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مذكرة علوم للشهادة الإعدادية الترم الأول 2017 - موقع ملزمتي

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مذكرة علوم للشهادة الإعدادية الترم الأول 2017 - موقع ملزمتي

  1. 1. ‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﺮ‬ ‫اﺑﻮ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻟﺪ‬٠١١٤٠٢٣٧٩٩ ١ ‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺬﻛﺮة‬2017‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﺮ‬ ‫اﺑﻮ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻟﺪ‬ Page |١ ‫اﻟﻮﺣﺪة‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻠﻘﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﻄﺎر‬‫اﻟﯿﺎﺑﺎن‬ ‫اﻧﺘﺠﺘﮫ‬ ) ‫اﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻋﺘﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﯾﻊ‬ ‫ﻛﮭﺮﺑﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫ﻗﻄﺎر‬ ‫اول‬ ‫ھﻮ‬٢٠٠) ‫ﺳﺮﻋﺘﮫ‬ ‫ﺑﻠﻐﺖ‬ ‫ﺣﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﻄﺎر‬ ‫ھﺬا‬ ‫ﱢر‬‫ﻮ‬‫ﻃ‬ ‫ﺛﻢ‬ ، ( ‫ﻛﻢ/ﺳﺎﻋﺔ‬٢٧٠( ‫ﻛﻢ/ﺳﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫؟‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺘﺎد‬ ‫اﻟﻘﻄﺎر‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻠﻘﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﻄﺎر‬ ‫ﯾﺨﺘﻠﻒ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﺮﺑﺎﺗﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﺮﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﻻن‬‫ﻟﮭﺎ‬‫ﺧﺎص‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺗﻮر‬‫ﺑﮭﺎ‬‫وﻟﺬﻟﻚ‬‫ﯾﻤﻜﻦ‬‫ﯾﺘﺤﺮك‬ ‫ان‬‫اﻟﻘﻄﺎر‬‫ﺑﺴﺮﻋ‬‫ﺔ‬‫ﻛﺒﯿﺮة‬‫ﺟﺪا‬ ‫آﺧﺮ‬ ‫ﻟﺠﺴﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺴﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺿﻊ‬ ‫ﺗﻐﯿﺮ‬ ‫ھﻲ‬‫ﺛﺎﺑﺖ‬. ‫اﻟﺰﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﻤﺮور‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺎﻛﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺴﻢ‬‫اﻟﺰﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﻤﺮور‬ ‫ﺛﺎﺑﺘﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺿﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﯾﺘﻐﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫اﻟﺬى‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺴﻢ‬ ‫ھﻮ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﺤﺮك‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺴﻢ‬‫اﻟﺰﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﻤﺮور‬ ‫ﺛﺎﺑﺘﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺿﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﯾﺘﻐﯿﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺬى‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺴﻢ‬ ‫ھﻮ‬ ‫ﺣﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫ھﻰ‬‫اﻟﺠﺴﻢ‬‫ﻟ‬‫أو‬ ‫ﻸﻣﺎم‬‫ﻷﺳﻔﻞ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ﻷﻋﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﯾﺘﺤﺮك‬ ‫وﻻ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺨﻠﻒ‬ ‫و‬‫ﻣﻨﮭﻤﺎ‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﺗﺮﻛﯿﺒ‬ ‫أو‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﻣﻨﺤﻨﯿ‬ ‫أو‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﻣﺴﺘﻘﯿﻤ‬ ‫ﺧﻂ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎره‬ ‫ﯾﻜﻮن‬ ‫ﻗﺪ‬ ‫واﺣﺪ‬ ‫اﺗﺠﺎه‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫أﻣﺜﻠﺔ‬‫اﻟﻘﻀﺒﺎن‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﺮو‬ ‫اﻟﻘﻄﺎراو‬ ‫ﺣﺮﻛﺔ‬ : ‫اﻟﺤﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫أﻧﻮاع‬ ‫أﺑﺴﻂ‬‫ھﻰ‬‫واﺣﺪ‬ ‫اﺗﺠﺎه‬ ‫وﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻘﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﺧﻂ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫ھﻰ‬‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬‫اﻟﻤﻘﻄ‬‫ﻮﻋﺔ‬. ‫اﻟﺰﻣﻦ‬ ‫وﺣﺪة‬ ‫ﺧﻼل‬ ‫ﺣﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫وﺻﻒ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪم‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻰ‬ ‫اﻻﺳﺎﺳﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻮاﻣﻞ‬‫ﺟﺴﻢ‬ ‫ﺣﺮﻛﺔ‬‫ﺑﻌﺾ‬‫اﻻﺟﺴﺎم‬‫ﺗﻮﺻﻒ‬‫ﺳﺮﯾﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻧﮭﺎ‬‫اﻻﺧﺮ‬ ‫واﻟﺒﻌﺾ‬‫ﺗﻮﺻﻒ‬‫ﺑﻄﯿﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻧﮭﺎ‬. ‫ﻧﺴﺘﻨﺘﺞ‬‫ﻣ‬‫ﺳﺒﻖ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬: ‫ان‬‫ﻋﺎﻣﻼن‬ ‫ھﻨﺎك‬‫اﺳﺎﺳﯿﺎن‬‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪم‬‫اﻟﺤﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫وﺻﻒ‬‫ھﻤﺎ‬: ١-. ‫اﻟﺠﺴﻢ‬ ‫ﯾﻘﻄﻌﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬ ٢-‫و‬‫ﯾﺴﺘﻐﺮﻗﮫ‬ ‫اﻟﺬي‬ ‫اﻟﺰﻣﻦ‬‫ﻟ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺴﻢ‬‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ھﺬه‬ ‫ﻘﻄﻊ‬ ‫و‬‫ھﺬ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬‫ان‬‫اﻟﻌ‬‫ﺎﻣﻼن‬‫ﺗﻌﺮﯾﻒ‬ ‫ﯾﻤﻜﻦ‬‫ﻓﯿﺰﯾﺎﺋ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﯿﺔ‬‫ﯿﺔ‬‫ﺗﺴﻤﻰ‬" ‫اﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬ "
  2. 2. ‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﺮ‬ ‫اﺑﻮ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻟﺪ‬٠١١٤٠٢٣٧٩٩ ٢ ‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺬﻛﺮة‬2017‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﺮ‬ ‫اﺑﻮ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻟﺪ‬ Page |٢ ‫ھﻰ‬‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬‫اﻟﻤﻘﻄﻮﻋﺔ‬‫ﺧﻼل‬‫وﺣﺪة‬‫اﻟﺰﻣﻦ‬ :‫س‬‫اﻟﻤﻘﻄﻮﻋﺔ؟‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺴﻢ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﺴﺎوى‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﻛﺎن‬ ‫اذا‬‫ھﻰ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺰﻣﻦ‬ ‫وﺣﺪة‬ ‫ﺧﻼل‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ھﺬة‬ ‫ﯾﻘﻄﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺴﻢ‬١‫او‬ ‫ث‬١‫او‬ ‫دﻗﯿﻘﺔ‬١‫ﺳﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫و‬:‫اﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﯿﺎس‬ ‫ﺣﺪة‬ ١-: ‫ﺛﺎﻧﯿﺔ‬ / ‫ﻣﺘﺮ‬‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ‬‫ﺗﻘﺎس‬‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬‫ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺘﺮ‬‫واﻟ‬‫ﺰﻣﻦ‬‫ﺑﺎﻟﺜﺎﻧﯿﺔ‬. ٢-: ‫اﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ‬ / ‫ﻣﺘﺮ‬ ‫ﻛﯿﻠﻮ‬‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ‬‫ﺗﻘﺎس‬‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬‫ﺑﺎﻟﻜﯿﻠﻮﻣﺘﺮ‬‫واﻟﺰﻣﻦ‬‫ﺑﺎﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ‬‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬‫ﻓﻰ‬‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬‫اﻟﻄﺎﺋﺮات‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻘﻄﺎرات‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺴﯿﺎرات‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﺤﻮﯾﻞ‬‫اﻟﻮﺣﺪات‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻦ‬ ١-‫ﺳ‬‫اﻻوﻟ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻘﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﺧﻂ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﺤﺮﻛﺎن‬ ‫ﯿﺎرﺗﺎن‬‫ﻰ‬‫ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﻄﻌﺖ‬٥٠٠‫ﺧﻼل‬ ‫م‬٥‫ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﻄﻌﺖ‬ ‫اﻟﺜﺎﻧﯿﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺛﻮاﻧﻰ‬٢٥٠‫ﺧﻼل‬ ‫م‬٢.٥‫ﺛﺎﻧﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﯿﺎرﺗﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﻼ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫اﺣﺴﺐ‬ ٢-‫ﺳﯿﺎرة‬‫ﺗﺘﺤﺮك‬‫ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬٧٠‫ﺳﺎﻋﺔ‬ /‫ﻛﻢ‬‫ﺳﺎﻋﺘﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﺧﻼل‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻄﻌﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫اﺣﺴﺐ‬ ٣-‫ﺳﯿﺎرة‬‫ﺗﺘﺤﺮك‬‫ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬٨٠‫ﺳﺎﻋﺔ‬ /‫ﻛﻢ‬‫اﻟﻼزم‬ ‫اﻟﺰﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻓﻤﺎ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﻘﻄﻊ‬‫ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬٢٠٠. ‫ﻛﯿﻠﻮﻣﺘﺮ‬ ١-‫اﻟﻤﻨﺘﻈﻤﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬٢-‫ﻣﻨﺘﻈﻤﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻐﯿﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﯾﻘﻄﻊ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻘﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﺧﻂ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺴﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﯾﺘﺤﺮك‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ھﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺴﺎوﯾﺔ‬ ‫ازﻣﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺴﺎوﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺎت‬ ‫ﯾﻘﻄﻊ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺴﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﯾﺘﺤﺮك‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ھﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺴﺎوﯾﺔ‬ ‫ازﻣﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺴﺎوﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺴﺎو‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺎت‬ ‫او‬‫ﻣﺘﺴﺎوﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﯿﺮ‬ ‫ازﻣﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻘﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﺨﻂ‬ ‫ﺗﻤﺜﻞ‬‫ﻣﻨﺤﻨﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﺨﻂ‬ ‫ﺗﻤﺜﻞ‬ ‫ﺟﻤﯿﻊ‬‫اﻟﻜﮭﺮوﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﯿﺴﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮﺟﺎت‬‫ﻣﻨﺘﻈﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺮاغ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﯾﺴﯿﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺬى‬ ‫اﻟﻀﻮء‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬٣×١٠8 ‫م/ث‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺮﯾﻖ‬ ‫اﺣﻮال‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺐ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻋﺘﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻐﯿﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﯿﺎرة‬ ‫ﺣﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫اﻧﻮاع‬
  3. 3. ‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﺮ‬ ‫اﺑﻮ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻟﺪ‬٠١١٤٠٢٣٧٩٩ ٣ ‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺬﻛﺮة‬2017‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﺮ‬ ‫اﺑﻮ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻟﺪ‬ Page |٣ ‫ﻋﺪادات‬ ‫ﺑﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﯿﺎرات‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺎﺋﺮات‬ ‫ﺗﺰود‬‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﺪاد‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬‫ﻋﺪاد‬‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﺪاد‬‫ھﻮ‬‫ﯾﺴﺎﻋﺪ‬ ‫ﺟﮭﺎز‬‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬‫ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ‬‫اﻟﺴﯿﺎرة‬‫ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮة‬ ‫؟‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺮاغ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﺛﺎﺑﺘﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﯾﻨﺘﻘﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺬى‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺊ‬ ‫ھﻮ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫س‬ ‫ﺟﻤﯿﻊ‬‫اﻟﻜﮭﺮوﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﯿﺴﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮﺟﺎت‬‫ﻛ‬‫ﺎﻟﻀﻮء‬‫ﺗﻨﺘﻘﻞ‬‫ﻣﻘﺪارھﺎ‬ ‫ﺛﺎﺑﺘﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺮاغ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬٣×١٠8‫م/ث‬ ‫ﯾﻌ‬ ‫ﻣﺎذا‬‫ان‬ ‫ﻨﻰ‬ ١-‫ﻣﻨﺘﻈﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﺳﯿﺎرة‬٧٠‫ﻛﻢ‬/‫س‬‫؟‬‫ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻄﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﯿﺎرة‬ ‫ان‬ ‫اى‬٧٠‫ﻛ‬‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﻢ‬‫ﺳﺎﻋﺔ‬‫ﺑﺎﻧﺘﻈﺎم‬ ٢-‫ﻣﻨﺘﻈﻤﺔ؟‬ ‫ﻏﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﯾﺘﺤﺮك‬ ‫اﻻﻧﻔﺎق‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺮو‬ ‫اى‬‫ﯾﻘﻄﻊ‬ ‫اﻻﻧﻔﺎق‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺮو‬ ‫ان‬‫ﻣ‬‫ﻣﺘﺴﺎوﯾﺔ‬ ‫ازﻣﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺴﺎوﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﺴﺎﻓﺎت‬‫ﻣﺘﺴﺎوﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﯿﺮ‬ ‫ازﻣﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺴﺎوﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺎت‬ ‫او‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻞ‬‫ﯾ‬‫ﻋﻤﻠﯿﺎ؟‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺘﻈﻤﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻘﯿﻖ‬ ‫ﺼﻌﺐ‬‫اﺧﺮى‬ ‫ﺣﯿﺎﻧﺎ‬ ‫وﺗﻘﻞ‬ ‫اﺣﯿﺎﻧﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺰداد‬ ‫ﻓﮭﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺮﯾﻖ‬ ‫اﺣﻮال‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺐ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻐﯿﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺴﻢ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻻن‬ (/‫ع‬ ) ‫اﻟﻤﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬‫ھﻰ‬‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬‫اﻟﻜﻠﯿﺔ‬‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬‫ﯾﻘﻄﻌﮭﺎ‬‫اﻟﺠﺴﻢ‬‫اﻟﻤﺘﺤﺮك‬‫ﻣﻘﺴﻮﻣﺔ‬‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬‫اﻟﺰﻣﻦ‬‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻐﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻠﻰ‬‫ق‬‫ﻟﻘﻄﻊ‬‫ھﺬه‬‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬. ( /‫)ع‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬‫ﻟﻮ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺘﻈﻤﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ھﻲ‬‫ﺗﺤﺮك‬‫ا‬ ‫ﻧﻔﺲ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﻔﺲ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﻄﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺴﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﮭﺎ‬‫ﻟﺰﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺘﻈﻤﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻐﯿﺮ‬ ‫واﻟﺤﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺘﻈﻤﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻗﺎرن‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺘﻈﻤﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺮﻛﺔ‬‫ﻣﻨﺘﻈﻤﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻐﯿﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺘﻈﻤﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺎوي‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺠﺴﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮن‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ‬ ‫ع‬ = /‫ع‬ )‫اﻟﻤﻨﺘﻈﻤﺔ‬‫ﻣﻨﺘﻈﻤﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺴﻢ‬ ‫ﺣﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮن‬ ( ‫ﺗﺴﺎوي‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺠﺴﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮن‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ‬‫اﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔاﻟﻤﻨﺘﻈﻤﺔ‬ )/‫ع‬≠‫ع‬‫اﻟﻤﻨﺘﻈﻤﺔ‬‫ﻣﻨﺘﻈﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﯿﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺴﻢ‬ ‫ﺣﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮن‬ ( ‫)ع(؟‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺘﻈﻤﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ (/‫)ع‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﺴﺎوى‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻰ‬‫ﻣﻨﺘﻈﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺴﻢ‬ ‫ﯾﺘﺤﺮك‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ‬ : ‫ﻣﺜﺎل‬‫ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﺪاء‬ ‫ﻗﻄﻊ‬١٠٠‫ﻣﺘﺮ‬‫ﺧﻼل‬١٠‫ﺛﻮاﻧﻲ‬‫ﺟﺮﯾﺎ‬‫ﺛﻢ‬ ،‫اﻟﺒﺪاﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻋﺎد‬ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﻣﺸﯿ‬‫ﻓﺎﺳﺘﻐﺮق‬ ‫اﻷﻗﺪام‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻲ‬٨٠‫ﺛﺎﻧﯿﺔ‬ : ‫اﺣﺴﺐ‬١-‫ذاھﺐ‬ ‫وھﻮ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﺪاء‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬‫؟‬ ٢-‫؟‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺋﺪ‬ ‫وھﻮ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﺪاء‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬ ٣-‫؟‬ ‫اﻟﺮﺣﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺧﻼل‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﺪاء‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ھﻰ‬‫ﺟﺴﻢ‬‫ﻣﺘﺤﺮك‬‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬‫ﻟﻤﺮاﻗﺐ‬‫ﻣﺘ‬ ‫او‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻛﻦ‬‫ﺤﺮك‬ :‫اﻟﻤﺮاﻗﺐ‬‫اﻟﻤﺘﺤﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻼﺟﺴﺎم‬ ‫اﻟﻨﺴﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺪﯾﺮ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺑﻤﺮاﻗﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﯾﻘﻮم‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺤﺮك‬ ‫او‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻛﻦ‬ ‫ﺷﺨﺺ‬ ‫ھﻮ‬ ‫ﺳﯿﺎرة‬ ‫ﻟﯿﻜﻦ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺤﺮك‬ ‫ﻟﺠﺴﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﺴﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺎب‬ ‫اى‬‫أن‬‫ﺗﺨﺘﻠﻒ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﺴﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬‫ﺣﺴﺐ‬‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬‫اﻟﻤﺮاﻗﺐ‬‫ﻣﺘﺤﺮك‬ ‫او‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻛﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﺎن‬ ‫اذا‬‫اﻟﻤﺮاﻗﺐ‬ ‫ﺣﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫اﺗﺠﺎة‬ ‫و‬ ١‫؟‬ ‫ﺻﻔﺮ‬ = ‫ﻣﺘﺤﺮك‬ ‫ﻟﺠﺴﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﺴﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮن‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻰ‬ : ‫س‬‫اﻟﻤﺮاﻗﺐ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻨﻔﺲ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻻﺗﺠﺎة‬ ‫ﻧﻔﺲ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬ ‫اذا‬ : ‫س‬‫ﻋﻠﻞ‬‫ﯾﺘﺤﺮ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺮاﻗﺐ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﺤﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﯿﺎرة‬ ‫ﺗﺒﺪو‬‫؟‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻛﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻧﮭﺎ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﺗﺠﺎھﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻧﻔﺲ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻋﺘﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﻨﻔﺲ‬ ‫ك‬ ١-‫اﻟﻨﺴﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻻن‬‫ﻟﮭﺎ‬‫ﺳﺎﻛﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻧﮭﺎ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺴﯿﺎرة‬ ‫ﺗﺒﺪو‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺻﻔﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺎوى‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻛﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮاﻗﺐ‬‫اﻻﺗﺠﺎة‬ ‫ﻧﻔﺲ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺤﺮك‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮاﻗﺐ‬‫اﻻﺗﺠﺎة‬ ‫ﻋﻜﺲ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺤﺮك‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮاﻗﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﻌﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬ = ‫اﻟﻨﺴﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬‫اﻟﻨﺴﺒﯿ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬‫ﺔ‬=‫اﻟﺴﺮﻋﺘﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻓﺮق‬ ‫اﻟﻨﺴﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬=‫اﻟﻔﻌﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬– ‫اﻟﻤﺮاﻗﺐ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﺴﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬=‫ﻣﺠﻤﻮع‬‫اﻟﺴﺮﻋﺘﯿﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﺴﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬=‫اﻟﻔﻌﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬+ ‫اﻟﻤﺮاﻗﺐ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﺴﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻗﻞ‬‫اﻟﻔﻌﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬‫اﻟﻨﺴﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻛﺒﺮ‬‫اﻟ‬‫اﻟﻔﻌﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬
  4. 4. ‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﺮ‬ ‫اﺑﻮ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻟﺪ‬٠١١٤٠٢٣٧٩٩ ٤ ‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺬﻛﺮة‬2017‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﺮ‬ ‫اﺑﻮ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻟﺪ‬ Page |٤ ‫اﻟﻨﺴﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎﺋﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺜﺎل‬١-‫اﻻوﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﯿﺎرة‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬ ‫ﻓﺎذا‬ ‫اﻻﺗﺠﺎة‬ ‫ﻧﻔﺲ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺮﯾﻖ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﺤﺮﻛﺎن‬ ‫ﺳﯿﺎرﺗﺎن‬٤٠‫ﻛﻢ/س‬‫اﻟﺴﯿﺎرة‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺜﺎﻧﯿﺔ‬٧٠‫اﻟﺜﺎﻧﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺴﯿﺎرة‬ ‫اﻟﻨﺴﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮن‬ ‫ﻓﻜﻢ‬ ‫ﻛﻢ/س‬ ١-‫اﻻرض‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﯾﻘﻒ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺮاﻗﺐ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ٢-‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺮاﻗﺐ‬‫اﻻوﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﯿﺎرة‬ ٣-‫اﻟﺴﯿﺎرة‬ ‫ﻧﻔﺲ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺮاﻗﺐ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺜﺎل‬٢‫اﺣﺴﺒﻰ‬‫اﻟﻨﺴﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻋﺘﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﺴﯿﺎرة‬ ‫اﻟﻔﻌﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬٨٠‫ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫اﺗﺠﺎھﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻧﻔﺲ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﯾﺘﺤﺮك‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺮاﻗﺐ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻢ/س‬٤٠‫ﻛﻢ/س‬ ‫ﻣﺜﺎل‬٣–‫ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﺻﺒﺤﺖ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺎ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻘﺎھﺮة‬ ‫ﺑﺮج‬ ‫اﺗﺠﺎة‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﺤﺮك‬ ‫ﺳﯿﺎرة‬٥٠‫ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺮاﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﻃﺎﺋﺮة‬ ‫رﺻﺪﺗﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﻢ‬ ٢٥٥‫ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻧﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﯿﺎرة‬ ‫ﻓﺒﺪت‬ ‫اﻟﺴﯿﺎرة‬ ‫ﺣﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻜﺲ‬ ‫اﺗﺠﺎة‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﻛﻢ/س‬٢٧٠‫اﻟﻘﺎھﺮة‬ ‫ﺑﺮج‬ ‫اﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﯿﺎرة‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻤﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﻛﻢ/س‬ ‫اﻷدوات‬:‫ﺳﯿﺎ‬‫ﺑ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫أﻃﻔﺎل‬ ‫ﻟﻌﺐ‬ ‫رة‬‫ﻛﻨﺘﺮول‬ ‫ﺎﻟﺮﯾﻤﻮت‬–‫ﺧﺸﺒﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻮح‬‫اﻣﻠﺲ‬‫ﻃﻮﻟﺔ‬٢‫ﻣﺘﺮ‬ –‫ﻣﺘﺮﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﻄﺮة‬–‫إﯾﻘﺎف‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻋﺔ‬–‫ﻣﻠﻮن‬ ‫ﻗﻠﻢ‬ : ‫اﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﺧﻄﻮات‬١-‫ﻧ‬‫ﺛﻢ‬ ‫أﻓﻘﻲ‬ ‫ﺿﻊ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺸﺒﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻠﻮح‬ ‫ﻀﻊ‬‫ﻧ‬‫ﻋﻼﻣﺘﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻀﻊ‬‫اﻟﻠﻮح‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬‫اﻟﺨﺸﺒﻰ‬‫و‬‫ﻧ‬‫ﻘ‬‫ﯿ‬‫ﺑﯿﻨ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺲ‬‫ﮭﻤﺎ‬(‫)ف‬ ٢-‫ﻧ‬‫اﻟﺴﯿﺎرة‬ ‫ﺸﻐﻞ‬‫و‬‫ﻧ‬‫اﻟﺰﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻌﯿﻦ‬(‫)ز‬‫ﻟﻘﻄﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﻼزم‬‫ھﺬة‬‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬(‫)ف‬ ٣-‫ﻧ‬‫ﻣﺮات‬ ‫ﻋﺪة‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻜﺮراﻟﺨﻄﻮة‬‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫و‬‫ﻧﻌﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺮة‬‫اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﯿﺎرة‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ‬‫ف/ز‬ = (‫)ع‬ ‫و‬‫ﻧ‬‫اﻟﻘﺮا‬ ‫ﺴﺠﻞ‬‫ء‬‫ا‬‫ﺟﺪول‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ت‬ ٤-‫ﻧ‬‫ﺑﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﯿﺎﻧﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺮﺳﻢ‬‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬(‫)ف‬‫ﻧﺤﺼﻞ‬ (‫)ز‬ ‫واﻟﺰﻣﻦ‬‫اﻻﺻﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﻨﻘﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﯾﻤﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻘﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﺧﻂ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ٥-‫ﻧ‬‫ﺑﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﯿﺎﻧﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺮﺳﻢ‬‫اﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬)‫ع‬‫ﻧﺤﺼﻞ‬ (‫(واﻟﺰﻣﻦ)ز‬‫ﻋﻠ‬‫ﻣﺴﺘﻘﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﺧﻂ‬ ‫ﻰ‬‫ﯾﻮازىﻤﺤﻮراﻟﺰﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻓﻘﻰ‬ : ‫اﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎج‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻼﺣﻈﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﯿﺰﯾﺎء‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻤﺎء‬‫اﻟﺮﯾﺎﺿﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﯾﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣ‬‫و‬ ‫ﻮا‬‫اﻟﺮﯾﺎﺿﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺋﻞ‬‫اﻟﺒﯿﺎﻧﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺮﺳﻮم‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻟﺠﺪاول‬‫ﻋﻠﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻼﻗ‬ ‫واﻟﺘﻨﺒﺆ‬ ‫أﺳﮭﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﻄﺮﯾﻘﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﯿﺰﯾﺎﺋﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻈﻮاھﺮ‬ ‫ﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬‫ﺔ‬‫ﺑﯿﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﯿﺰﯾﺎﺋﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻤﯿﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﻐﯿﺮات‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺮﯾﺎﺿﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎت‬ ‫ﯾﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﻮا‬‫ﻋﻠﻞ‬ ‫ﻟﻮﺻﻒ‬‫ﻓﮭﻢ‬ ‫و‬‫أﺳﮭﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﻄﺮﯾﻘﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﯿﺰﯾﺎﺋﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻈﻮاھﺮ‬ ١-( ‫اﻟﺰﻣﻦ‬ ‫و‬ ‫)اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﯿﺎﻧﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬ (‫ﺛﺎﺑﺘﺔ‬ ) ‫ﻣﻨﺘﻈﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺤﺮﻛﺔ‬ ٢-( ‫ﻟﺰﻣﻦ‬ ‫و‬ ‫)اﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﯿﺎﻧﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬ (‫)ﺛﺎﺑﺘﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺘﻈﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺤﺮﻛﺔ‬ ٣-‫و‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻦ)اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﯿﺎﻧﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺴﺎﻛﻦ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺠﺴﻢ‬ (‫اﻟﺰﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻷﺻﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﻨﻘﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﯾﻤﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺋﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻘﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﺨﻂ‬ ‫ﺗﻤﺜﻞ‬‫اﻟﺰﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻮر‬ ‫ﯾﻮازي‬ ‫اﻓﻘﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻘﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﺨﻂ‬ ‫ﺗﻤﺜﻞ‬‫اﻟﺰﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻮر‬ ‫ﯾﻮازي‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻘﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﺨﻂ‬ ‫ﺗﻤﺜﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺰﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺰﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺰﻣﻦ‬
  5. 5. ‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﺮ‬ ‫اﺑﻮ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻟﺪ‬٠١١٤٠٢٣٧٩٩ ٥ ‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺬﻛﺮة‬2017‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﺮ‬ ‫اﺑﻮ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻟﺪ‬ Page |٥ ‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻐﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺪار‬ ‫ھﻲ‬‫اﻟ‬‫اﻟﻮاﺣﺪة‬ ‫اﻟﺜﺎﻧﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺠﺴﻢ‬‫او‬‫اﻟﺠﺴﻢ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻐﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺪار‬ ‫ھﻲ‬‫ﺧﻼل‬‫اﻟﺰﻣﻦ‬ ‫وﺣﺪة‬ ‫اﻟﺰﻣﻨﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺪل‬ ‫ھﻰ‬ ‫او‬‫اﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﻐﯿﺮ‬ : ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺠﻠﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺮﻛﺔ‬‫اﻟﺰﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﻤﺮور‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺴﻢ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﯿﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻐﯿﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫ھﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺠﻠﺔ‬: ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺘﻈﻤﺔ‬‫ﻣﺘﺴﺎوﯾﺔ‬ ‫ازﻣﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺴﺎوﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻤﻘﺎدﯾﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺴﻢ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﯿﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻐﯿﺮ‬ :‫اﻟﻤﻨﺘﻈﻤﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺠﻠﺔ‬ ‫أﻧﻮاع‬- ١-(+ ) ‫ﺗﺰﯾﺎدﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﺠﻠﺔ‬-‫ﺗﻨ‬ ‫ﻋﺠﻠﺔ‬) ‫ﺎﻗﺼﯿﺔ‬-: ( ‫ﺛﺎﺑﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﻤﻘﺪار‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺴﻢ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﯿﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺰداد‬‫اﻟﺰﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﻤﺮور‬‫ﺛﺎﺑﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﻤﻘﺪار‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺴﻢ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﯿﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻨﺎﻗﺺ‬‫اﻟﺰﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﻤﺮور‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ﻓﯿﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮن‬٢‫ع‬ <١‫ع‬ ‫ﻓﯿﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮن‬ ‫و‬١‫ع‬ <٢ ‫ﻣﻮﺟﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﯿﻤﺘﮭﺎ‬ ‫و‬‫ﺳﺎﻟﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﯿﻤﺘﮭﺎ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﯾﺒ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺪث‬‫اﻟﺴﻜﻮن‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺴﻢ‬ ‫ﺪأ‬‫اﻟﻔﺮاﻣﻞ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺨﺪام‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺪث‬ ‫س‬١‫ﻋﻠﻞ‬‫ﻋﺠﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﯿﺲ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺘﻈﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﯾﺘﺤﺮك‬ ‫اﻟﺬى‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺴﻢ‬ ‫ﻻن‬‫اﻟﺰﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﻤﺮور‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻐﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬‫و‬‫ﻻن‬‫ع‬٢=‫ع‬١‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫و‬‫اﻟﻌﺠﻠﺔ‬‫ﺻﻔﺮ‬ = ‫س‬٢‫ﯾﻌﻨﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺎذا‬‫أن‬ ١-‫ﺻﻔﺮ؟‬ = ‫ﺑﻌﺠﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﯾﺘﺤﺮك‬ ‫ﺟﺴﻢ‬‫ﻣﻨﺘﻈﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﯾﺘﺤﺮك‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺴﻢ‬ ‫ان‬ ‫اى‬( ‫)ﺛﺎﺑﺘﺔ‬ ٢-‫ﻣﻘﺪارھﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺠﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﯾﺘﺤﺮك‬ ‫ﺟﺴﻢ‬٥‫م/ث‬٢‫ان‬ ‫؟اى‬‫ﺳﺮﻋ‬‫اﻟﺠﺴﻢ‬ ‫ﺔ‬‫ﺑﻤﻘﺪار‬ ‫ﺗﺰداد‬٥‫ﺛﺎﻧﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫م/ث‬ ٣-= ‫ﺑﻌﺠﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﯾﺘﺤﺮك‬ ‫ﺟﺴﻢ‬-٢‫م/ث‬٢‫؟‬‫ﺑﻤﻘﺪار‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺴﻢ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ان‬ ‫اى‬٢‫ﺛﺎﻧﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫م/ث‬ ٤-= ‫ﺑﺘﻘﺼﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﯾﺘﺤﺮك‬ ‫ﺟﺴﻢ‬٢‫م/ث‬٢‫؟‬‫ﺑﻤﻘﺪار‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺴﻢ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ان‬ ‫اى‬٢‫ﺛﺎﻧﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫م/ث‬
  6. 6. ‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﺮ‬ ‫اﺑﻮ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻟﺪ‬٠١١٤٠٢٣٧٩٩ ٦ ‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺬﻛﺮة‬2017‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﺮ‬ ‫اﺑﻮ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻟﺪ‬ Page |٦ ‫اﻟﻌﺠﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎﺋﻞ‬ ‫ﺣﻞ‬ ‫اﺳﺎﺳﯿﺎت‬ ١-‫اﻟﺴﻜﻮن‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺣﺮﻛﺘﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺪا‬ ‫ﺟﺴﻢ‬‫ع‬١‫ﺻﻔﺮ‬ = ٢-‫اﻟﺴﯿﺎرة‬ ‫ﻓﺘﻮﻗﻔﺖ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺮاﻣﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺎﺋﻖ‬ ‫ﺿﻐﻂ‬‫ع‬٢‫ﺻﻔﺮ‬ = ٣-‫ﻣﻨﺘﻈﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﯾﺘﺤﺮك‬ ‫ﺟﺴﻢ‬‫اى‬‫)ع‬٢‫ع‬ =١(‫اﻟﻌﺠﻠﺔ‬‫ﺻﻔﺮ‬ = )‫ﻣﺴـــــــــــــــــﺎﺋﻞ‬( )١-(‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻋﺘﮫ‬ ‫وﺻﻠﺖ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻛﻦ‬ ‫ﻗﺎرب‬ ‫ﺗﺸﻐﯿﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬٢.٥‫زﻣﻨﯿ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﺮة‬ ‫ﺧﻼل‬ ‫م/ث‬‫ﻣﻘﺪارھﺎ‬ ‫ﺔ‬٣٠: ‫أوﺟﺪ‬ ‫ث‬ ١-‫؟‬ ‫اﻟﻘﺎرب‬ ‫ﺑﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﯾﺘﺤﺮك‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺠﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺪار‬٢-‫؟‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺒﺐ‬ ‫ذﻛﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺠﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﻮع‬ )٢-(‫ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺳﯿﺎرة‬ ‫ﺗﺘﺤﺮك‬٣٠‫ﻗﺪرة‬ ‫زﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺧﻼل‬ ‫اﻟﺴﯿﺎرة‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻗﻔﺖ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺮاﻣﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺎﺋﻖ‬ ‫ﺿﻐﻂ‬ ‫وﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ‬ ‫م/ث‬١٥‫ث‬ : ‫أوﺟﺪ‬١-‫اﻟﺘﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺠﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺪار‬‫؟‬ ‫اﻟﺴﯿﺎرة‬ ‫ﺑﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﺤﺮك‬٢-‫؟‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺒﺐ‬ ‫ذﻛﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺠﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﻮع‬ )٣-(‫ﻣﻘﺪارھﺎ‬ ‫اﺑﺘﺪاﺋﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﯾﺘﺤﺮك‬ ‫ﻗﻄﺎر‬٧.٥‫ﻣﻘﺪارھﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺠﻠﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ‫م/ث‬١٠‫م/ث‬٢‫ﺑﻌﺪھﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﺒﺢ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺰﻣﻨﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺘﺮة‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺪار‬ ‫اﺣﺴﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﮭﺎﺋﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﻄﺎر‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ‬٤‫اﻻﺑﺘﺪاﺋﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻋﺘﺔ‬ ‫اﻣﺜﺎل‬ ٤-)٤-(‫اﻟﺴﻜﻮن‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺣﺮﻛﺘﮭﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺪات‬ ( ‫ب‬ ) ‫و‬ ( ‫أ‬ ) ‫ﺳﯿﺎرﺗﺎن‬‫اﻻوﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﺻﺒﺤﺖ‬٦٠‫ﻣﺮور‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫ث‬ / ‫م‬٥‫اﻟﺜﺎﻧﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺛﻮاﻧﻰ‬ ٨٠‫ﻣﺮور‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫م/ث‬١٠‫ﺛﻮاﻧﻰ‬‫اﻛﺒﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺠﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﺤﺮك‬ ‫اﻟﺴﯿﺎرﺗﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻓﺎى‬ )٥-(‫ﻣﻘﺪارھﺎ‬ ‫اﺑﺘﺪاﺋﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﯾﺘﺤﺮك‬ ‫ﻗﻄﺎر‬٦٠‫ﻣﺮور‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﮭﺎﺋﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺪار‬ ‫اﺣﺴﺐ‬ ‫ﻛﻢ/س‬٤٢‫ﺑﻌﺠﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﯾﺘﺤﺮك‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻧﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻤﺎ‬ ‫دﻗﯿﻘﺔ‬ ٥٠‫ﻛﻢ/س‬٢ )٦-(‫ﺗﺴﯿ‬ ‫ﺳﯿﺎرة‬‫ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺮ‬٩٠‫ﺑﻤﻌﺪل‬ ‫ﻓﺘﻨﺎﻗﺼﺖ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻘﻠﯿﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺮاﻣﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺎﺋﻖ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺨﺪم‬ ‫س‬ / ‫ﻛﻢ‬٢‫ث‬ / ‫م‬٢ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻋﺘﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﺣﺴﺒﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺮور‬١٠‫اﻟﻔﺮاﻣﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬ ‫ﻟﺤﻈﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺛﻮاﻧﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﯿﺎﻧﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺮﺳﻮﻣﺎت‬ ‫اھﻢ‬
  7. 7. ‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﺮ‬ ‫اﺑﻮ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻟﺪ‬٠١١٤٠٢٣٧٩٩ ٧ ‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺬﻛﺮة‬2017‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﺮ‬ ‫اﺑﻮ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻟﺪ‬ Page |٧ : ‫اﻟﻔﯿﺰﯾﺎء‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻢ‬‫اﻟﺬى‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫ھﻮ‬‫ﺑﻮﺻﻒ‬ ‫ﯾﮭﺘﻢ‬‫ﺗﻔﺴﯿﺮ‬ ‫و‬‫اﻟﻈﻮاھﺮ‬‫اﻟﻔﯿﺰﯾﺎﺋﯿﺔ‬)‫اﻟﻄﺒﯿﻌﯿﺔ‬( ‫اﻟﺮﯾﺎﺿﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎت‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﻔﺴﯿﺮة‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﯾﻌﺘﻤﺪ‬ ‫و‬‫ﺑﯿﻦ‬‫اﻟﻔﯿﺰﯾﺎﺋﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻤﯿﺎت‬ : ‫اﻟﻔﯿﺰﯾﺎﺋﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻤﯿﺎت‬‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬‫و‬‫اﻟﺰﻣﻦ‬‫و‬‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬‫اﻟﻜﺘﻠﺔ‬‫و‬‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺠﻢ‬‫اﻟﻌﺠﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻞ‬ ‫س‬: ‫ﯾﺎﺗﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺎ‬ ١-‫ﻣﺘﺠﮭﺔ؟‬ ‫ﻛﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻻزاﺣﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻨﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻗﯿﺎﺳﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺪار‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﺗﺎﻣ‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﺗﻌﺮﯾﻔ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻌﺮﯾﻔﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﯾﻠﺰم‬ ‫ﻷﻧﮫ‬ ‫ﻗﯿﺎﺳﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬‫ھﺎ‬‫ﻗﯿﺎﺳﮭﺎ‬ ‫ووﺣﺪة‬‫ﻓﻘﻂ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺪارھﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﺗﺎﻣ‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﺗﻌﺮﯾﻔ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻌﺮﯾﻔﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﯾﻠﺰم‬ ‫ﻷﻧﮫ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺠﮭﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻻزاﺣﺔ‬ ‫اﻣﺎ‬‫ﻗﯿﺎﺳﮭﺎ‬ ‫ووﺣﺪة‬‫واﺗﺠﺎھﮭﺎ‬ ٢-‫زﻣﻦ؟‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻛﺘﻠﺔ‬ ‫إﺿﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﯾﻤﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﻻ‬‫ﻷن‬‫ﻟﯿﺲ‬ ‫اﻟﺰﻣﻦ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺘﻠﺔ‬‫اﻟﻮﺣﺪة‬ ‫ﻧﻔﺲ‬ ‫ﻟﮭﻤﺎ‬ ٣-‫ﻛﺘﻠﺔ؟‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻛﺘﻠﺔ‬ ‫إﺿﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﯾﻤﻜﻦ‬‫اﻟﻮﺣﺪة‬ ‫ﻧﻔﺲ‬ ‫ﻟﮭﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻷن‬ = ‫ﺟﺴﻢ‬ ‫ازاﺣﺔ‬ : ‫ان‬ ‫ﯾﻌﻨﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺎذا‬١٠‫؟‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺮ‬‫ان‬ ‫اى‬‫ﻃﻮل‬‫اﻗﺼﺮ‬‫ﻣﺴﺘﻘﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﺧﻂ‬= ‫ﺣﺮﻛﺘﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﮭﺎﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺴﻢ‬ ‫ﺣﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺪاﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻦ‬١٠ ‫ﻣﺘﺮ‬‫ﻣﺘﺮ‬ ‫س‬١‫ﯾﺄﺗﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫أﻛﻤﻞ‬ .......... ‫......................ووﺣﺪةﻗﯿﺎﺳﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻻزاﺣﺔ‬‫ا‬....... ‫ﻗﯿﺎﺳﮭﺎ‬ ‫ووﺣﺪة‬ ............ ‫ﻛﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬...... ‫س‬٢‫واﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫اﻻزاﺣﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻗﺎرن‬‫اﻟﻤﻔﮭﻮم‬ ) ‫ﺣﯿﺚ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬–( ‫اﻟﻔﯿﺰﯾﺎﺋﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﻮع‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻘﺎرﻧﺔ‬ ‫وﺟﺔ‬‫اﻟﻘﯿﺎﺳﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﯿﺰﯾﺎﺋﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻤﯿﺎت‬‫اﻟﻤﺘﺠﮭﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﯿﺰﯾﺎﺋﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻤﯿﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﺮﯾﻒ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬ ً‫ﺗﺎﻣﺎ‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﺗﻌﺮﯾﻔ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻌﺮﯾﻔﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﯾﻠﺰم‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫ھﻰ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﻂ‬ ‫ﻗﯿﺎﺳﮭﺎ‬ ‫ووﺣﺪة‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺪارھﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻮﺣﺪة‬ ‫ﻧﻔﺲ‬ ‫ﻟﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﺎن‬ ‫اذا‬ ‫ﺗﻄﺮح‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺗﺠﻤﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﻜ‬ ‫ھﻰ‬ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﺗﺎﻣ‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﺗﻌﺮﯾﻔ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻌﺮﯾﻔﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﯾﻠﺰم‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫واﺗﺠﺎھﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻗﯿﺎﺳﮭﺎ‬ ‫ووﺣﺪة‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺪارھﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬ ‫اﻣﺜﻠﺔ‬ ١-‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬: ‫اﻟﻄﻮل‬ ‫و‬‫ﻗﯿﺎﺳﮭ‬ ‫وﺣﺪة‬‫ﻤ‬‫ﺎ‬( ‫)م‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﺮ‬ ٢-‫اﻟﺰﻣﻦ‬:‫ﻗﯿﺎﺳﮭﺎ‬ ‫وﺣﺪة‬( ‫)ث‬ ‫اﻟﺜﺎﻧﯿﺔ‬ ٣-‫ا‬‫اﻟﻘﯿﺎﺳﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬:‫ﻗﯿﺎﺳﮭﺎ‬ ‫وﺣﺪة‬‫م/ث‬ ٤-‫اﻟﻜﺘﻠﺔ‬:‫ﻗﯿﺎﺳﮭﺎ‬ ‫وﺣﺪة‬( ‫)ﻛﺠﻢ‬ ‫ﺟﺮام‬ ‫اﻟﻜﯿﻠﻮ‬ ١-‫اﻹزاﺣﺔ‬:‫ﻗﯿﺎﺳﮭﺎ‬ ‫وﺣﺪة‬(‫)م‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﺮ‬ ٢-‫اﻟﻤﺘﺠﮭﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬:‫ﻗﯿﺎﺳﮭﺎ‬ ‫وﺣﺪة‬‫م/ث‬ ٣-‫اﻟﻌﺠﻠﺔ‬:‫م/ث‬٢ ٤-‫اﻟﻘﻮة‬:‫ﻗﯿﺎﺳﮭﺎ‬ ‫وﺣﺪة‬‫اﻟﻨﯿﻮﺗﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴ‬‫ﺎﻓﺔ‬‫اﻻزاﺣﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺴﻢ‬ ‫ﯾﻘﻄﻌﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﻌﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﺠﻤﻮع‬ ‫ھﻰ‬‫اﻟ‬‫ﺒﺪاﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻰ‬‫اﻟ‬‫ﻨﮭﺎﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﺤﺮك‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺴﻢ‬ ‫ﯾﺴﻠﻜﮫ‬ ‫اﻟﺬي‬ ‫اﻟﻔﻌﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎر‬ ‫ﻃﻮل‬ ‫اوھﻰ‬‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟ‬‫ﺒﺪاﯾﺔ‬‫اﻟﻰ‬‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‬‫اﻟ‬‫ﻨﮭﺎﯾﺔ‬ ‫ھﻰ‬‫ﺛ‬ ‫اﺗﺠﺎه‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻘﻄﻮﻋﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬‫ﺎﺑﺖ‬‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬‫اﻟ‬‫ﺒﺪاﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻰ‬‫اﻟ‬‫ﻨﮭﺎﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻻزاﺣﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺪار‬‫ﻣﻮﺿﻌﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻘﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﺧﻂ‬ ‫أﻗﺼﺮ‬ ‫ﻃﻮل‬ ‫ھﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺪاﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﯿﻤﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ھﻰ‬ ‫أو‬‫اﻟﻨﮭﺎﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﺮ‬ ‫ﻗﯿﺎﺳﮭﺎ‬ ‫وﺣﺪة‬ ‫ﻗﯿﺎﺳﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﯿﺰﯾﺎﺋﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﯿﺔ‬‫ﻗﯿﺎﺳﮭﺎ‬ ‫وﺣﺪة‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺠﮭﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﯿﺰﯾﺎﺋﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﯿﺔ‬‫اﻟﻤﺘﺮ‬
  8. 8. ‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﺮ‬ ‫اﺑﻮ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻟﺪ‬٠١١٤٠٢٣٧٩٩ ٨ ‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺬﻛﺮة‬2017‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﺮ‬ ‫اﺑﻮ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻟﺪ‬ Page |٨ ‫ﺗﻄﺒﯿﻖ‬ ‫ﻃﻨﻄﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﺎھﺮة‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺴﯿﺎرة‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺣﻠﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﯿﺎم‬ ‫ﺷﺨﺺ‬ ‫اراد‬ ‫اذا‬ ‫ﺛﺎﺑﺘﺔ‬ ‫اﻻزاﺣﺔ‬ ‫اﻣﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺮﺣﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎر‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻼف‬ ‫ﺗﺨﺘﻠﻒ‬ ‫ﻃﻨﻄﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﺎھﺮة‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺎن‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻰ‬ ‫س‬‫؟‬ ‫اﻹزاﺣﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺪار‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﺴﺎوى‬‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻘﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﺧﻂ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬ ‫اذا‬ :‫ج‬‫اﺗﺠﺎة‬‫ﺛﺎﺑﺖ‬ ‫ھﺎﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻠﺤﻮﻇﺔ‬:- ١-‫ا‬ (‫أ‬ )‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺛﺎﺑﺖ‬ ‫اﺗﺠﺎه‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺴﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺮك‬ ‫إذا‬(‫ب‬ )‫ﻟﻰ‬‫أ‬ ) ‫اﻟﺤﺎدﺛﺔ‬ ‫اﻻزاﺣﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺈن‬(‫ب‬=‫اﻟﻤﻘﻄﻮﻋﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﻋﺪدﯾ‬ (‫)أ‬ ‫اﻟﻰ‬ ‫أﺧﺮى‬ ‫ﻣﺮة‬ ‫ﻋﺎد‬ ‫ﺛﻢ‬ (‫)ب‬ ‫)أ(اﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺴﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺮك‬ ‫إذا‬‫ﺻﻔﺮ‬ = ‫اﻟﺤﺎدﺛﺔ‬ ‫اﻻزاﺣﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺈن‬‫اﻣﺎ‬= ‫اﻟﻤﻘﻄﻮﻋﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬٢x‫أب‬ ‫ﻃﻮل‬ ٢-‫ﺟﺴﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺮك‬ ‫اذا‬: ‫اﻻزاﺣﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺴﺐ‬ ‫ﻛﯿﻒ‬ ‫داﺋﺮى‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎر‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫أ‬-‫اﻟﺪورات‬ ‫ﻋﺪد‬ = ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ھﻜﺬا‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺴﺐ‬x) ‫اﻟﺪاﺋﺮة‬ ‫ﻣﺤﯿﻂ‬٢( ‫ﻧﻖ‬ ‫ط‬ ‫ب‬–‫اﻻزاﺣﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺴﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﮭﺎﯾﺔ‬ ‫ھﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺪاﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻻن‬ ‫ﺻﻔﺮ‬ = ‫اﻻزاﺣﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺎن‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ‬ ‫دورات‬ ‫ﻋﺪد‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺮك‬ ‫ﻟﻮ‬ : ‫ﯾﻌﻨﻰ‬ ‫ﻧﺼﻒ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺪورات‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﺪد‬ ‫اى‬ ‫او‬ ‫دورة‬ ‫ﻧﺼﻒ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺮك‬ ‫ﻟﻮ‬ :٢‫ﻧﺼ‬ ‫و‬‫ﻣﺜﻼ‬ ‫دورة‬ ‫ﻒ‬= ‫اﻻزاﺣﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺎن‬٢‫ﻧﻖ‬ ‫او‬ ‫دورة‬ ‫رﺑﻊ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺮك‬ ‫ﻟﻮ‬ :٣/٤‫ﻓﯿﺜﺎﻏﻮرث‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺴﺐ‬ ‫اﻻزاﺣﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺎن‬ ‫دورة‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎﺋﻞ‬ ١-‫ﻣﺤﯿﻄﮭﺎ‬ ‫داﺋﺮة‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺣﺮﻛﺘﺔ‬ ‫ﺟﺴﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﺪا‬٥‫ﻣﻨﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺪا‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻨﻔﺲ‬ ‫ﻋﺎد‬ ‫ﺛﻢ‬ ‫دورﺗﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺎم‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺮ‬‫اﻟﺤﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫اﺣﺴﺒ‬‫ﻰ‬‫اﻟﺠﺴﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺮك‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻰ‬ ‫اﻻزاﺣﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬ ٢-‫ﯾﺘﺤ‬‫ﻗﻄﺮھﺎ‬ ‫داﺋﺮة‬ ‫ﻣﺤﯿﻂ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺟﺴﻢ‬ ‫ﺮك‬٤‫اﻟﺠﺴﻢ‬ ‫ﯾﻜﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ‬ ‫اﻻزاﺣﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫اﺣﺴﺒﻰ‬ ‫م‬١.٧٥‫دورة‬ ٣-‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺣﺠﺮ‬ ‫ﺷﺨﺺ‬ ‫ﻗﺬف‬‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﻨﻰ‬‫ارﺗﻔﺎع‬٢‫اﻻرض‬ ‫ﺳﻄﺢ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺮ‬‫ﻣﻘﺪارھﺎ‬ ‫راﺳﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻻﻋﻠﻰ‬١٠‫ﻣﺘﺮ‬‫اﻟﻤﺒﻨﻰ‬ ‫ﺳﻄﺢ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬‫ﻓﺴﻘﻂ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺠﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺮﻛﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻰ‬ ‫اﻻزاﺣﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫اﺣﺴﺒﻰ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﺮة‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫اﻻرض‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ٤-‫ﻋﻘﺮب‬‫ﻃﻮﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺛﻮاﻧﻰ‬٧‫م‬‫اﻟﺜﻮاﻧﻰ‬ ‫ﻋﻘﺮب‬ ‫ﻗﻄﻌﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻰ‬ ‫اﻻزاﺣﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫اﺣﺴﺒﻰ‬ ‫دﻗﯿﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﺼﻒ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺮك‬ ‫اﻟﻘﯿﺎﺳﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬‫اﻟﻤﺘﺠﮭﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺰﻣﻦ‬ ‫وﺣﺪة‬ ‫ﺧﻼل‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻘﻄﻮﻋﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ھﻰ‬‫اﻟﺰﻣﻦ‬ ‫وﺣﺪة‬ ‫ﺧﻼل‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻘﻄﻮﻋﺔ‬ ‫اﻻزاﺣﺔ‬ ‫ھﻰ‬ ‫ﻗﯿﺎﺳﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﯿﺔ‬‫ﻻﻧﺔ‬‫ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬ ً‫ﺗﺎﻣﺎ‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﺗﻌﺮﯾﻔ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻌﺮﯾﻔﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﯾﻠﺰم‬ ‫ﻓﻘﻂ‬ ‫ﻗﯿﺎﺳﮭﺎ‬ ‫ووﺣﺪة‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺪارھﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺪارھﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﺗﺎﻣ‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﺗﻌﺮﯾﻔ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻌﺮﯾﻔﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﯾﻠﺰم‬ ‫ﻷﻧﮫ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺠﮭﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫واﺗﺠﺎھﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻗﯿﺎﺳﮭﺎ‬ ‫ووﺣﺪة‬ ( ‫ﻛﻢ/ﺳﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫او‬ ‫م/ث‬ ) ‫وھـــــــﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﯿﺎﺳﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﯿﺎس‬ ‫وﺣﺪة‬ ‫ﻧﻔﺲ‬ ‫ھﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﺠﮭﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﯿﺎس‬ ‫وﺣﺪة‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺮق‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬‫اﻟﻘﯿﺎﺳﯿﺔ‬‫اﻟ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫و‬‫؟‬ ‫ﻤﺘﺠﮭﺔ‬‫ﻣﺤﺪد‬ ‫اﺗﺠﺎة‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﻗﯿﺎﺳﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ھﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﺠﮭﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ان‬ ‫ﯾﻌﻨﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺎذا‬‫ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﺤﺮك‬ ‫ﺳﯿﺎرة‬٥٠‫؟‬ ‫ﺷﻤﺎﻻ‬ ‫ث‬ / ‫م‬= ‫اﻟﻤﺘﺠﮭﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ان‬ ‫اى‬٥٠‫ث‬ / ‫م‬ ‫ﻣﺜﺎل‬‫ﯾﻌﺘﺒﺮ‬‫ﺣﯿﻮان‬‫اﻟﻔﮭﺪ‬‫اﻟﻤﻔﺘﺮس‬( ‫اﻟﺸﯿﺘﺎ‬ )‫اﻟﺤﯿﻮاﻧﺎت‬ ‫اﺳﺮع‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬‫ﺣﯿﺚ‬‫ﺳﺮﻋﺘﮫ‬ ‫ﺗﺒﻠﻎ‬٢٧‫ﺳﺮﻋﺘﮫ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﺒﯿﺮﻋﻦ‬ ‫أردﻧﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﺈذا‬ ‫م/ث‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﺠﮭ‬‫ﺔ‬‫ﻧﻘﻮل‬‫ان‬‫ﻟﻠﺸﯿﺘﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﺠﮭﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬٢٧‫اﻟﺸﺮق‬ ‫اﺗﺠﺎه‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫م/ث‬‫اﻟﻤﺜﺎل‬ ‫ﺳﺒﯿﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺴﯿﺎرة‬ ‫اﻟﺮﺣﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎر‬‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬‫اﻻزاﺣ‬‫ﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﺎھﺮة‬–‫ﺑﻨﮭﺎ‬-‫ﻃﻨﻄﺎ‬٤٥+٦٠=١٠٥‫ﻛﻢ‬٩٣‫اﻟﺸﻤﺎل‬ ‫اﺗﺠﺎه‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﻛﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﺎھﺮة‬–‫اﻟﺰﻗﺎزﯾﻖ‬-‫ﻃﻨﻄﺎ‬٨٠+٨٥=١٦٥‫ﻛﻢ‬٩٣‫اﻟﺸﻤﺎل‬ ‫اﺗﺠﺎه‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﻛﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﺎھﺮة‬–‫ﻃﻨﻄﺎ‬٩٣‫ﻛﻢ‬٩٣‫اﻟﺸﻤﺎل‬ ‫اﺗﺠﺎه‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﻛﻢ‬
  9. 9. ‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﺮ‬ ‫اﺑﻮ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻟﺪ‬٠١١٤٠٢٣٧٩٩ ٩ ‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺬﻛﺮة‬2017‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﺮ‬ ‫اﺑﻮ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻟﺪ‬ Page |٩
  10. 10. ‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﺮ‬ ‫اﺑﻮ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻟﺪ‬٠١١٤٠٢٣٧٩٩ ١٠ ‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺬﻛﺮة‬2017‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﺮ‬ ‫اﺑﻮ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻟﺪ‬ Page |١٠ ‫اﻻزاﺣﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫اﺣﺴﺒﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻘﺎﺑﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻞ‬‫ﻟﻠﺮﯾﺎح‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﺠﮭﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﯿﺎرون‬ ‫ﯾﺮاﻋﻲ‬‫اﻟﻄﯿﺮان‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺮﺣﻠﺔ‬ ‫زﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻻن‬‫ﻛﻤﯿﺔ‬‫اﻟﺮﯾﺎح‬ ‫اﺗﺠﺎة‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﯾﺘﻮﻗﻔﺎن‬ ‫اﻟﻮﻗﻮد‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻞ‬‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘﮭ‬ ‫اﻟﻮﻗﻮد‬ ‫ﻛﻤﯿﺔ‬‫ﻠﻜﺔ‬‫ﺗﺨﺘﻠﻒ‬‫ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻼف‬‫ﺣﺴﺐ‬‫اﻟﺮﯾﺎح‬ ‫اﺗﺠﺎة‬‫ﻻﻧﺔ‬‫ﺗﺤﺮﻛ‬ ‫اذا‬‫ﺖ‬‫اﻟﻄﺎﺋﺮة‬‫ﻓﻰ‬‫ﻧﻔﺲ‬‫اﻟﺮﯾﺎح‬ ‫اﺗﺠﺎة‬‫ﺳﺮﻋﺘﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺰداد‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﺠﮭﺔ‬‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘﮭﻠﻜﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻮﻗﻮد‬ ‫ﻛﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺮﺣﻠﺔ‬ ‫زﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﯾﻘﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫و‬‫ﺻﺤﯿﺢ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻜﺲ‬ ‫و‬ ‫س‬:‫أﯾ‬ ‫اﻟﺮﯾﺢ‬ ‫اﺗﺠﺎه‬ ‫ﻋﻜﺲ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫واﻻﺧﺮى‬ ‫اﻟﺮﯾﺎح‬ ‫اﺗﺠﺎه‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻻوﻟﻰ‬ ‫وﻟﻜﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﻔﺲ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻄﻌﺎن‬ ‫ﻃﺎﺋﺮﺗﺎن‬‫وﻟﻤﺎذا؟؟‬ ‫اﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫ﻟﻮﻗﻮد‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺘﺎج‬ ‫ﮭﻤﺎ‬ ‫اﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫ﻟﻮﻗﻮد‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺘﺎج‬ ‫اﻟﺜﺎﻧﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺎﺋﺮة‬‫اﺗﺠﺎھ‬ ‫ﻻن‬‫ﮭ‬‫اﻟﺮﯾﺎح‬ ‫اﺗﺠﺎه‬ ‫ﻋﻜﺲ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺎ‬‫ﻓ‬‫ﻛﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺮﺣﻠﺔ‬ ‫زﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﯾﺰداد‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﺠﮭﺔ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻋﺘﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘﮭﻠﻜﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻮﻗﻮد‬ ‫ﻛﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬: ‫اﻟﻀﻮء‬ ‫ﻧﻌﻜﺎس‬‫ھﻮ‬‫ارﺗﺪاد‬‫اﻟﻤﻮﺟﺎت‬‫اﻟﻀﻮﺋﯿﺔ‬‫ﺳﻘﻮﻃﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﺟﮭﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﻔﺲ‬ ‫اﻟﻰ‬‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ‬‫ﺗﻘﺎﺑﻞ‬‫ﺳﻄﺤ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻋﺎﻛﺴﺎ‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬‫اﻟﻌﺎﻛﺲ‬ ‫ﻟﺴﻄﺢ‬ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﻛﺮﯾ‬ ‫أو‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﯾ‬ ‫ﯾﻜﻮن‬ ‫ﻗﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﻘﻮل‬ ‫ﻧﺼﻒ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ﻣﺼﻘﻮل‬ ‫ﺳﻄﺢ‬ ‫ھﻮ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺎﻗﻂ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻌﺎع‬‫اﻟﻌﺎﻛﺲ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻄﺢ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﯾﺴﻘﻂ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻘﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﺨﻂ‬ ‫ﺗﻤﺜﻞ‬ ‫رﻓﯿﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺿﻮﺋﯿﺔ‬ ‫ھﻮﺣﺰﻣﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﻌﻜﺲ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻌﺎع‬‫اﻟﻌﺎﻛﺲ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻄﺢ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ارﺗﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻘﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﺨﻂ‬ ‫ﺗﻤﺜﻞ‬ ‫رﻓﯿﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺿﻮﺋﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺰﻣﺔ‬ ‫ھﻮ‬ ‫اﻻﻧﻌﻜﺎس‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻮد‬‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﻮداﻟﻤﻘﺎم‬ ‫ھﻮ‬‫اﻟﻌﺎﻛﺲ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻄﺢ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻘﻮط‬ ‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻘﻮط‬ ‫زاوﯾﺔ‬‫اﻻﻧﻌﻜﺎس‬ ‫وﻋﻤﻮد‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺎﻗﻂ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻌﺎع‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺤﺼﻮرة‬ ‫اﻟﺰاوﯾﺔ‬ ‫ھﻰ‬ ‫اﻻﻧﻌﻜﺎس‬ ‫زاوﯾﺔ‬‫اﻻﻧﻌﻜﺎس‬ ‫وﻋﻤﻮد‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﻌﻜﺲ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻌﺎع‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺤﺼﻮرة‬ ‫اﻟﺰاوﯾﺔ‬ ‫ھﻰ‬ ‫ﺿﻮﺋﻰ‬ ‫ﺷﻌﺎع‬ ‫ﺳﻘﻮط‬ ‫زاوﯾﺔ‬ ‫ان‬ ‫ﯾﻌﻨﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺎذا‬٤٠0 ‫؟‬ ‫ان‬ ‫اى‬‫اﻻ‬ ‫وﻋﻤﻮد‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺎﻗﻂ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻌﺎع‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺤﺼﻮرة‬ ‫اﻟﺰاوﯾﺔ‬‫ﻧﻌﻜﺎس‬=٤٠o ‫ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﻄﺒﯿﻖ‬ ‫ﻣﻔﺎھﯿﻢ‬‫ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‬‫اﻟﻀﻮء‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻧﻌﻜﺎس‬
  11. 11. ‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﺮ‬ ‫اﺑﻮ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻟﺪ‬٠١١٤٠٢٣٧٩٩ ١١ ‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺬﻛﺮة‬2017‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﺮ‬ ‫اﺑﻮ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻟﺪ‬ Page |١١ ‫اﻟﻀﻮء؟‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫اﻻﻧﻌﻜﺎس‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﺎ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎج‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺠﺮﺑﺔ‬ ‫وﺿﺤﻰ‬ : ‫اﻻدوات‬‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺮاة‬–‫ﺑﯿﻀﺎء‬ ‫ورﻗﺔ‬–‫دﺑﺎﺑﯿﺲ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ‬–‫ﻣﻨﻘﻞ‬–‫ﻣﺴﻄﺮة‬ : ‫اﻟﺨﻄﻮات‬ ١-‫ﻧﺜﺒﺖ‬‫اﻟ‬‫ﻤﺮاة‬‫اﻟ‬‫ﻤﺴﺘﻮﯾﺔ‬‫اﻟ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻮدﯾﺎ‬‫ﻮرﻗﺔ‬‫اﻟ‬‫ﺒﯿﻀﺎء‬(‫ص‬ ‫)س‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻘﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﺧﻂ‬ ‫ارﺳﻢ‬ ‫ﺛﻢ‬ ٢-‫ص‬ ‫)س‬ ‫اﻟﺨﻂ‬ ‫(ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫م‬ ‫)ن‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﻮد‬ ‫ﻧﻘﯿﻢ‬( ٣-‫م‬ ‫)ا‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺋﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻘﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﺧﻂ‬ ‫ﻧﺮﺳﻢ‬‫اﻟﻤﺮاة‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺎﻗﻂ‬ ‫اﻟﻀﻮﺋﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻌﺎع‬ ‫ﯾﻤﺜﻞ‬ ( ‫د‬ ‫دﺑﻮﺳﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻧﺜﺒﺖ‬ ‫و‬ ( ‫اﻟﺴﻘﻮط‬ ‫)زاوﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﻮد‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫زاوﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﯾﺼﻨﻊ‬١‫د‬٢ (‫م‬ ‫)ا‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﯿﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﻂ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ٤-‫د‬ ‫اﻟﺪﺑﻮﺳﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﺻﻮرﺗﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺸﺎھﺪ‬ ‫اﻻﺧﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺎﻧﺐ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮاة‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫اﻧﻈﺮ‬١‫د‬٢ ‫د‬ ‫دﺑﻮﺳﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻧﺜﺒﺖ‬ ‫و‬٣‫د‬٤‫اﺳﺘﻘﺎﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﯾﻜﻮﻧﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺤﯿﺚ‬‫د‬ ‫ﺻﻮرة‬١‫د‬٢ ٥-‫د‬ ‫اﻟﺪﺑﻮﺳﯿﻦ‬ ‫ارﻓﻊ‬٣‫د‬٤‫اﺳﺘﻘﺎﻣﺘﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺪة‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺑﻤﺴﺘﻘﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻨﮭﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺻﻞ‬ ‫ﺛﻢ‬ ‫ھﺬ‬ ‫م‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎﻛﺲ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻄﺢ‬ ‫ﻟﯿﻘﺎﺑﻞ‬‫ا‬‫اﻟﺨﻂ‬)‫م‬ ‫ب‬(‫اﻟﻤﻨﻌﻜﺲ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻌﺎع‬ ‫ﯾﻤﺜﻞ‬ ٦-‫اﻻﻧﻌﻜﺎس‬ ‫زاوﯾﺔ‬ ‫ھﻰ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﻜﻮن‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﻮد‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫م‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ﯾﺼﻨﻌﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺰاوﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﯿﺲ‬ ٧-‫اﻟﻤﻨﻘﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻮاﺳﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺮات‬ ‫ﻋﺪة‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻘﻮط‬ ‫زاوﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﻐﯿﺮ‬‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫و‬‫اﻻﻧﻌﻜﺎس‬ ‫زاوﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﻌﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺮة‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻼﺣﻈﺔ‬١-‫ﻟﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎوﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮن‬ ‫ﺑﺤﯿﺚ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻘﻮط‬ ‫زاوﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻐﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﺒﻌﺎ‬ ‫اﻻﻧﻌﻜﺎس‬ ‫زاوﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻐﯿﺮ‬‫داﺋﻤﺎ‬ ‫اﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎج‬‫ﯾﻌﺮﻓ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﯿﻦ‬ ‫اﻧﻌﻜﺎﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻀﻮء‬ ‫ﯾﺨﻀﻊ‬‫ﺑﺎﺳﻢ‬ ‫ﺎ‬‫اﻻ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﺎ‬‫ﻧﻌﻜﺎس‬‫ﻓﻰ‬‫اﻟﻀﻮء‬‫و‬‫ھﻤﺎ‬:- : ‫اﻻول‬ ‫اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮن‬‫اﻻﻧﻌﻜﺎ‬ ‫زاوﯾﺔ‬ = ‫اﻟﺴﻘﻮط‬ ‫زاوﯾﺔ‬‫س‬ : ‫اﻟﺜﺎﻧﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮن‬‫اﻟﻌﺎﻛﺲ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻄﺢ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻘﻮط‬ ‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻘﺎم‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﻮد‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﻌﻜﺲ‬ ‫اﻟﻀﻮﺋﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻌﺎع‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺎﻗﻂ‬ ‫اﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻌﺎع‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎﻛﺲ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻄﺢ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻮدي‬ ‫واﺣﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮي‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺟﻤﯿﻌﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻊ‬ (‫)ﻋﻠﻞ‬‫ﻧﻔﺴﮫ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﯾﻨﻌﻜﺲ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎﻛﺲ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻄﺢ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻮدﯾﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺎﻗﻂ‬ ‫اﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻌﺎع‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺎو‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻘﻮط‬ ‫زاوﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻻن‬ (‫)ﺟـ‬‫ﺻﻔﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺎوي‬ ‫اﻻﻧﻌﻜﺎس‬ ‫زاوﯾﺔ‬ ‫ي‬ :‫اﻟﻤﺮاﯾﺎ‬-{‫ﻣﺤﺪﺑﺔ‬ ‫او‬ ‫}ﻣﻘﻌﺮة‬ ‫ﻛﺮﯾﺔ‬ ‫او‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮن‬ ‫ﻗﺪ‬ .‫ﻟﻠﻀﻮء‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻛﺴﺔ‬ ‫أﺳﻄﺢ‬ ‫ھﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺪﯾﺮﯾﺔ‬ ‫او‬ ‫ﺣﻘﯿﻘﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬ ‫ﺳﻮاء‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻮر‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮﯾﻦ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ھﺎﻣﺎ‬ ‫دورا‬ ‫ﻟﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻀﻮء‬ ‫اﻧﻌﻜﺎس‬ ) ‫ﻧﺸﺎط‬١‫ﺧﻮاص‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺠﺮﺑﺔ‬ ‫وﺿﺤﻰ‬ :(‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺮآة‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﻜﻮﻧﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻮر‬ : ‫اﻻدوات‬‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺮاة‬-‫اﻟﺤﺮف‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺾ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﯿﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻜﺘﻮب‬ ‫ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬ ٢: ‫اﻟﺨﻄﻮات‬‫ﺑﺎﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮاة‬ ‫اﻣﺎم‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﻀﻊ‬ ‫و‬ ‫راﺳﯿﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮاة‬ ‫ﻧﺜﺒﺖ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻼﺣﻈﺔ‬:‫اﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎج‬- :‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺮآة‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﻜﻮﻧﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻮرة‬ ‫ﺧﻮاص‬- ]١‫ﺻﻮرة‬ [‫ﺗﻘﺪﯾﺮﯾﺔ‬.]٢.‫ﺻﻮرة‬ [‫ﻣﻌﺘﺪﻟﺔ‬]٣‫ﻟﻠﺠﺴﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎوﯾﺔ‬ [ ].٤‫ﻟﻠﺠﺴﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻮﺿﻊ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻜﻮﺳﺔ‬ [. ]٥‫ا‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬ [‫اﻟﺠﺴﻢ‬‫اﻟﻤﺮآة‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬=‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬‫اﻟﺼﻮرة‬.‫اﻟﻤﺮآة‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ]٦‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﻋﻤﻮدﯾ‬ ‫ﯾﻜﻮن‬ ‫وﺻﻮرﺗﮫ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺴﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻮاﺻﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﯿﻢ‬ [ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺮاة‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎﻛﺲ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻄﺢ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﻘﯿﻘﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻮرة‬‫اﻟﺘﻘﺪﯾﺮﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻮرة‬ ‫ﯾﻤﻜﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻮرة‬ ‫ھﻰ‬‫ﺣﺎﺋﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻘﺒﻠﮭﺎ‬‫ﻻﯾﻤﻜﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻮرة‬ ‫ھﻰ‬‫ﺣﺎﺋﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻘﺒﻠﮭﺎ‬ ‫وﺗﻨﺸﺎ‬‫اﻟﻤﻨﻌﻜﺴﺔ‬ ‫اﻷﺷﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻼﻗﻰ‬ ‫ﻧﺘﯿﺠﺔ‬‫ﻓ‬‫اﻟﻤﺮاﯾﺎ‬ ‫ﻰ‬‫وﺗﻨﺸﺎ‬‫اﻟﻤﻨﻌﻜﺴﺔ‬ ‫اﻷﺷﻌﺔ‬ ‫اﻣﺘﺪادات‬ ‫ﺗﻼﻗﻰ‬ ‫ﻧﺘﯿﺠﺔ‬‫اﻟﻤﺮاﯾﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬. ‫داﺋﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮن‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫و‬‫اﻟﻤﺮاة‬ ‫اﻣﺎم‬‫داﺋﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺘﺪﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮن‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫و‬‫اﻟﻤﺮاة‬ ‫ﺧﻠﻒ‬ ‫اﻟﻀﻮء‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫اﻻﻧﻌﻜﺎس‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﺎ‬
  12. 12. ‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﺮ‬ ‫اﺑﻮ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻟﺪ‬٠١١٤٠٢٣٧٩٩ ١٢ ‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺬﻛﺮة‬2017‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﺮ‬ ‫اﺑﻮ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻟﺪ‬ Page |١٢ ١-: ‫ﻋﻠﻞ‬‫؟‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻜﻮﺳﺔ‬ ‫اﻻﺳﻌﺎف‬ ‫ﺳﯿﺎرة‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﺳﻌﺎف‬ ‫ﻛﻠﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﺘﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﯿ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺋﺪى‬ ‫ﯾﺮاھﺎ‬ ‫ﺣﺘﻰ‬‫اﻻﺳﻌﺎف‬ ‫ﻟﺴﯿﺎرة‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺮﯾﻖ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺧﻼء‬ ‫ﻓﯿﺴﺮﻋﻮ‬ ‫ﻣﻀﺒﻮﻃﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮاة‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﺎرات‬ ٢-‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻈﺮ‬ ‫ﻓﺤﺺ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﯿﻮن‬ ‫ﻃﺒﯿﺐ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻞ:ﯾﺴﺘﻄﯿﻊ‬٦‫ﺣﺠﺮة‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺮ‬٣‫؟‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺮ‬ ‫ﺻﻮرﺗﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺴﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﺒﺢ‬ ‫ﻟﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮآة‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺴﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬ = ‫اﻟﻤﺮآة‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻮرة‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﻻن‬٦‫وھﻮ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺮ‬‫ا‬‫اﻻﻧﺴﺎن‬ ‫ﻟﺮؤﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺒﯿﻌﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺪى‬ ٣-‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺮاة‬ ‫ﺧﻼل‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﯾﻨﻈﺮون‬ ‫ھﻢ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺻﺤﯿﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻄﺮﯾﻘﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﺎس‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺜﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﯾﺴﺘﻄﯿﻊ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻞ‬‫؟‬ ‫اﻟﻮﺿﻊ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻜﻮﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮن‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮاة‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﻜﻮﻧﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻮرة‬ ‫ﻻن‬ ٤-‫ﺣﺎﺋﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮاة‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﻜﻮﻧﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻮرة‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻘﺒﺎل‬ ‫ﯾﻤﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻞ‬‫؟‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮاة‬ ‫ﺧﻠﻒ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻜﻮن‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺪﯾﺮﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﺻﻮرة‬ ‫ﻻﻧﮭﺎ‬‫اﻟﻤﻨﻌﻜﺴﺔ‬ ‫اﻻﺷﻌﺔ‬ ‫اﻣﺘﺪاد‬ ‫ﺗﻼﻗﻰ‬ ‫ﻧﺘﯿﺠﺔ‬ :‫اﻟﻜﺮﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮآة‬-‫ﺟﻮﻓﺎء‬ ‫ﻛﺮة‬ ‫ﺳﻄﺢ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺟﺰء‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎﻛﺲ‬ ‫ﺳﻄﺤﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺮآة‬ ‫ھﻰ‬‫و‬‫ﻗ‬‫ﺪ‬‫ﺗﻜﻮن‬‫ﻣﺤﺪﺑﺔ‬‫أو‬‫ﻣﻘﻌﺮة‬ : ‫اﻟﻜﺮﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮاﯾﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﻮاع‬ ]١(‫)ﻣﺠﻤﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﻌﺮة‬ ‫ﻣﺮآة‬ []٢(‫)ﻣﻔﺮﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺪﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺮآة‬ [ ‫ﺳﻄﺤﮭﺎ‬‫ﻟﻠﻜﺮة‬ ‫اﻟﺪاﺧﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻄﺢ‬ ‫ھﻮ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎﻛﺲ‬. ‫ا‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻄﺢ‬ ‫ھﻮ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎﻛﺲ‬ ‫ﺳﻄﺤﮭﺎ‬‫ﻟﻠﻜﺮة‬ ‫ﻟﺨﺎرﺟﻰ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﯿﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺎﻗﻄﺔ‬ ‫اﻻﺷﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺠﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻻﻧﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻻﻣﺔ‬ ‫او‬ ‫ﻣﺠﻤﻌﺔ‬‫ﻋﻠﯿﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺎﻗﻄﺔ‬ ‫اﻻﺷﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺠﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻻﻧﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻔﺮﻗﺔ‬ ‫؟‬ ‫ﻛﺮﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺮاة‬ ‫اﻟﻔﻀﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺼﻨﻮﻋﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﻠﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺘﺒﺮ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻞ‬‫وﺟﮭﮭﺎ‬‫اﻟﺪاﺧﻠﻰ‬‫ﻛ‬ ‫ﯾﻌﻤﻞ‬‫وﺟﮭﮭﺎ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻣﻘﻌﺮة‬ ‫ﻤﺮاة‬‫اﻟﺨﺎرﺟﻰ‬‫ﻛ‬‫ﻣﺤﺪﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺮاة‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻈﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﻤﺠﺮد‬ ‫اﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮاﯾﺎ‬ ‫اﻧﻮاع‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻧﻔﺮق‬ ‫ﻛﯿﻒ‬ :‫اﻟﻜﺮﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺮآة‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻘﺪﯾﺮﯾﺔ‬ ‫واﻟﺒﺆرة‬ ‫اﻟﺤﻘﯿﻘﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺆرة‬- ١-(‫)م‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮآة‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮر‬ ‫ﻣﺮﻛﺰ‬‫ﻣﻨﮭﺎ‬ ً‫ا‬‫ﺟﺰء‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮآة‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺘﺒﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺮة‬ ‫ﻣﺮﻛﺰ‬ ‫ھﻮ‬ ٢-(‫)ق‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮآة‬ ‫ﻗﻄﺐ‬‫ﻟﻠﻤﺮآة‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎﻛﺲ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻄﺢ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬ ‫وھﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‬ ‫ھﻰ‬ ٣-‫ﻧﺼﻒ‬‫)ﻧﻖ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮآة‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮر‬ ‫ﻗﻄﺮ‬( ‫ﻗﻄ‬ ‫ﻧﺼﻒ‬ ‫ھﻮ‬‫اﻟﻜﺮة‬ ‫ﺮ‬‫ﻣﻨﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﺟﺰء‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮاة‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺘﺒﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻰ‬ ‫ھﻮ‬ ‫او‬‫ﺳﻄﺤﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‬ ‫وأى‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮآة‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮر‬ ‫ﻣﺮﻛﺰ‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬ ٤‫ﻟﻠﻤﺮآة‬ ‫اﻷﺻﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺤﻮر‬‫وﻗﻄﺒﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮآة‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮر‬ ‫ﺑﻤﺮﻛﺰ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎر‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﯿﻢ‬ ‫ھﻮ‬ ٥-‫ﻟﻠﻤﺮآة‬ ‫اﻟﺜﺎﻧﻮى‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺤﻮر‬‫ﻗﻄﺒﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﺪا‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺳﻄﺤﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‬ ‫أي‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮآة‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮر‬ ‫ﺑﻤﺮﻛﺰ‬ ‫ﯾﻤﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻘﯿﻢ‬ ‫أي‬ ‫ھﻮ‬ ٦-‫اﻟ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﺆرة‬‫ﻟ‬ ‫اﻻﺻﻠﯿﺔ‬(‫)ب‬ ‫ﻠﻤﺮآة‬‫اﻣﺘﺪادھﺎ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ھﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﻌﻜﺴﺔ‬ ‫اﻷﺷﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻼﻗﻰ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‬ ‫ھﻰ‬ ٧-‫ﻟﻠﻤﺮآة‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺆرى‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻌﺪ‬)(‫ع‬‫اﻟﻤﺮآة‬ ‫وﻗﻄﺐ‬ ‫اﻻﺻﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺆرة‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ھﻮ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﻘﯿﻘﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺆرة‬‫اﻟﺘﻘﺪﯾﺮﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺆرة‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻘﻌﺮة‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮاة‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﻌﻜﺴﺔ.ﻓﻰ‬ ‫اﻷﺷﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻼﻗﻰ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‬ ‫ھﻰ‬‫اﻟﻤﺤﺪﺑﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮاة‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﻌﻜﺴﺔ‬ ‫اﻷﺷﻌﺔ‬ ‫اﻣﺘﺪاد‬ ‫ﺗﻼﻗﻰ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‬ ‫ھﻰ‬ ‫أﻣﺎم‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻊ‬ ‫و‬‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎﻛﺲ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻄﺢ‬.‫اﻟﻤﻘﻌﺮة‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮآة‬‫ﺧﻠﻒ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻊ‬‫ﻓ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎﻛﺲ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻄﺢ‬‫ﻰ‬. ‫اﻟﻤﺤﺪﺑﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮآة‬ .‫ﺣﺎﺋﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻘﺒﺎﻟﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﯾﻤﻜﻦ‬ ‫و‬.‫ﺣﺎﺋﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻘﺒﺎﻟﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﯾﻤﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ب‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺆرى‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻌﺪ‬ ‫ب‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺆرى‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻌﺪ‬
  13. 13. ‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﺮ‬ ‫اﺑﻮ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻟﺪ‬٠١١٤٠٢٣٧٩٩ ١٣ ‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺬﻛﺮة‬2017‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﺮ‬ ‫اﺑﻮ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻟﺪ‬ Page |١٣ ‫ﺗﻌﯿﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﯾﻤﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﯿﻒ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺠﺮﺑﺔ‬ ‫وﺿﺤﻰ‬‫اﻟﺒﺆرى‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻌﺪ‬: ‫ﻣﻘﻌﺮة‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺮاة‬ ‫اﻻدوات‬‫ﻣﻘﻌﺮة‬ ‫ﻣﺮاة‬-‫ﺣﺎﺋﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﻄﻮات‬١-‫ﻣﻮا‬ ‫ﻣﻘﻌﺮة‬ ‫ﻣﺮاة‬ ‫ﻧﻀﻊ‬‫ﺟﺪا‬ ‫ﺑﻌﯿﺪ‬ ‫ﺟﺴﻢ‬ ‫او‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻤﺲ‬ ‫ﻻﺷﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺟﮭﺔ‬ ٢-‫ﻧﺤﺮك‬‫اﻟ‬‫ﺤﺎﺋﻞ‬‫ﺑﻌﺪا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻗﺮﺑﺎ‬‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻧﺤﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﺣﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺮاة‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻜﺲ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻄﺢ‬ ‫اﻣﺎم‬‫أ‬‫وﺿﺢ‬‫ﻣﻀﯿﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﯿﺔ‬‫ﺑﺆرة‬ ‫ھﻰ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﻜﻮن‬‫اﻟﻤﺮاة‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﯿﺲ‬‫اﻟﺤﺎﺋﻞ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮاة‬‫اﻟﻤﻘﻌﺮة‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺮاة‬ (‫)ع‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺆرى‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻌﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ھﺬة‬ ‫ﻓﺘﻜﻮن‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻼﺣﻈﺔ‬: ‫اﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎج‬ ١-‫ھﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺮاة‬ ‫اﻻﺻﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺆرة‬‫اﻟﻤﻨﻌﻜﺴﺔ‬ ‫اﻷﺷﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻼﻗﻰ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‬‫اﻟﻤﻘﻌﺮة‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮاة‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ٢-‫اﻟﻤﺮاة‬ ‫ﻗﻄﺐ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻻﺻﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺆرة‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ھﻮ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺮاة‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺆرى‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮر‬ ‫ﻗﻄﺮ‬ ‫ﻧﺼﻒ‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬‫اﻟﻤﺮاة‬‫وﺑﻌﺪ‬‫ھﺎ‬:‫اﻟﺒﺆرى‬- ‫اﻟﺒﺆرى‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﺿﻌﻒ‬ = ‫اﻟﺘﻜﻮر‬ ‫ﻗﻄﺮ‬ ‫ﻧﺼﻒ‬= ‫ﻧﻖ‬ ‫او‬٢‫ع‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎر‬‫ات‬‫ﻷ‬‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺎﻗﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﺷﻌﺔ‬‫اﻟﻤﻘﻌﺮة‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮاة‬:- ١-‫اﻷﺻﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺤﻮر‬ ‫ﻣﻮازى‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺎﻗﻂ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻌﺎع‬٢-‫ﺑﺎﻟﺒﺆرة‬ ً‫ا‬‫ﻣﺎر‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺎﻗﻂ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻌﺎع‬٣-‫اﻟﺘﻜﻮر‬ ‫ﺑﻤﺮﻛﺰ‬ ً‫ا‬‫ﻣﺎر‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺎﻗﻂ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻌﺎع‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺒﺆرة‬ ً‫ا‬‫ﻣﺎر‬ ‫ﯾﻨﻌﻜﺲ‬‫اﻷﺻﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺤﻮر‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﻣﻮازﯾ‬ ‫ﯾﻨﻌﻜﺲ‬‫ﻧﻔﺴﮫ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﯾﻨﻌﻜﺲ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺴﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺿﻊ‬‫اﻟﺮﺳﻢ‬‫اﻟﺼﻮرة‬ ‫ﺧﻮاص‬ ]١[‫اﻟﺠ‬‫ﺟﺪا‬ ‫ﺑﻌﯿﺪ‬ ‫ﺴﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻮازﯾﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻮازﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻻﺷﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﻘﻂ‬ ‫اﻻﺻﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺤﻮر‬ ‫ﺟﺪا‬ ‫ﺻﻐﯿﺮة‬ ‫ﺣﻘﯿﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺻﻮرة‬‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺎرة‬ (‫)ب‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺆرة‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻀﯿﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‬ ]٢[‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫أﻛﺒﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺴﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺆرى‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﺿﻌﻒ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﺑﻌﺪ‬‫اﻟﺘﻜﻮر‬ ‫ﻣﺮﻛﺰ‬(‫)م‬ ‫ﺻﻮرة‬‫ﻣﺼﻐﺮة‬ / ‫ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺑﺔ‬ / ‫ﺣﻘﯿﻘﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺆرة‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻦ‬(‫)ب‬‫اﻟﺘﻜﻮر‬ ‫وﻣﺮﻛﺰ‬(‫)م‬ ]٣[‫ﯾﺴﺎوى‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺴﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺆرى‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﺿﻌﻒ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬‫اﻟﺘﻜﻮر‬ ‫ﻣﺮﻛﺰ‬)‫م‬( ‫ﺻﻮرة‬‫ﻣﺴﺎوﯾﺔ‬ / ‫ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺑﺔ‬ / ‫ﺣﻘﯿﻘﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺠﺴﻢ‬‫اﻟﺘﻜﻮر‬ ‫ﻣﺮﻛﺰ‬)‫م‬( ‫ا‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻮرة‬ ‫ﺧﻮاص‬‫اﻟﻤﻘﻌﺮة‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮاة‬ ‫ﺑﻮاﺳﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺘﻜﻮﻧﺔ‬
  14. 14. ‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﺮ‬ ‫اﺑﻮ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻟﺪ‬٠١١٤٠٢٣٧٩٩ ١٤ ‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺬﻛﺮة‬2017‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﺮ‬ ‫اﺑﻮ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻟﺪ‬ Page |١٤ ]٤[‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫أﻛﺒﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺴﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺆرى‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻌﺪ‬(‫)ب‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﺿﻌﻒ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫وأﺻﻐﺮ‬ .‫اﻟﺒﺆرى‬ ‫ﺻﻮرة‬‫ﻣﻜﺒﺮة‬ / ‫ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺑﺔ‬ / ‫ﺣﻘﯿﻘﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﻛﺰ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫أﺑﻌﺪ‬‫اﻟﺘﻜﻮر‬)‫م‬( ]٥[‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫أﻗﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺴﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺆرى‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﺻﻮرة‬‫ﻣﻜﺒﺮة‬ / ‫ﻣﻌﺘﺪﻟﺔ‬ / ‫ﺗﻘﺪﯾﺮﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﺧﻠﻒ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻜﻮن‬‫اﻟﻤﺮآة‬ : ‫ﻣﻠﺤﻮﻇﺔ‬‫؟‬ ‫ﺻﻮرة‬ ‫ﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻜﻮن‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻘﻌﺮة‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮاة‬ ‫ﺑﺆرة‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺟﺴﻢ‬ ‫وﺿﻊ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻻﻧﮭﺎﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻮازﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻌﻜﺲ‬ ‫اﻻﺷﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻻن‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺠ‬ ‫وﺿﺤﻰ‬‫ﺗﻌﯿﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﯾﻤﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﯿﻒ‬ ‫ﺮﺑﺔ‬‫ا‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮر‬ ‫ﻗﻄﺮ‬ ‫ﻧﺼﻒ‬‫ﻟﻤﺮاة‬‫اﻟ‬: ‫ﻤﻘﻌﺮة‬( ‫ﻧﻖ‬ ) ‫اﻻدوات‬:١-‫ﻣﻘﻌﺮة‬ ‫ﻣﺮاة‬ ٢-‫ﻟﻠﻤﺮاة‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻣﻞ‬ ٣-‫ﺛﻘﺐ‬ ‫ﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﺿﻮﺋﻰ‬ ‫ﺻﻨﺪوق‬ ٤-‫ﻣﺴﻄﺮة‬ : ‫اﻟﺨﻄﻮات‬١-‫اﻟﺜﻘﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﻀﻮﺋﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺼﺪر‬ ‫اﻣﺎم‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺎﻣﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮاة‬ ‫ﻧﻀﻊ‬ ٢-‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻗﺮﺑﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮاة‬ ‫ﻧﺤﺮك‬‫وﺑﺠﻮارة‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺜﻘﺐ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎوﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﺻﻮرة‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻧﺤﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﺣﺘﻰ‬ ٣-‫اﻟﺜﻘﺐ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮاة‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﯿﺲ‬ ‫اﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎج‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻼﺣﻈﺔ‬ ‫ان‬‫ا‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮر‬ ‫ﻗﻄﺮ‬ ‫ﻧﺼﻒ‬‫ﻟﻤﺮاة‬‫اﻟ‬‫ﻤﻘﻌﺮة‬( ‫ﻧﻖ‬ )‫ھﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺜﻘﺐ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮاة‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ھﻮ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺨﺪاﻣﺎت‬‫اﻟﻤﻘﻌﺮة‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮاة‬‫؟‬ ١-‫اﻟﻀﻮء‬ ‫ﻟﻌﻜﺲ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﯿﺐ‬ ‫ﻛﺸﺎف‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪم‬ ٢-‫اﻟﻤﺼﺎﺑﯿ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪم‬‫اﻟﻀﻮء‬ ‫ﻟﻌﻜﺲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺴﯿﺎرات‬ ‫اﻻﻣﺎﻣﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺢ‬ ٣-‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪم‬‫اﻟﺴﻔﻦ‬ ‫ﻻرﺷﺎد‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮاﻧﻰ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺤﺮﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﻨﺎرات‬ ٤-‫اﻟﻄﺎﺋﺮات‬ ‫ﻻرﺷﺎد‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺎﺋﺮات‬ ‫ھﺒﻮط‬ ‫ﺑﻤﻤﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮدة‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺸﺎﻓﺎت‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪم‬ ٥-‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪم‬‫ﻣﻜﺒﺮا‬ ‫ﻓﯿﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻮﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﯾﺮى‬ ‫ﺣﯿﺚ‬ ‫اﻟﺬﻗﻦ‬ ‫ﺣﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﻜﻮﻧﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻮرة‬ ‫ﺧﻮاص‬:‫اﻟﻤﺤﺪﺑﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮآة‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻮرة‬‫اﻟﻤﺮاة‬‫اﻟﻤﺤﺪﺑﺔ‬‫ﺗﻜﻮن‬‫ﺻﻮرة‬ ‫داﺋﻤﺎ‬‫ﻣﻌﺘﺪﻟﺔ‬ / ‫ﺗﻘﺪﯾﺮﯾﺔ‬/‫ﻣﺼﻐﺮة‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮاة‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺴﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﻛﺎن‬ ‫ﻣﮭﻤﺎ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺨﺪاﻣﺎت‬‫اﻟﻤ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮاة‬‫؟‬ ‫ﺤﺪﺑﺔ‬ ‫؟‬ ‫اﻟﺴﯿﺎرة‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺋﻖ‬ ‫ﯾﺴﺎر‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺪﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺮاة‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪم‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﻐ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺘﺪﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺪﯾﺮﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﺻﻮرة‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮن‬ ‫ﺣﺘﻰ‬‫اﻟﺴﺎﺋﻖ‬ ‫ﺧﻠﻒ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻄﺮﯾﻖ‬ ‫ﺮة‬‫ﻛﺸﻒ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻓﯿﺴﺎﻋﺪ‬‫اﻟﻄﺮﯾﻖ‬‫ﺧﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮاﯾﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎﺋﻞ‬ ١-‫ﻃﻮﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺟﺴﻢ‬٥‫ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫وﺿﻊ‬ ‫ﺳﻢ‬٦‫اﻟﺒﺆرى‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪھﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﻌﺮة‬ ‫ﻣﺮاة‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺳﻢ‬٣‫ﺳﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺮاة‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﻜﻮﻧﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻮرة‬ ‫ﺧﻮاص‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺮﺳﻢ‬ ‫وﺿﺤﻰ‬‫اﻟﺼﻮرة‬ ‫ﻃﻮل‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫و‬
  15. 15. ‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﺮ‬ ‫اﺑﻮ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻟﺪ‬٠١١٤٠٢٣٧٩٩ ١٥ ‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺬﻛﺮة‬2017‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﺮ‬ ‫اﺑﻮ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻟﺪ‬ Page |١٥ ٢-‫ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺟﺴﻢ‬ ‫وﺿﻊ‬١٥‫ﻛﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺮاة‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺳﻢ‬‫اﻟﺼﻮرة‬ ‫ﻃﻮل‬ = ‫اﻟﺠﺴﻢ‬ ‫ﻃﻮل‬ ‫ﻛﺎن‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺣﺎﺋﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺻﻮرة‬ ‫ﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﻜﻮﻧﺖ‬ ‫ﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮاة‬ ‫ﻧﻮع‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬–‫ﻟﻠﻤﺮاة‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺆرى‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻌﺪ‬ ‫اﺣﺴﺒﻰ‬-‫ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺮاة‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﻜﻮﻧﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻮرة‬ ‫ﺧﻮاص‬ ‫و‬ ٣-‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺟﺴﻢ‬ ‫وﺿﻊ‬٨‫ﻣﺼﻐﺮة‬ ‫ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﻘﯿﻘﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺻﻮرة‬ ‫ﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﻜﻮﻧﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﺮاة‬ ‫ﻗﻄﺐ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺳﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺴﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺮك‬ ‫واذا‬٢‫ﺻﻮر‬ ‫ﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﻜﻮﻧﺖ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮاة‬ ‫ﺟﮭﺔ‬ ‫ﺳﻢ‬‫ﻟﻠﺠﺴﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎوﯾﺔ‬ ‫ة‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮاة‬ ‫ﻧﻮع‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬–‫اﻟﺒﺆرى‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪھﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬–‫اﻟﺜﺎﻧﯿﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻻوﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻮرة‬ ‫ارﺳﻤﻰ‬ : ‫اﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎت‬-‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮى‬ ‫وآﺧﺮ‬ ‫ﻛﺮى‬ ‫ﺳﻄﺢ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ﻛﺮﯾﺎن‬ ‫ﺳﻄﺤﺎن‬ ‫ﯾﺤﺪه‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻀﻮء‬ ‫ﻛﺎﺳﺮ‬ ‫ﺷﻔﺎف‬ ‫وﺳﻂ‬ ‫ھﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎت‬ ‫اﺳﺴﺘﺨﺪام‬ ‫و‬ ‫اھﻤﯿﺔ‬: ١-‫اﻟﻨﻈﺎرات‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪم‬‫ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪم‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺒﯿﺔ‬‫ﻟﻠﻤﺸﻰ‬ ‫او‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻘﺮاءة‬ ٢-‫اﻟﺴﺎﻋﺎت‬ ‫اﺻﻼح‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪم‬‫ﻓﯿﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺪﻗﯿﻘﺔ‬ ‫اﻻﺟﺰاء‬ ‫ﻟﺮؤﯾﺔ‬ ٣-‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪم‬‫اﻟﺤﺮوب‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺎﻇﯿﺮ‬ :‫اﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎت‬ ‫أﻧﻮاع‬- ]١(‫)ﻣﺠﻤﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺪﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﺳﺔ‬ []٢(‫)ﻣﻔﺮﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﻌﺮة‬ ‫ﻋﺪﺳﺔ‬ [ ‫ﺳﻤﯿﻜﺔ‬‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬‫اﻟ‬‫ﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ‬‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫ورﻗﯿﻘﺔ‬‫اﻟ‬‫ﺤﺎﻓﮫ‬‫رﻗﯿﻘﺔ‬‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬‫اﻟ‬‫ﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ‬‫و‬‫ﺳﻤﯿﻜﺔ‬‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬‫اﻟ‬‫ﺤﺎﻓﮫ‬. ‫ﻻﻧﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻼﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﻤﻰ‬‫اﻷﺷﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺠﻤﻊ‬‫اﻟﺴﺎ‬‫ﻗﻄ‬‫ﺔ‬‫ﻣﺘﻮازﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﯿﮭﺎ‬‫ﺗﻔﺮق‬ ‫ﻻﻧﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻔﺮﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﻤﻰ‬‫اﻷﺷﻌﺔ‬‫اﻟﺴﺎ‬‫ﻗﻄ‬‫ﺔ‬‫ﻣﺘﻮازﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﯿﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﺣﻘﯿﻘﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻻﺻﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺆرﺗﮭﺎ‬‫ﺗﻘﺪﯾﺮﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻻﺻﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺆرﺗﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﺣﻘﯿﻘﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮن‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮﻧﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻮر‬ ‫اﻏﻠﺐ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺪﯾﺮﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮﻧﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻮر‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻔﮭﻮم‬‫ﺗﻌﺮﯾﻔﮫ‬ (‫)م‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬ ‫وﺟﮫ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮر‬ ‫ﻣﺮﻛﺰ‬‫ھﻮ‬‫اﻟﻜﺮة‬ ‫ﻣﺮﻛﺰ‬‫ﯾﻌﺘﺒﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺬى‬.‫ﻣﻨﮭﺎ‬ ً‫ا‬‫ﺟﺰء‬ ‫اﻟﻮﺟﮫ‬ ‫ھﺬا‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬ ‫اﻷﺻﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺤﻮر‬)‫م‬ ‫م‬(‫ھﻮ‬.‫اﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬ ‫وﺟﮭﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮر‬ ‫ﺑﻤﺮﻛﺰى‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎر‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺼﺮى‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮﻛﺰ‬)‫ص‬(‫ھﻮ‬.‫اﻷﺻﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺤﻮر‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻃﻦ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫وھﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‬‫وﺟﮭﯿﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺘﺼﻒ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺜﺎﻧﻮى‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺤﻮر‬‫ھﻮ‬.‫اﻷﺻﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻮرھﺎ‬ ‫ﻏﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺼﺮى‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺮﻛﺰ‬ ‫ﯾﻤﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻘﯿﻢ‬ ‫أى‬ ‫اﻟ‬‫ﺒﺆرة‬‫ﻟ‬ ‫اﻻﺻﻠﯿﺔ‬(‫)ب‬ ‫ﻠﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‬ ‫ھﻰ‬ ‫ن‬‫اﻷﺷﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻼﻗﻰ‬‫اﻟﻤﻨﻜﺴﺮة‬‫ھﻰ‬.‫اﻣﺘﺪادھﺎ‬ ‫أو‬ (‫)ع‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺆرى‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻌﺪ‬‫ھﻮ‬‫اﻟﺒ‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬.‫ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺼﺮى‬ ‫واﻟﻤﺮﻛﺰ‬ ‫اﻷﺻﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺆرة‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬ ‫وﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮر‬ ‫ﻗﻄﺮ‬ ‫ﻧﺼﻒ‬)‫ﻧﻖ‬(‫ﻣﻨﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﺟﺰءا‬ ‫اﻟﻮﺟﺔ‬ ‫ھﺬا‬ ‫ﯾﻌﺘﺒﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺮة‬ ‫ﻗﻄﺮ‬ ‫ﻧﺼﻒ‬ ‫ھﻮ‬
  16. 16. ‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﺮ‬ ‫اﺑﻮ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻟﺪ‬٠١١٤٠٢٣٧٩٩ ١٦ ‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺬﻛﺮة‬2017‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﺮ‬ ‫اﺑﻮ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻟﺪ‬ Page |١٦ :‫ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻘﺪﯾﺮﯾﺔ‬ ‫واﻟﺒﺆرة‬ ‫اﻟﺤﻘﯿﻘﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺆرة‬- ‫اﻟﺤﻘﯿﻘﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺆرة‬‫اﻟﺘﻘﺪﯾﺮﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺆرة‬ ‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‬ ‫ھﻰ‬‫اﻷﺷﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻼﻗﻰ‬‫اﻟﻤﻨﻜﺴﺮة‬‫ﻓﻰ‬.‫اﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬‫اﻟﻤ‬‫ﺤﺪﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‬ ‫ھﻰ‬‫اﻷﺷﻌﺔ‬ ‫اﻣﺘﺪاد‬ ‫ﺗﻼﻗﻰ‬‫اﻟﻤﻨﻜﺴﺮة‬‫اﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ.اﻟﻤﻘﻌﺮة‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫و‬.‫ﺣﺎﺋﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻘﺒﺎﻟﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﯾﻤﻜﻦ‬‫و‬.‫ﺣﺎﺋﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻘﺒﺎﻟﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﯾﻤﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺤﺪﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺆرى‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﯿﯿﻦ‬( ‫ع‬ ): : ‫اﻻدوات‬‫ﻣﺤﺪﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﺳﺔ‬-‫ﺣﺎﺋﻞ‬-‫اﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻣﻞ‬-‫ﺑﻌﯿﺪ‬ ‫ﺿﻮﺋﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﺪر‬ : ‫اﻟﺨﻄﻮات‬ ١-‫ﻧﻀﻊ‬‫اﻟﺒﻌﯿﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﻀﻮﺋﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺼﺪر‬ ‫ﺟﮭﯿﮭﺎ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﺣﺪ‬ ‫ﯾﻘﺎﺑﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﺤﯿﺚ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺎﻣﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬ ٢-‫اﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻗﺮﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻧﺤﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬ ‫اﻻﺧﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺎﻧﺐ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫راﺳﯿﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺎﺋﻞ‬ ‫ﻧﻀﻊ‬ ‫ﺑﺆرة‬ ‫ھﻰ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﻜﻮن‬ ‫ﻣﻀﯿﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‬ ‫اوﺿﺢ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻧﺤﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﺣﺘﻰ‬‫ا‬‫ﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬ ٣-‫ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺼﺮى‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮﻛﺰ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ‬ ‫ھﺬة‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﯿﺲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻼﺣﻈﺔ‬‫ﺗ‬‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺠﻤﻌﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺤﺪﺑﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻻﺷﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻨﻔﺬ‬‫ﺑﺆرة‬‫ا‬‫ﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬ ‫اﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎج‬‫ﺗﻤﺜﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺎﺋﻞ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬‫اﻟﻤﺤﺪﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺆرى‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻌﺪ‬( ‫ع‬ ) ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺎﻗﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎراﻷﺷﻌﺔ‬‫ﺳﻄﺢ‬‫ﻋﺪﺳﺔ‬‫ﻣﺤﺪﺑﺔ‬:- ‫اﻟﺴﺎﻗﻂ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻌﺎع‬‫اﻷﺻﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺤﻮر‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﻣﻮازﯾ‬‫اﻟﺴﺎﻗﻂ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻌﺎع‬‫ﺑﺎﻟﺒﺆرة‬ ً‫ا‬‫ﻣﺎر‬ً‫ا‬‫ﻣﺎر‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺎﻗﻂ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻌﺎع‬‫ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺼﺮى‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺮﻛﺰ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺒﺆرة‬ ‫ﻣﺎرا‬ ً‫ا‬‫ﻣﻨﻜﺴﺮ‬ ‫ﯾﻨﻔﺬ‬ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﻣﻮازﯾ‬ ‫ﯾﻨﻔﺬ‬‫اﻷﺻﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺤﻮر‬‫اﺳﺘﻘﺎﻣﺘﮫ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﯾﻨﻔﺬ‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ب‬
  17. 17. ‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﺮ‬ ‫اﺑﻮ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻟﺪ‬٠١١٤٠٢٣٧٩٩ ١٧ ‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺬﻛﺮة‬2017‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﺮ‬ ‫اﺑﻮ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻟﺪ‬ Page |١٧ ‫اﻟﺠﺴﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺿﻊ‬‫اﻟﺮﺳﻢ‬‫اﻟﺼﻮرة‬ ‫ﺧﻮاص‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺎﻗﻄﺔ‬ ‫اﻻﺷﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺟﺪا‬ ‫ﺑﻌﯿﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺴﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﺮاﺳﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺤﻮر‬ ‫ﻣﻮازﯾﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻮازﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﻘﯿﻘﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺻﻮرة‬‫ﻋﺒﺎرة‬ ‫ﺟﺪا‬ ‫ﺻﻐﯿﺮة‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻮرة‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻀﯿﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬(‫ب‬ ) ‫ﺿﻌﻒ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫أﻛﺒﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺴﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺆرى‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻌﺪ‬‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻜﻮر‬ ‫ﻣﺮﻛﺰ‬‫م‬ )(. ‫ﺣﻘﯿﻘﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺻﻮرة‬‫ﻣﺼﻐﺮة‬ ‫ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺑﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻜﻮر‬ ‫وﻣﺮﻛﺰ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺆرة‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻊ‬ ( ‫م‬ )‫و‬ (‫ب‬ )‫ﺑﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﯾﺴﺎوى‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺴﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﺿﻌﻒ‬‫اﻟﺒﺆرى‬‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻜﻮر‬ ‫ﻣﺮﻛﺰ‬( ‫م‬ ) ‫ﺣﻘﯿﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺻﻮرة‬‫ﻟﻠﺠﺴﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎوﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻊ‬‫اﻟﺘﻜﻮر‬ ‫ﻣﺮﻛﺰ‬( ‫م‬ ) ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫أﻛﺒﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺴﻢ‬‫اﻟﺒﻌﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﺿﻌﻒ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫وأﺻﻐﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺆرى‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺆرى‬( ‫م‬ )‫و‬ (‫ب‬ )‫ﺑﯿﻦ‬‫ﺣﻘﯿﻘﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺻﻮرة‬‫ﻣﻜﺒﺮة‬ ‫ﻣﻘﻠﻮﺑﺔ‬‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻜﻮر‬ ‫ﻣﺮﻛﺰ‬( ‫م‬ ) ‫اﻟﺒﺆرة‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺴﻢ‬(‫ب‬ ) ‫ﻻ‬‫ﺗﺘﻜﻮن‬‫ﺻﻮرة‬‫ﺗﻨ‬ ‫اﻻﺷﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻻن‬‫ﻔﺬ‬ ‫اﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻮازﯾﺔ‬‫ﻻﻧﮭﺎﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻗﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺴﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺆرى‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻌﺪ‬(‫ب‬ ) ‫ﻣﻜﺒﺮة‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺘﺪﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺪﯾﺮﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﺻﻮرة‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺴﻢ‬ ‫ﺟﮭﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﻔﺲ‬ ‫وﻓﻰ‬ ١-‫ﻣﺤﺪﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺆرة‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫وﺿﻌﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫رﻗﯿﻘﺔ‬ ‫ورﻗﺔ‬ ‫اﺣﺘﺮاق‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﯾﺆدى‬ ‫ﻣﻤﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺆرة‬ ‫ﺗﺴﻤﻰ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫اﻧﻜﺴﺎرھﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫اﻻﺷﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺠﻤﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺤﺪﺑﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﻻن‬‫ﻓﺘﺤﺘﺮق‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪھﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻤﺲ‬ ‫اﺷﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﻛﯿﺰ‬ ٢-‫اﻟﻤﺤﺪﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺆرى‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻞ‬‫اﻟﺮﻓﯿﻌﺔ‬‫اﻛﺒﺮ‬‫اﻟﻤﺤﺪﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺆرى‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬‫اﻟﺴﻤﯿﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮر‬ ‫ﻗﻄﺮ‬ ‫ﻧﺼﻒ‬ ‫ﻻن‬‫اﻟﻤﺤﺪﺑﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬‫ﺗﻜﻮر‬ ‫ﻗﻄﺮ‬ ‫ﻧﺼﻒ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻛﺒﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺮﻓﯿﻌﺔ‬‫اﻟﺴﻤﯿﻜﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺤﺪﺑﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬ ٣-‫ﺗﻜﻮر‬ ‫ﻣﺮﻛﺰ‬ ‫ﻟﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮاة‬ ‫اﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮر‬ ‫ﻣﺮﻛﺰﯾﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻞ‬‫واﺣﺪ‬ ‫واﺣﺪ‬ ‫ﻛﺮى‬ ‫ﺳﻄﺢ‬ ‫ﻟﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮاة‬ ‫اﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﺮﯾﺎن‬ ‫ﺳﻄﺤﺎن‬ ‫ﻟﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﻻن‬ ‫ﺧﻮاص‬‫اﻟﺼﻮر‬‫ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﻜﻮﻧﺔ‬ ‫ة‬‫اﻟﻤﺤﺪﺑﺔ‬
  18. 18. ‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﺮ‬ ‫اﺑﻮ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻟﺪ‬٠١١٤٠٢٣٧٩٩ ١٨ ‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺬﻛﺮة‬2017‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﺮ‬ ‫اﺑﻮ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻟﺪ‬ Page |١٨ ‫ﺑﺎﻟ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻮرة‬ ‫ﺧﻮاص‬‫اﻟﻤﻘﻌﺮة‬ ‫ﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬: ‫ﻣﻮﺿﻊ‬ ‫اى‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬ ‫اﻣﺎم‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺴﻢ‬‫ﻣﺼﻐﺮة‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺘﺪﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺪﯾﺮﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﺻﻮرة‬ ‫داﺋﻤﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺴﻢ‬ ‫ﺟﮭﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﻔﺲ‬ : ‫اﻻﺑﺼﺎر‬ ‫ﻋﯿﻮب‬ ‫اھﻢ‬‫اﻟﻨﻈﺮ‬ ‫ﻃﻮل‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻈﺮ‬ ‫ﻗﺼﺮ‬ ‫ﻃﻮ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻈﺮ‬ ‫ﻗﺼﺮ‬ ‫ﺣﺪوث‬ ‫ﺳﺒﺐ‬ ‫ھﻮ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬‫اﻟﻨﻈﺮ؟‬ ‫ل‬١-‫اﻟﻌﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﺮوﯾﺔ‬ ‫إﻧﺘﻈﺎم‬ ‫ﻋﺪم‬٢-‫ﺗﺤﺪب‬ ‫إﻧﺘﻈﺎم‬ ‫ﻋﺪم‬‫ﻋﺪﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﺳﻄﺤﻰ‬‫اﻟﻌﯿﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺨﺺ‬:‫اﻟﺴﻠﯿﻢ‬‫ﯾ‬‫اﻻﺟﺴﺎم‬ ‫ﺮى‬) ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﯾﺘﺮاوح‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫واﺿﺤﺔ‬٢٥‫ﺳﻢ‬:٦‫ﻣﺘﺮ‬( ‫اﻟﻤﺮض‬‫اﻟﻨﻈﺮ‬ ‫ﻗﺼﺮ‬‫اﻟﻨﻈﺮ‬ ‫ﻃﻮل‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﺮﯾﻒ‬ ‫رؤﯾﺔ‬ ‫ھﻮ‬‫اﻷﺟﺴﺎم‬‫اﻟﻘﺮﯾﺒﺔ‬‫واﺿﺤﺔ‬‫و‬‫اﻷﺟﺴﺎم‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻌﯿﺪة‬‫ﻣﺸﻮھﺔ‬ ‫رؤﯾﺔ‬ ‫ھﻮ‬‫اﻷﺟﺴﺎم‬‫واﺿﺤﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻌﯿﺪة‬‫و‬‫اﻷﺟﺴﺎم‬ ‫اﻟﻘﺮﯾﺒﺔ‬‫ﻣﺸﻮھﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮن‬ ‫ﻣﻜﺎن‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻮرة‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻊ‬‫اﻟﺼﻮ‬‫رة‬‫اﻟﺸﺒﻜﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻣﺎم‬‫ﺗﻘﻊ‬‫اﻟﺼﻮرة‬‫اﻟﺸﺒﻜﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺧﻠﻒ‬ ‫اﺳﺒﺎب‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮض‬ ١-‫زﯾﺎدة‬‫ﻗﻄﺮ‬‫ﻛﺮة‬‫اﻟﻌﯿﻦ‬‫ﻓﺘﻜﻮن‬‫اﻟﺸﺒﻜﯿﺔ‬‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﯿﺪة‬ ‫اﻟﻌﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﺳﺔ‬ ٢-‫اﻟﻌﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﺳﻄﺤﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺪب‬ ‫زﯾﺎدة‬‫ﺑﻌﺪھﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﯿﻘﻞ‬‫اﻟﺒﺆرى‬ ١-‫ﻧﻘﺺ‬‫ﻗﻄﺮ‬‫ﻛﺮة‬‫اﻟﻌﯿﻦ‬‫ﻓﺘﻜﻮن‬‫اﻟﺸﺒﻜﯿﺔ‬‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻗﺮﯾﺒﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﺳﺔ‬ ٢-‫ﻓﯿﺰداد‬ ‫اﻟﻌﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﺳﻄﺤﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺪب‬ ‫ﻧﻘﺺ‬‫ﺑﻌﺪھﺎ‬‫اﻟﺒﺆرى‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﻌﺮة‬ ‫ﻋﺪﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪام‬‫اﻷﺷﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻔﺮﯾﻖ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﯿﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻰ‬ ‫دﺧﻮﻟﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻗﺒﻞ‬‫اﻟﺸﺒﻜﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻮرة‬ ‫ﻓﺘﺘﻜﻮن‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺪﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪام‬‫اﻷﺷﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺠﻤﯿﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﯿﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻰ‬ ‫دﺧﻮﻟﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻗﺒﻞ‬‫اﻟﺸﺒﻜﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻮرة‬ ‫ﻓﺘﺘﻜﻮن‬
  19. 19. ‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﺮ‬ ‫اﺑﻮ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻟﺪ‬٠١١٤٠٢٣٧٩٩ ١٩ ‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺬﻛﺮة‬2017‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﺮ‬ ‫اﺑﻮ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻟﺪ‬ Page |١٩ ‫اﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎت‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺨﺪام‬ ١-‫اﻟﻤﻨﺎﻇﯿﺮ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻠﯿﺴﻜﻮب‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﯿﻜﺮوﺳﻜﻮب‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺼﺮﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻻﺟﮭﺰة‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪم‬ ٢-‫اﻟﻄﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻈﺎرات‬ ‫ﺻﻨﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺘﺘﺨﺪم‬ :‫اﻟﻼﺻﻘﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎت‬‫رﻗﯿﻘ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﺳﺎت‬ ‫ھﻰ‬‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫وﺿﻌﮭﺎ‬ ‫وﯾﻤﻜﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻼﺳﺘﯿﻚ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﻨﻮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺟﺪا‬ ‫ﺔ‬‫ﻗﺮﻧﯿﺔ‬‫ﺑﺴﮭﻮﻟﺔ‬ ‫وﻧﺰﻋﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﯿﻦ‬. :‫اﺳﺘﺨﺪاﻣﮭﺎ‬‫اﻟﻄﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻈﺎرات‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﺪﻻ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪم‬ ١‫اﻟﺒﯿﻀﺎء‬ ‫اﻟﻤﯿﺎة‬ ‫او‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺘﺎرﻛﺘﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺮض‬٢-‫اﻟﻤﻘﻌﺮة‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮاﯾﺎ‬‫ﻣﺴﺎﺣ‬ ‫ﻗﯿﺎس‬‫ﺔ‬‫اﻻراﺿﻰ‬ ‫ﻋﺪ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺳﺤﺎﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺎر‬ ‫ھﻰ‬‫ﺗﺆدى‬ ‫اﻟﻌﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﺳﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺮؤﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﺿﻌﻒ‬ ‫اﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮض‬ ‫اﺳﺒﺎب‬ ١-‫اﻟﺴﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﺒﺮ‬ ٢-‫اﻵﺛﺎر‬ ‫و‬‫اﻟﺠﺎﻧﺒﯿﺔ‬‫ﻟﻠﻌﻘﺎﻗﯿﺮ‬‫اﻟﻄﺒﯿﺔ‬ ٣-‫اﻷﻣﺮاض‬ ‫و‬‫اﻟﻮراﺛﯿﺔ‬ : ‫اﻟﻌﻼج‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺪﺧﻞ‬‫اﻟﺠﺮاﺣﻰ‬‫ﺑﺈﺳﺘﺒﺪال‬‫ﻋﺪﺳﺔ‬‫اﻟﻌﯿﻦ‬‫ﺑﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻼﺳﺘﯿﻜﯿﺔ‬ ‫إﺳﺘﺨﺪم‬‫أرﺷﯿﻤﯿﺪس‬‫اﻟﻤﻘﻌﺮة‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮاﯾﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﺴﻼح‬‫ﺿﺪ‬‫اﻷﺳﻄﻮل‬‫اﻟﺮوﻣﺎﻧﻰ‬ ‫ﺣﯿﺚ‬‫و‬‫ﺿﻊ‬‫ﻋﺪة‬‫ﻣﺮاﯾﺎ‬‫ﻣﻘﻌﺮة‬‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻤﺲ‬ ‫اﺷﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻮاﺟﮭﺔ‬‫ﻓﺘﺠﻤﻌﺖ‬ ‫واﺣﺪة‬ ‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﻌﻜﺴﺔ‬ ‫اﻻﺷﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﻮﻟﺪت‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻔﻦ‬ ‫اﺷﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬‫ﺣﺮارة‬ ‫ﺷﺪﯾﺪة‬‫اﺣﺘﺮاﻗﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻰ‬ ‫ادت‬‫ﺑﻜﺎﻣﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻔﻦ‬ ‫ﻏﺮق‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫و‬ ١-‫ﯾﺴﺘﺨﺪم‬‫و‬ ‫اﻻراﺿﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎﺣﻮ‬‫ﻋﻠﻤﺎء‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺒﻮﻏﺮاﻓﯿﺎ‬‫ﺗﺤﺪﯾﺪ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‬ ‫اﺟﮭﺰة‬ ‫اﻻﺟ‬ ‫ھﺬة‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺎت‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻻرﺗﻔﺎﻋﺎت‬‫ﮭﺰة‬ ‫ﻋﺪﺳﺎت‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺑﻤﺮاﯾﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺰودة‬ ٢-‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻻﺟﮭﺰة‬ ‫ھﺬة‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻜﺮة‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻘﺒﺎﻟﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﺛﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﻠﯿﺰر‬ ‫اﺷﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺣﺰﻣﺔ‬ ‫ارﺳﺎل‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮاﯾﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﻮاﺳﻄﺔ‬‫واﻟﻌﺪﺳﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺎب‬ ‫ﯾﻤﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ف‬ = ‫ع‬×‫ز‬ ‫ھﻮ‬‫اﻟﺸﺎﺳﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﻀﺎء‬‫اﻟﻤﻤﺘﺪ‬‫اﻟﺬى‬‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﯾﺤﺘﻮى‬‫اﻟﻤﺠﺮات‬. ‫ﺷﺊ‬ ‫وﻛﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﯿﺔ‬ ‫واﻟﻜﺎﺋﻨﺎت‬ ‫واﻷﻗﻤﺎر‬ ‫واﻟﻜﻮاﻛﺐ‬ ‫واﻟﻨﺠﻮم‬ ‫و‬ ١-‫اﻟﺠﺎذﺑﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺘﺎﺛﯿﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﻀﺎء‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺪور‬ ‫اﻟﻨﺠﻮم‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺎت‬ ‫ھﻰ‬ ٢٢-‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺠﺮات‬ ‫ﻋﺪد‬‫اﻟﻜﻮن‬‫ﺣﻮاﻟﻰ‬١٠٠.٠٠٠‫ﻣﺠﺮة‬ ‫ﻣﻠﯿﻮن‬ ٣-‫ﺗﻌﺘﺒﺮ‬ ‫و‬‫وﺣﺪة‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺠﺮة‬‫ﺑﻨﺎء‬‫اﻟﻜﻮن‬ ٤-‫ﻣﺠﺮة‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬‫ﺗ‬( ‫ﻋﻠﻞ‬ ) ‫ﻣﻤﯿﺰا‬ ‫ﺷﻜﻼ‬ ‫ﺘﺨﺬ‬‫ﺗ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺐ‬ ‫وذﻟﻚ‬‫ﺮﺗﯿﺐ‬‫و‬‫ﺗﻨﺎﺳﻖ‬‫ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺎت‬‫اﻟﻨﺠﻮم‬‫ﻓﯿﮭﺎ‬ ٥-‫ﺗﺘﺠﻤﻊ‬‫اﻟﻤﺠﺮات‬‫ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎ‬‫ﻋﻨﺎﻗﯿﺪ‬‫اﻟﻤﺠﺮات‬ ٦-: ‫اﻟﻤﺠﺮات‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺎﻗﯿﺪ‬‫ھﻰ‬‫ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ‬‫اﻟﺠﺎذﺑﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻔﻌﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﻀﺎء‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺪور‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺠﺮات‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ١-‫ﻣﺠﺮة‬ ‫ھﻰ‬‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﺣﻠﺰوﻧﯿﺔ‬ ‫او‬ ‫ﻟﻮﻟﺒﯿﺔ‬ ٢-‫اﻟﻨﺠﻮم‬ ‫ﻣﻼﯾﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺘﻮى‬‫وﺗﻌﺘﺒﺮاﻟﺸﻤﺲ‬‫اﻟﻨﺠﻮم‬ ‫ھﺬة‬ ‫اﺣﺪ‬ ٣-‫ا‬‫ﻟﻨﺠﻮم‬‫ﻋﻤﺮا‬ ‫اﻻﻗﺪم‬‫ﺗﻘﻊ‬‫ﻣﺮﻛﺰاﻟﻤﺠﺮة‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬‫ﻣ‬‫اﻟﺼﻐﯿﺮة‬ ‫اﻟﻨﺠﻮم‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﮭﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﻃﺔ‬(‫ﻋﻤﺮا‬ ‫)اﻻﺣﺪث‬‫اﻟﺼﻐﯿﺮة‬ ‫اﻟﻨﺠﻮم‬ ‫ھﺬة‬‫ﺗ‬‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﻘﻊ‬ ‫اﻻذرع‬‫اﻟﺤﻠﺰوﻧﯿﺔ‬‫ﻟﻠﻤﺠﺮة‬ ٤-‫اﻟﺘﺒﺎﻧﺔ‬ ‫درب‬ ‫ﺑﻤﺠﺮة‬ ‫ﺳﻤﯿﺖ‬‫ﻻن‬‫ﯾ‬ ‫ﺑﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﺠﻮم‬ ‫ﺗﺠﻤﻊ‬‫اﻻرض‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺜﻮر‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺒﻦ‬ ‫ﺸﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﻄﺒﯿﻖ‬
  20. 20. ‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﺮ‬ ‫اﺑﻮ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻟﺪ‬٠١١٤٠٢٣٧٩٩ ٢٠ ‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺬﻛﺮة‬2017‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﺮ‬ ‫اﺑﻮ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻟﺪ‬ Page |٢٠ ١-: ‫اﻟﺸﻤﺴﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻈﺎم‬ ‫او‬‫اﻟﺸﻤﺴ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻈﺎم‬ ‫ﯾﺘﻜﻮن‬‫اﻟﺸﻤﺲ‬ ‫ھﻮ‬ ‫و‬ ‫واﺣﺪ‬ ‫ﻧﺠﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻰ‬‫ﯾ‬‫ﺣﻮﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺪور‬٨‫ﻛﻮاﻛﺐ‬ ٢-‫ﺗﺪور‬‫اﻟﻜﻮاﻛﺐ‬‫ﺣﻮل‬‫اﻟﺸﻤﺲ‬ ٣-‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺠﺮة‬ ‫ﻣﺮﻛﺰ‬ ‫ﺣﻮل‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ‬ ‫دورة‬ ‫وﺗﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺠﺮة‬ ‫ﻣﺮﻛﺰ‬ ‫ﺣﻮل‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻤﺲ‬ ‫ﺗﺪور‬ ‫و‬٢٢٠‫ﺳﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻠﯿﻮن‬ ٤-‫اﻟﺸﻤﺴﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻊ‬‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬‫اﻟﺤﻠﺰوﻧﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻷذرع‬ ‫أﺣﺪ‬‫ﻟﻤﺠﺮة‬‫اﻟﺘﺒﺎﻧﺔ‬ ‫درب‬‫اﻟﻤﺠﺮة‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻮن‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻤﺎوﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻻﺟﺮام‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺎت‬ ‫ﻗﯿﺎس‬ ‫اﻟﻀﻮﺋﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪم‬‫ﻻ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻤﺎوﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻻﺟﺮام‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺎت‬ ‫ﻗﯿﺎس‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬‫ﯾ‬‫ﻣﺘﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﯿﻠﻮ‬ ‫ﺴﺘﺨﺪم‬‫ﺟﺪا‬ ‫ﻛﺒﯿﺮة‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻨﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺎت‬ ‫ﻻن‬ ‫؟‬ : ‫اﻟﻀﻮﺋﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻨﺔ‬= ‫ﺗﺴﺎوى‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺳﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻀﻮء‬ ‫ﯾﻘﻄﻌﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ھﻰ‬٩٤٦٠.٠٠٠‫ﻛﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻠﯿﻮن‬‫او‬٩.٤٦×١٢ ١٠ ‫اﻟﻀﻮء‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ‬= ‫ھﻰ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻮاﺣﺪة‬ ‫اﻟﺜﺎﻧﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻀﻮء‬ ‫ﯾﻘﻄﻌﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ھﻰ‬٣×١٠٨ ‫م/ث‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻮن‬ ‫ﺗﻤﺪد‬‫اﻟﻤﺠﺮات‬ ‫ﺗﺒﺎﻋﺪ‬ ‫ھﻮ‬‫ﺑﻌﻀﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬‫ﻧﺘﯿﺠﺔ‬‫ﺣﺮﻛ‬‫ﺘﮭﺎ‬‫اﻟﻤﻨﺘﻈﻤﺔ‬ ‫؟‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻮﻧﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻔﻀﺎء‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻤﺮ‬ ‫اﻻﺗﺴﺎع‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻞ‬‫ﺑﺴﺒﺐ‬‫اﻟﻤﺠﺮات‬ ‫ﺗﺒﺎﻋﺪ‬‫ﺑﻌﻀﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬‫ﻧﺘﯿﺠﺔ‬‫ﺣﺮﻛ‬‫ﺘﮭﺎ‬‫اﻟﻤﻨﺘﻈﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﻀﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﺒﺎﻋﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺠﺮات‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﻤﺪد‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻮن‬ ‫ان‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺠﺮﺑﺔ‬ ‫وﺿﺤﻰ‬ : ‫اﻻدوات‬‫ﻣﺎء‬–‫دﻗﯿﻖ‬–‫ﺧﻤﯿﺮة‬–‫ذﺑﯿﺐ‬–‫زﺟﺎﺟﻰ‬ ‫اﻧﺎء‬ : ‫اﻟﺨﻄﻮات‬‫ﻣﺘﻤﺎﺳﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﺠﯿﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺪاﻓﺊ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫اﻟﺨﻤﯿﺮة‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺪﻗﯿﻖ‬ ‫ﻧﺨﻠﻂ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺠﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﺳﻄﺢ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺬﺑﯿﺐ‬ ‫ﺣﺒﺎت‬ ‫ﻧﻐﺮس‬ ‫ﯾﺘﺨﻤﺮ‬ ‫ﺣﺘﻰ‬ ‫داﻓﺊ‬ ‫ﻣﻜﺎن‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺠﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻧﺘﺮك‬ : ‫اﻟﻤﻼﺣﻈﺔ‬‫ﺑﻌﻀﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺬﺑﯿﺐ‬ ‫ﺣﺒﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﺒﺎﻋﺪ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺠﯿﻦ‬ ( ‫)ﺗﻤﺪد‬ ‫اﻧﺘﻔﺎخ‬ ‫اﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘ‬: ‫ﺎج‬‫اﻟﻌﺠﯿﻦ‬ ‫اﻧﺘﻔﺎخ‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﻤﺪد‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻮن‬ ‫ان‬ ‫اﻟﺬﺑﯿﺐ‬ ‫ﺣﺒﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﻀﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﺒﺎﻋﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺠﺮات‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻮن‬ ‫ﻟﻨﺸﺎة‬ ‫اﻻﻧﺴﺎن‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻮرات‬‫ﻗﺪﯾﻤﺎ‬: ‫اﻟﻜﻮن‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻮر‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻞ‬‫ﻓﻰ‬‫ﻧﻈﺮﯾﺎت‬ ‫ﺑﻮﺿﻊ‬ ‫ﯾﺴﻤﺢ‬ ‫ﻟﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﺪﯾﻤﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺼﻮر‬‫اﻟﻜﻮن‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺎة‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬‫؟‬ ‫اﻻﻋ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪدة‬ ‫اﻻﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺎﻟﻢ‬ ‫ارﺗﺒﻄﺖ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺼﻮرات‬ ‫ھﺬة‬ ‫ﻻن‬‫اﻻرض‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻦ‬ ‫اﺳﺎﺳﻰ‬ ‫اﺧﺘﻼف‬ ‫ﺑﻮﺟﻮد‬ ‫ﺘﻘﺎد‬ ‫اﺣﺪ‬ ‫وﺟﻮد‬ ‫ﻋﺪم‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻏﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻮن‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺎة‬ ‫ﺗﻔﺴﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺎول‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻈﺮﯾﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺪد‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻞ‬‫اﻟﻜﻮن‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺎة‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﻧﺸ‬ ‫ﻛﯿﻒ‬ ‫ﻟﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﯿﺮوى‬‫ﺄ؟‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﻣﻜﻨﺖ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﻠﻚ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻔﯿﺰﯾﺎء‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺪﯾﺜﺔ‬ ‫اﻻﻛﺘﺸﺎﻓﺎت‬ ‫ﺑﺴﺒﺐ‬‫اﻗﺘﻔﺎء‬‫اﻻو‬ ‫اﻟﻠﺤﻈﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺬ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻮن‬ ‫ﺗﺎرﯾﺦ‬‫ﻟﻨﺸﺄﺗﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻈﯿﻢ‬ ‫اﻻﻧﻔﺠﺎر‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺮﯾﺔ‬ ‫ھﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻮن‬ ‫ﻟﻨﺸﺄة‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺪﯾﺜﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻈﺮﯾﺎت‬ ‫اھﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺼﺮ‬‫اﻟﺤﺠﺮى‬‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺮاﻓﺎت‬ ‫ﺳﯿﻄﺮت‬‫ﺧﯿﺎل‬‫اﻻﻧﺴﺎن‬ ‫اﻟﺼﯿﻨﯿﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﮭﻨﺪﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﻀﺎرة‬‫اﻟﺘﻨﺠﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﺳﺎد‬ ‫اﻟﺮوﻣﺎن‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻻﻏﺮﯾﻖ‬‫ﻧﻈﺮﯾﺎت‬ ‫وﺿﻊ‬ ‫اﻻﻏﺮﯾﻖ‬ ‫ﻓﻼﺳﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺎوﻟﺖ‬‫ﺗ‬‫ا‬ ‫ﻔﺴﺮ‬‫ﻟﻈﻮاھﺮاﻟﻜﻮﻧﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺎﺑﻠﯿﯿﻦ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺼﺮﯾﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻗﺪﻣﺎء‬‫رﺑﻄﻮا‬‫ﻋﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﯿﻄﺮة‬ ‫واﻻﻟﺔاﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪدة‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻮن‬ ‫أزﻟﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻦ‬

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