compressed cane or wood or mineral wool.hey are available in the form of fiber, building boards, acoustical tiles, composite unit and other similar materials. Vibration isolators It is very important to treat floors so that the vibration of the floors will not affect the quality of the recorded sound. For these different kinds of vibration isolators are used. Isolation pads Isolation pads of felt, cork, neoprene impregnated fiberglass or ribbed neoprene sometimes sandwiched by steel plates usually have about a 0.5” deflection and are used in non critical or high frequency applications. Typically they are supplied in small squares, which are placed under vibrating equipment or piping. Where higher deflections are desired or where there is a need to spread the load, pads are sandwiched with thin steel plates.
  51. 51. Film Studio Design Chapter Two B. Arch. Thesis 2010 Pokhara University, Nepal Engineering College 41 Neoprene mounts Neoprene isolators are available in the form of individual mounts which have about a 0.25” rated deflection, or as double deflection mounts having a 0.4” deflection. These products have integral steel plates, sometimes with tapped holes that allow them to be bolted to walls or floors. The double deflection isolators can be used to support floating floors in critical applications such as recording studio. Steel springs A steel spring is the most commonly used vibration isolator for large equipments internationally. Steel springs alone can be effective for low frequency isolation. However for broadband isolation they must be used in combination with neoprene pads to stop high frequencies otherwise vibration will be transmitted down the springs. Hanger isolators Hanger isolators contain a flexible element either neoprene or steel spring or a combination of both which supports equipment from above. Spring hangers like free standing springs must have a neoprene pad as part of the assembly. Hangers should allow for some misalignment between the housing and the support rod without shorting out and be free to rotate 360o without making contact with another object. Threaded height adjusting rods are usually part of these devices. • Video editing Video editing is one of the processes of preproduction. In this phase raw footage taken during production phase is assembled and final effects are added in is so that it could be distributed in the marked. There are four types of video editing systems • Linear editing system • Non linear editing system • Offline editing • Online editing
  52. 52. Film Studio Design Chapter Two B. Arch. Thesis 2010 Pokhara University, Nepal Engineering College 42 As offline and online editing systems are not related to the post production process of making motion pictures, we are discussing only about linear and non- linear editing system. Linear editing system According to Wikipedia “linear video editing is a video editing post production process of selecting, arranging and modifying images and sound in a predetermined order sequence. Regardless of whether it was captured by video camera, tapeless camcorder, or recorded in a television studio on a video tape recorder the content must be accessed sequentially.” At the starting phased quadruplex video tapes were used were for shooting of video which can travel at the speed of 15”per second and was edited manually. Originally video was edited by visualizing the recorded track with ferrofluid and cutting it with razor blade or guillotine cutter. When two pieces of tapes to be joint they were painted with a solution a solution of extremely fine iron fillings suspended in carbon tetra chloride. After few years a computerized system was developed for linear editing system but the problem was that the audio track was prone to suffer a short buzzing sound called artifacts. Editing in linear editing system includes expensive hardware with time consuming setup and relatively long roll back times for each edit and showed misalignment as disagreeable “banding” in videos. With the passage of time linear system improved. Two machines were used in linear editing system. One was for playing the source tape and second was for copying desired portion on the second tape. In this system tape is used to record the footage as described above. The main disadvantage is that once the footage has been recorded it cannot be replaced and overwrite. This can be taken as main disadvantage of this system. Another major disadvantage is they cannot be used Fig 2-17: Linear editing system
  53. 53. Film Studio Design Chapter Two B. Arch. Thesis 2010 Pokhara University, Nepal Engineering College 43 for rough cut presentation for producers due to which producers don’t have opportunity to suggests and give their opinions. Non linear editing system According to Wikipedia “A non linear editing system (NLE) is video (NLVE) or audio editing (NLAE) digital audio workstation syst em that performs non destructive editing on source material.” In this system of editing, reels and tapes are not used as in case of linear editing system. For editing, it uses digital files due to which the possibility of damage to the source has become zero. In this system of video editing we can access any frame by entering the timing of video frame in computer. Due to this it is not only reliable and safer than linear editing system; it is also faster than linear editing system. The concept could be understood by taking the example of ms word. By using ms word we can edit our documents by copying, pasting and cut. During this process there is no possibility of damaging the original file. For the process of linear editing at first a raw footages are brought which are shot during the production process and digital copies of those footage are copied on the hard disk of computer or on the server of computer. After that computer software is used for editing footage. If editing software is professional one than it can record editor’s decision in an edit decision list (EDL) that is exportable to other editing tools. With this EDL tool editor can work on low resolution copies of video. This feature is useful especially with those computers which have low configuration on them. Since the videos are stored either in server or any other storage device, editing system can use one of the following method to access the material to be edited Fig 2-18: Non linear editing system
  54. 54. Film Studio Design Chapter Two B. Arch. Thesis 2010 Pokhara University, Nepal Engineering College 44 • Direct access The video server records feeds with a codec readable by the editing system, has an Ethernet connection and allows direct editing. The editor previews material directly on the server and edits directly on the server without transferring • Shared storage The server transfers feed to and from shared storage that is accessible by all editors. Media in the appropriate codec on the server need only transferred. If recorded with a different codec, media must be transcoded during transfer. In some cases, files on shared storage can be edited even before the transfer is finished. • Importing The editor downloads the material and edits it locally. This method can be used with the previous methods. Architectural considerations for video editing studio • A seal light proof room should be used for video editing • For ventilation and to throw the heat generated by equipment proper design and installation of air conditioning system should be done • Editing room should be of minimum size 13’ x 19’ • Video editing studio should accommodate a sitting space for editor a working table with monitors and editing panel • This room should have racks on which to arrange unused film and film being edited can be placed • Provision should be made so that it can be dust free Mastering studio According to Wikipedia “Mastering, a form of audio post production is the process of preparing and transferring recorded audio from a source containing the final mix to a data storage device (the master) ”. Mastering can be done electro mechanically or digital. Due to the advancement in the technology digital mastering has overcome electromechanical system of mastering. In digital system audio are stored in hard disks and then transferred to CD.
  55. 55. Film Studio Design Chapter Two B. Arch. Thesis 2010 Pokhara University, Nepal Engineering College 45 Color grading studio According to Wikipedia “Color grading is the process of altering and enhancing the color of a motion picture, video image, or still image either electronically, photo-chemically or digitally”. During this process of post production different kinds of equipments area used including like color grading panel along with desktop computer with color grading software. For color grading special monitor is required which can show color accurately. For more accuracy this monitor is taken to different movie halls and is matched with their color settings. For easiness in work color correction is done shot by shot and not frame by frame. Architectural considerations for mastering and color grading studio • A seal light proof room should be used. • For ventilation and to throw the heat generated by equipment proper design and installation of air conditioning system should be done. • Room should be of minimum 13’ x 19’ • Studio should accommodate a sitting space for editor a working table with monitors and equipment panel. • Ceiling height should be minimum 10’. • Distance of monitor in color grading studio can be calculated by (3/2)* monitor size • Photography studio According to Wikipedia “Photography is the art, science, and practice of creating durable images by recording light or other electromagnetic radiation, either chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as photographic film, or electronically by means of an image sensor”. There are four basic functions of photography studio i.e. taking a photo, developing a photo, printing a photo and duplicating a photo. To accomplish these works photography studio needs following Fig 2-19: Photography studio typical plan

×