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ملزمة علوم للصف الثاني الإعدادي الترم الأول 2017 - موقع ملزمتي

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ملزمة علوم للصف الثاني الإعدادي الترم الأول 2017 - موقع ملزمتي
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ملزمة علوم للصف الثاني الإعدادي الترم الأول 2017 - موقع ملزمتي

  1. 1. /‫ا‬ ١ 1 ‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺬﻛﺮة‬٢٠١٧‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﺮ‬ ‫اﺑﻮ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻟﺪ‬ 1 ‫اﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ؟‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻨﯿﻒ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﺣﺎول‬ :‫ﻋﻠﻞ‬١-‫دراﺳﺘﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﯾﺴﮭﻞ‬ ‫ﺣﺘﻰ‬ ٢-‫واﻟﻔﯿﺰﯾﺎﺋﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﯿﻤﯿﺎﺋﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺧﻮاﺻﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻦ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫واﯾﺠﺎد‬ ‫دوري‬ ‫ﺟﺪول‬ ‫أول‬‫ﺣﻘﯿﻘﻲ‬‫اﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺼﻨﯿﻒ‬‫اﻟﺪوري‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺪول‬ ‫ھﻮ‬‫ﻟﻤﻨﺪﻟﯿﻒ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻨﺪﻟﯿﻒ‬ ‫اﻟﺪوري‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺪول‬‫ﻟﻤﻨﺪﻟﯿﻒ‬ ‫اﻟﺪوري‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺪول‬‫ﻟﻤﻨﺪﻟﯿﻒ‬ ‫اﻟﺪوري‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺪول‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺬرﯾﺔ‬ ‫اوزاﻧﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺐ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﺎﻋﺪﯾﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﺗﯿﺒﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺪﻟﯿﻒ‬ ‫رﺗﺐ‬ ‫ﺟﺪﯾﺪة‬ ‫دوره‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﺪاﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫دورﯾﮫ‬ ‫ﺑﺼﻔﮫ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻜﺮر‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬ ‫ﺧﻮاص‬ ‫أن‬ ‫وﺟﺪ‬ ‫ﻻﻧﺔ‬ ‫ﺟﺪوﻟﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺪﻟﯿﻒ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺻﻞ‬ ‫ﻛﯿﻒ‬ ١-‫اوزاﻧﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬ ‫أﺳﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺪﻟﯿﻒ‬ ‫ﺳﺠﻞ‬‫ﻣﻨﻔﺮدة‬ ‫ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎت‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫وﺧﻮاﺻﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺬرﯾﺔ‬ ٢-‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﻓﯿﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺳﻤﯿﺖ‬ ‫رأﺳﯿﮫ‬ ‫أﻋﻤﺪه‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﺸﺎﺑﮭﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬ ‫رﺗﺐ‬‫ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺎت‬ ٣-‫اﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻ‬ ‫ان‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺪﻟﯿﻒ‬ ‫اﻛﺘﺸﻒ‬‫ﺮ‬‫أﻓﻘﯿﮫ‬ ‫ﺻﻔــﻮف‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺬرﯾﺔ‬ ‫اوزاﻧﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺐ‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﺗﺼﺎﻋﺪﯾ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﺗﯿﺒﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺗﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﻓﯿﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺳﻤﯿﺖ‬‫ﺑﺎﻟﺪورات‬‫اﻟﯿﻤﯿﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﯿﺴﺎر‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ٤-‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫دوره‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬ ‫ﻗﺴﻢ‬‫ھﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﻋﯿﺘﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺘﯿﻦ‬A‫و‬B: ‫ﻋﻠﻞ‬‫ﺧﻮاﺻﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻦ‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﻓﺮوﻗ‬ ‫وﺟﺪ‬ ‫ﻻﻧﺔ‬ ٥-‫وﻗﺘﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮدة‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬ ‫ﻋﺪد‬ ‫ان‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺪﻟﯿﻒ‬ ‫اوﺿﺢ‬٦٧‫اﻟﻜﯿﻤﯿﺎء‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺎدىء‬ ‫ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﺟﺪوﻟﺔ‬ ‫ووﺿﻊ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺼﺮ‬ :‫اﻟﻨﻈﺎﺋﺮ‬‫اﻟﺬري‬ ‫اﻟﻮزن‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫وﺗﺨﺘﻠﻒ‬ ‫اﻟﺬرى‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺪد‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻔﻖ‬ ‫واﺣﺪ‬ ‫ﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺻﻮر‬ ‫ھﻰ‬ )‫اﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ‬ ‫ذرة‬ ‫ﻧﻮاة‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﯿﻮﺗﺮوﻧﺎت‬ ‫ﻋﺪد‬ ‫اﺧﺘﻼف‬ ‫ﺑﺴﺒﺐ‬17 Cl 35 – 17 Cl 37 ( ‫ﻟﻤﻨﺪﻟﯿﻒ‬ ‫اﻟﺪوري‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺪول‬ ‫ﻣﻤﯿﺰات‬‫ﻟﻤﻨﺪﻟﯿﻒ‬ ‫اﻟﺪوري‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺪول‬ ‫ﻣﻤﯿﺰات‬‫ﻟﻤﻨﺪﻟﯿﻒ‬ ‫اﻟﺪوري‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺪول‬ ‫ﻣﻤﯿﺰات‬‫ﻟﻤﻨﺪﻟﯿﻒ‬ ‫اﻟﺪوري‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺪول‬ ‫ﻋﯿﻮب‬‫ﻟﻤﻨﺪﻟﯿﻒ‬ ‫اﻟﺪوري‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺪول‬ ‫ﻋﯿﻮب‬‫ﻟﻤﻨﺪﻟﯿﻒ‬ ‫اﻟﺪوري‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺪول‬ ‫ﻋﯿﻮب‬ ١-‫أوزاﻧﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻗﯿﻢ‬ ‫وﺣﺪد‬ ‫ﺟﺪﯾﺪة‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬ ‫اﻛﺘﺸﺎف‬ ‫ﺑﺈﻣﻜﺎﻧﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﺒﺄ‬ ‫وﺧﻮاﺻﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺬرﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻧﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﺮك‬ ‫ﻟﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫و‬‫اﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬ ‫ﻟﮭﺬة‬ ‫ﺟﺪوﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﻓﺎرﻏﺔ‬‫ﻋﻠﻞ‬ ١‫ﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﺾ‬ ‫ﻟ‬ ‫ﺎﻋﺪي‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺼ‬ ‫ﺐ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺮﺗﯿ‬ ‫ﻞ‬ ‫أﺧ‬ .‫ﻋﻠﻞ‬‫ﻲ‬ ‫ﻓ‬ ‫ﻌﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻮﺿ‬ ‫ﺧﻮاﺻﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺎت‬ ٢‫اﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬ ‫ﻟﺒﻌﺾ‬ ‫ﺧﻄﺄ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻘﺪرة‬ ‫اﻟﺬرﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻷوزان‬ ‫ﺻﺤﺢ‬ .٢‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫واﺣﺪ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻧﮫ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺼﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫أﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫وﺿﻊ‬ .‫واﻟﻜﻮﺑﻠﺖ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﯿﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻞ‬‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻜﯿﻤﯿﺎﺋﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﻮاص‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺸﺎﺑﮭﺔ‬ ‫ﻻﻧﮭﺎ‬ :‫اﻟﻔﯿﺰﯾﻘﯿﺔ‬ ٣-‫ﺔ‬‫ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔ‬ ‫ﺮ‬‫اﻧﮭﺎﻋﻨﺎﺻ‬ ‫ﻰ‬‫ﻋﻠ‬ ‫ﺮ‬‫اﻟﻌﻨﺼ‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺎﺋﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺎﻣﻞ‬:‫ﻞ‬‫ﻋﻠ‬‫ﺑﺴﺒﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﺬرﯾﺔ‬ ‫اوزاﻧﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﺧﺘﻼف‬
  2. 2. /‫ا‬ ٢ 2 ‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺬﻛﺮة‬٢٠١٧‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﺮ‬ ‫اﺑﻮ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻟﺪ‬ 2 ‫أﺿﺎﻓﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﮫ‬‫اﻟﻘﺼﺪﯾﺮ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺴﯿﻠﯿﻜﻮن‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺼﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻛﺘﺸﺎف‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺪﻟﯿﻒ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﺒﺄ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻠﯿﻜﻮن‬ ‫ﺷﺒﯿﮫ‬ ‫أى‬ ‫اﯾﻜﺎﺳﻠﯿﻜﻮن‬ ‫ﺳﻤﺎه‬ ‫و‬‫ﺳﻨﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ‬ ‫ھﺬا‬ ‫اﻛﺘﺸﺎف‬ ‫وﺗﻢ‬١٨٨٦‫اﺳﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﯿﮫ‬ ‫وأﻃﻠﻖ‬‫اﻟﺠﺮﻣﺎﻧﯿﻮم‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻮزﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺪورى‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺪول‬‫ﻟﻤﻮزﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺪورى‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺪول‬‫ﻟﻤﻮزﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺪورى‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺪول‬ ١-: ‫ﻋﻠﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺬرى‬ ‫اﻟﻮزن‬ ‫ﻟﯿﺲ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺬرى‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺪد‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺐ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﺎﻋﺪﯾﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﺗﯿﺒﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬ ‫رﺗﺐ‬ ‫وﺟﺪ‬ ‫ﻻﻧﺔ‬‫اﻟﺴﯿﻨﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻻﺷﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺨﻮاص‬ ‫دراﺳﺘﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬‫اﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬ ‫ﺧﻮاص‬ ‫أن‬‫ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ‬.‫اﻟﺬرى‬ ‫اﻟﻮزن‬ ‫وﻟﯿﺲ‬ ‫اﻟﺬرى‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺪد‬ ٢-‫ان‬ ‫اى‬ ‫ﺻﺤﯿﺢ‬ ‫واﺣﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﻤﻘﺪار‬ ‫ﯾﺴﺒﻘﮫ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮاﻟﺬى‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺼﺮ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺬرى‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺪد‬ ‫ﯾﺰﯾﺪ‬‫ﻟﻠﻌﻨﺼﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺬرى‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺪد‬‫ﺻﺤﯿﺢ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺪار‬ ‫واﺣﺪة؟؟‬ ‫دورة‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺘﺎﻟﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺼﺮﯾﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﺟﺪﯾﺪ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺼﺮ‬ ‫اﻛﺘﺸﺎف‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻞ:ﻻﯾﻤﻜﻦ‬‫ﻻن‬‫ﻟﻠﻌﻨﺼﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺬرى‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺪد‬‫ﺻﺤﯿﺢ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺪار‬ ٣-‫اﻟﺼﻔﺮﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺎﻣﻠﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻐﺎزات‬ ‫ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺳﻤﯿﺖ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻣﻞ‬ ‫دورةﻏﺎز‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﻧﮭﺎﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫وﺿﻊ‬ ٤-‫اﻟﻼﻧﺜﺎﻧﯿﺪات‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺪول‬ ‫أﺳﻔﻞ‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﻣﻜﺎﻧ‬ ‫ﺧﺼﺺ‬‫واﻷﻛﺘﻨﯿﺪات‬ :‫ﻣﻠﺤﻮﻇﺔ‬ ‫رزرﻓﻮرد‬ ‫اﻟﻨﯿﻮزﻟﻨﺪي‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ‬ ‫اﻛﺘﺸﻒ‬‫اﻟﺸﺤﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺟﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺮوﺗﻮﻧﺎت‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺘﻮى‬ ‫اﻟﺬرة‬ ‫ﻧﻮاة‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﺑﻮر‬ ‫اﻟﺪﻧﻤﺎرﻛﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ‬ ‫اﻛﺘﺸﺎف‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬‫اﻟﺮﺋﯿﺴﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮﯾﺎت‬‫ﺳﺒﻌﺔ‬ ‫وﻋﺪدھﺎ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫اﻛﺘﺸﺎف‬ ‫.ﺗﻢ‬ ‫اﻵن‬ ‫ﺣﺘﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺮوﻓﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺬرات‬ ‫أﺛﻘﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺮﻋﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﯾﺎت‬‫ﺗﻌﺘﺒﺮ‬ ‫واﻟﺘﻲ‬. ‫ﻟﻠﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﻘﯿﻘﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮﯾﺎت‬ ‫إﺿﺎﻓﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺔ‬‫رﻗﻤﮫ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺎوى‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺮﻋﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﯾﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﺪد‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﯾﺘﻜﻮن‬ ‫رﺋﯿﺴﻲ‬ ‫ﻃﺎﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮى‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ) ‫اﻟﺮﺋﯿﺴﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮى‬ ‫ﻓﻤﺜﻼ‬N‫ھﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﻋﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﯾﺎت‬ ‫أرﺑﻊ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﯾﺘﻜﻮن‬ ( ‫اﻟﺮاﺑﻊ‬ )S‫و‬P‫و‬D‫و‬f) ‫اﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬ ‫وﻣﺴﺘﻮى‬ (k)‫ھﻮ‬ ‫واﺣﺪ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﻋﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮى‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﯾﺘﻜﻮن‬ ( ‫اﻷول‬S( ‫اﻟﺤﺪﯾﺚ‬ ‫اﻟﺪوري‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺪول‬‫اﻟﺤﺪﯾﺚ‬ ‫اﻟﺪوري‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺪول‬‫اﻟﺤﺪﯾﺚ‬ ‫اﻟﺪوري‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺪول‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬ ‫ﻋﺪد‬‫اﻟﻤﺴﺠﻠﺔ‬‫اﻟﺤﺪﯾﺚ‬ ‫اﻟﺪورى‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺠﺪول‬‫اﻵن‬ ‫ﺣﺘﻰ‬١١٨‫ﻣﻨﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺼﺮ‬٩٢‫واﻟﺒﺎﻗﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺒﯿﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺼﺮ‬٢٦‫اﻟﻤﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﺻﻨﺎﻋﯿﺎ‬ ‫ﯾﺤﻀﺮ‬ :‫اﻟﺤﺪﯾﺚ‬ ‫اﻟﺪورى‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺪول‬ ١-. ‫اﻟﺬرى‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺪد‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺰﯾﺎدة‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺐ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﺎﻋﺪﯾﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬ ‫رﺗﺐ‬ ٢-‫اﻟﻔﺮﻋﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﯾﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻞء‬ ‫ﻃﺮﯾﻘﺔ‬ ‫و‬. ‫ﺑﺎﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻧﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺪﯾﺚ‬ ‫اﻟﺪوري‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺪول‬ ‫وﺻﻒ‬‫اﻟﺤﺪﯾﺚ‬ ‫اﻟﺪوري‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺪول‬ ‫وﺻﻒ‬‫اﻟﺤﺪﯾﺚ‬ ‫اﻟﺪوري‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺪول‬ ‫وﺻﻒ‬ ١-‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺪوري‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺪول‬ ‫ﯾﺘﻜﻮن‬7‫أﻓﻘﯿﮫ‬ ‫دورات‬‫و‬18‫اﻟﺤﺪﯾﺚ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺮﻗﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺐ‬ ‫رأﺳﯿﮫ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﮫ‬‫ﺣﺎﻟﯿﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﺒﻊ‬ ‫ھﻮ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﯾﺘﻜﻮن‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻘﻠﯿﺪى‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺮﻗﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺐ‬ ‫اﻣﺎ‬7‫أﻓﻘﯿﮫ‬ ‫دورات‬‫و‬16‫رأﺳﯿﮫ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﮫ‬‫اﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ان‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎر‬8‫راﺳﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻋﻤﺪة‬ ‫ﺛﻼﺛﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺔ‬
  3. 3. /‫ا‬ ٣ 3 ‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺬﻛﺮة‬٢٠١٧‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﺮ‬ ‫اﺑﻮ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻟﺪ‬ 3 ‫اﻟﺪوري‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺪول‬ ‫ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻘﺴﻢ‬‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺪﯾﺚ‬٤: ‫اﺳﺎﺳﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺌﺎت‬ ١-‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻊ‬‫ﯾﺴﺎراﻟﺠﺪول‬٢-‫ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺘﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻜﻮن‬٣-‫ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺎﺗﮭﺎ‬ ‫ارﻗﺎم‬‫ﺗﻤﯿﺰ‬‫ﺑﺎﻟﺤﺮف‬A ١-‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻊ‬‫اﻟﺠﺪول‬ ‫ﯾﻤﯿﻦ‬٢-‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻜﻮن‬٦‫ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺎت‬ ٣-‫ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺎﺗﮭﺎ‬ ‫ارﻗﺎم‬‫ﺗﻤﯿﺰ‬‫ﺑﺎﻟﺤﺮف‬A‫اﻟﺼﻔﺮﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮع‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎء‬١٨
  4. 4. /‫ا‬ ٤ 4 ‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺬﻛﺮة‬٢٠١٧‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﺮ‬ ‫اﺑﻮ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻟﺪ‬ 4 ١-‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻊ‬‫اﻟﺠﺪول‬ ‫وﺳﻂ‬٢-‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻜﻮن‬١٠‫ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺎت‬ ٣-‫ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺎﺗﮭﺎ‬ ‫ارﻗﺎم‬‫ﺗﻤﯿﺰ‬‫ﺑﺎﻟﺤﺮف‬B‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻜﻮن‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺜﺎﻣﻨﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎء‬٣‫راﺳﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻋﻤﺪة‬ ٤-‫اﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﻟﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﻤﻰ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺮاﺑﻌﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺪورة‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻇﮭﻮرھﺎ‬ ‫ﯾﺒﺪأ‬٥-‫اﻟﺠﺪول‬ ‫ﯾﺴﺎر‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﯾﻤﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻔﺼﻞ‬ ١-‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺪول‬ ‫اﺳﻔﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻊ‬‫ﻋﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻔﺼﻠﺔ‬٢-‫اﻻﻛﺘﯿﻨﯿﺪات‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻼﻧﺜﺎﻧﯿﺪات‬ ‫ھﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺘﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻜﻮن‬ : ‫ﻣﺜﺎل‬‫اﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﯾﻘﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﺬى‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ‬ ‫ﻓﺌﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻧﻮع‬ ‫اذﻛﺮ‬3B‫؟‬ ‫اﻟﺮاﺑﻌﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺪورة‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺎت‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻻﻧﺔ‬ ‫اﻧﺘﻘﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺼﺮ‬ : ‫اﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ‬ ‫ﻧﻮع‬B‫اﻟﻔﺌﺔ‬ : ‫اﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ‬ ‫ﻓﺌﺔ‬d. ‫اﻻﺗﯿﺔ؟؟‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺪﯾﺚ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺮﻗﯿﻢ‬ ‫ھﻮ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬1B,1A,3B,3A,5B,5A ‫ﻋﻨ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺿﻊ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺪﯾﺪ‬‫ﻋﻨ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺿﻊ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺪﯾﺪ‬‫ﻋﻨ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺿﻊ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺪﯾﺪ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺻﺮ‬‫ﺻﺮ‬‫ﺻﺮ‬‫اﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺎت‬‫اﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺎت‬‫اﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺎت‬AAA‫اﻟﺪوري‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺪول‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬‫اﻟﺪوري‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺪول‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬‫اﻟﺪوري‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺪول‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬‫اﻟﺬرﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻋﺪادھﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﯿﺔ‬‫اﻟﺬرﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻋﺪادھﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﯿﺔ‬‫اﻟﺬرﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻋﺪادھﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﯿﺔ‬ : ‫أوﻻ‬‫ﻟﻠﻌﻨﺼﺮ‬ ‫اﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻧﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻮزﯾﻊ‬ ‫ﻧﻜﺘﺐ‬: ‫ﺛﺎﻧﯿﺎ‬‫ﻧﺤﺪد‬‫اﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﯾﺎت‬ ‫ﻋﺪد‬‫اﻟﺪورة‬ ‫رﻗﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﯾﺪل‬ : ‫ﺛﺎﻟﺜﺎ‬‫ﻧﺤﺪد‬‫اﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮى‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻧﺎت‬ ‫ﻋﺪد‬‫اﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ‬ ‫رﻗﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﯾﺪل‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺎرﺟﻲ‬ : ‫راﺑﻌﺎ‬‫ﻛﺎن‬ ‫اذا‬‫اﻟﺨﺎرﺟﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮى‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻧﺎت‬ ‫ﻋﺪد‬‫اﻟﺼﻔﺮﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﯾﻘﻊ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻣﻼ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ‬ ‫ﯾﻜﻮن‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻻﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻧﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻜﺘﻤﻞ‬ : ‫اﻟﺤﺪﯾﺚ‬ ‫اﻟﺪوري‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺠﺪول‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺾ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺤﺪﯾﺪ‬ ‫أﻣﺜﻠﺔ‬ ١-‫اﻟﺪورى‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺪول‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺎﻟﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﺣﺪد‬‫اﻟﺤﺪﯾﺚ‬‫اﻟﺤﺪﯾﺚ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺮﻗﯿﻢ‬ ‫و‬20Ca -18Ar ٢-‫اﻷوﻟﻰ‬ ‫واﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺪورة‬ ‫ﯾﻮﺟﺪ‬ ‫ﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺬرى‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺪد‬ ‫اﺣﺴﺐ‬ ٣-‫اﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺮاﺑﻌﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺪورة‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﯾﻘﻊ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺼﺮ‬ ‫وﻓﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﻮع‬ ‫اذﻛﺮ‬3B
  5. 5. /‫ا‬ ٥ 5 ‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺬﻛﺮة‬٢٠١٧‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﺮ‬ ‫اﺑﻮ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻟﺪ‬ 5
  6. 6. /‫ا‬ ٦ 6 ‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺬﻛﺮة‬٢٠١٧‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﺮ‬ ‫اﺑﻮ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻟﺪ‬ 6 ‫أوﻻ‬‫:ﺧﺎﺻﯿﺔ‬‫اﻟﺤﺠﻢ‬‫اﻟﺬرى‬ :‫اﻟﺒﯿﻜﻮﻣﺘﺮ‬‫ﻗﯿﺎس‬ ‫وﺣﺪة‬‫اﻟﺬري‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺠﻢ‬‫اﻟﺬري‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺠﻢ‬ ‫ﻗﯿﺎس‬ ‫ﯾﻤﻜﻦ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺬرة‬ ‫ﻗﻄﺮ‬ ‫ﻧﺼﻒ‬ ‫ُﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬‫ﻤ‬‫ﺑ‬‫اﻟﻤﺘﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺟﺰء‬ ‫ﻣﻠﯿﻮن‬ ‫ﻣﻠﯿﻮن‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺟﺰء‬ ‫ﯾﻌﺎدل‬ ‫وھﻮ‬١٠-١٢ ‫ﻣﺘﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﻮاﺣﺪة‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮاﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬‫اﻟﺪورةاﻟﻮاﺣﺪ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺬرى‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺪد‬ ‫ﺑﺰﯾﺎدة‬ ‫اﻟﺬرى‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺠﻢ‬ ‫ﯾﺰداد‬‫اﺗﺠﮭﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﻠﻤﺎ‬ ‫اﺳﻔﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬(‫)ﻋﻠﻞ‬ ‫زﯾﺎدة‬ ‫ﺑﺴﺒﺐ‬‫اﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﯾﺎت‬ ‫ﻋﺪد‬‫ذراﺗﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺬرى‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺪد‬ ‫ﺑﺰﯾﺎدة‬ ‫اﻟﺬرى‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺠﻢ‬ ‫ﯾﻘﻞ‬‫اﻟﯿﻤﯿﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﯿﺴﺎر‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﺗﺠﮭﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﻠﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻞ‬‫اﻟﺴﺎﻟﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻼﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻧﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮﺟﺒﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻮاة‬ ‫ﺟﺬب‬ ‫ﻗﻮة‬ ‫زﯾﺎدة‬ ‫ﺑﺴﺒﺐ‬ ‫اﻷﺧﯿﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮى‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮدة‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﻃﺮدﯾﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﺎﺳﺒﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺬرى‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺠﻢ‬ ‫ﯾﺘﻨﺎﺳﺐ‬‫اﻟﺬرى‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺪد‬‫اﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﯿﺰﯾﻮم‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺼﺮ‬ ‫ذرة‬ ‫ﺣﺠﻤﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬ ‫ذرات‬ ‫اﻛﺒﺮ‬ ‫ﻓﯿﻜﻮن‬Cs ‫اﻟﺬرى‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺪد‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﻋﻜﺴﯿﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﺎﺳﺒﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺬرى‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺠﻢ‬ ‫ﯾﺘﻨﺎﺳﺐ‬‫اﻟﺪورة‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﻠﻮر‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺼﺮ‬ ‫ذرة‬ ‫ﺣﺠﻤﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬ ‫ذرات‬ ‫اﺻﻐﺮ‬ ‫ﻓﯿﻜﻮن‬F :‫ﺛﺎﻧﯿﺎ‬‫ﺧﺎﺻﯿﺔ‬‫اﻟﺴﺎﻟﺒﯿﺔ‬‫اﻟﻜﮭﺮﺑﯿﺔ‬ : ‫اﻟﻜﮭﺮﺑﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺎﻟﺒﯿﺔ‬١-‫ھﻲ‬‫ﻗﺪرة‬‫اﻟﺮاﺑﻄﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻧﺎت‬ ‫ﺟﺬب‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺴﺎھﻤﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺰئ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺬرة‬‫اﻟﻜﯿﻤﯿﺎﺋﯿﺔ‬‫ﻧﺤﻮھﺎ‬. ‫اﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬ ‫ﻟﺒﻌﺾ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﮭﺮﺑﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺎﻟﺒﯿﺔ‬ N . Cl=3) / ( O=3.5) / ( F=4 )/ (( Cs=0.7 )/ ( Na=0.9) / ( H=2.1)/ ( C.S=2.5) ‫اﻟﺮاﺑﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﻮع‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻜﮭﺮﺑﯿﮫ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺎﻟﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬:‫اﻟﻜﯿﻤﯿﺎﺋﯿﺔ‬- ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﮭﺮﺑﯿﺔاﻛﺒﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺎﻟﺒﯿﮫ‬ ‫ﻓﺮق‬ ‫ﻛﺎن‬ ‫اذا‬١.٧=‫اﻟﺼﻮدﯾﻢ‬ ‫ﻛﻠﻮرﯾﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫اﯾﻮﻧﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺮاﺑﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬٣-٩=.٢.١ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﺻﻐﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺎﻟﺒﯿﮫ‬ ‫ﻓﺮق‬ ‫ﻛﺎن‬ ‫اذا‬ ‫اﻣﺎ‬١.٧=‫اﻟﻨﺸﺎدر‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺎھﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺮاﺑﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬٣-٢.١=٩. ‫اﻻﻛﺴﯿ‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺎھﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺮاﺑﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬ ‫ﺻﻔﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺎوى‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺎﻟﺒﯿﮫ‬ ‫ﻓﺮق‬ ‫ﻛﺎن‬ ‫اذا‬ ‫اﻣﺎ‬‫ﺠﯿﻦ‬٣.٥–٣.٥=٠
  7. 7. /‫ا‬ ٧ 7 ‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺬﻛﺮة‬٢٠١٧‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﺮ‬ ‫اﺑﻮ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻟﺪ‬ 7 ‫اﻟﻮاﺣﺪة‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮاﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬‫اﻟﺪورةاﻟﻮاﺣﺪ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﺰﯾﺎدة‬ ‫اﻟﻜﮭﺮﺑﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺎﻟﺒﯿﮫ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻞ‬‫اﻟﺬرى‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺪد‬‫اﺗﺠﮭﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻜﻠﻤﺎ‬ ‫اﺳﻔﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬‫ﻋﻠﻞ‬.‫اﻟﺬرى‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺠﻢ‬ ‫زﯾﺎدة‬ ‫ﺑﺴﺒﺐ‬‫ﻗﺪرة‬ ‫ﻓﺘﻘﻞ‬ ‫ﻧﺤﻮھﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﯿﻤﯿﺎﺋﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺮاﺑﻄﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻧﺎت‬ ‫ﺟﺬب‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺬرة‬ ‫ﺗﺰداد‬‫اﻟﻜﮭﺮﺑﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺎﻟﺒﯿﮫ‬‫اﻟﺬرى‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺪد‬ ‫ﺑﺰﯾﺎدة‬‫اﺗﺠﮭﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﻠﻤﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﯿﻤﯿﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﯿﺴﺎر‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬‫ﻋﻠﻞ‬.‫ﺑﺴﺒﺐ‬‫ﻧﻘﺺ‬‫اﻟﺬرى‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺠﻢ‬‫ﻗﺪرة‬ ‫ﻓﺘﺰداد‬ ‫ﻧﺤﻮھﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﯿﻤﯿﺎﺋﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺮاﺑﻄﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻧﺎت‬ ‫ﺟﺬب‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺬرة‬ ‫ﺗﻨﺎﺳﺒﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﮭﺮﺑﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺎﻟﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻨﺎﺳﺐ‬‫ﻋﻜﺴﯿﺎ‬‫اﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺬرى‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺪد‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﻓﯿﻜﻮن‬‫اﻟﺴﯿﺰﯾﻮم‬Cs‫اﺻﻐﺮ‬‫اﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬‫اﻟﺴﺎﻟﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬= ‫اﻟﻜﮭﺮﺑﯿﺔ‬٠.٧‫ﻋﻠﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺪورة‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺬرى‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺪد‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﻃﺮدﯾﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﺎﺳﺒﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﮭﺮﺑﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺎﻟﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻨﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﻓﯿﻜﻮن‬‫اﻟﻔﻠﻮر‬F‫اﻛﺒﺮ‬‫اﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬= ‫اﻟﻜﮭﺮﺑﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺎﻟﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬٤‫ﻋﻠﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻞ‬‫؟‬ ‫ﻛﮭﺮﺑﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻟﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬ ‫اﻛﺒﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﻠﻮر‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻧﺎت‬ ‫ﺟﺬب‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺬرة‬ ‫ﻗﺪرة‬ ‫ﻓﺘﺰداد‬ ‫اﻟﺬرى‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺠﻢ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫اﺻﻐﺮھﻢ‬ ‫ﻻﻧﺔ‬ ‫ا‬‫ﻟﺮاﺑﻄﺔ‬‫ﻧﺤﻮھﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﯿﻤﯿﺎﺋﯿﺔ‬
  8. 8. /‫ا‬ ٨ 8 ‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺬﻛﺮة‬٢٠١٧‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﺮ‬ ‫اﺑﻮ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻟﺪ‬ 8 ‫اﻟﻘﻄﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮﻛﺒﺎت‬ : ‫اﻟﻘﻄﺒﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮﻛﺐ‬‫ﻧﺴﺒﯿﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﺒﯿﺮة‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺼﺮﯾﮫ‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﮭﺮﺑﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺎﻟﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺮق‬ ‫ﯾﻜﻮن‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺎھﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﻛﺐ‬ ‫ھﻮ‬ :‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬-‫وﺟﺰئ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﺟﺰئ‬‫اﻟﻨﺸﺎدر‬.‫ﻗﻄﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﻛﺒﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﮭﯿﺪروﺟﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﺒﺮﯾﺘﯿﺪ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﯿﺜﺎن‬ ‫ﺟﺰئ‬ ‫اﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻗﻄﺒﻰ‬ ‫ﻏﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﻛﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﯿﺜﺎن‬ ‫ﺟﺰىء‬ ‫اﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻗﻄﺒﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﻛﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﺟﺰىء‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻞ‬ ‫ﻗﻄﺒﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﻛﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬‫ﻧﺴﺒﯿﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﺒﯿﺮة‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺼﺮﯾﮫ‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﮭﺮﺑﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺎﻟﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺮق‬ ‫ﻻن‬ ‫ﻗﻄﺒﻰ‬ ‫ﻏﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﻛﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﯿﺜﺎن‬ ‫اﻣﺎ‬‫ﺻﻐﯿﺮة‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺼﺮﯾﮫ‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﮭﺮﺑﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺎﻟﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺮق‬ ‫ﻻن‬‫ﺟﺪا‬ ‫اﻟﻨﺸﺎدر؟‬ ‫ﻗﻄﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻗﻮى‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﻗﻄﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﺸﺎدر‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺼﺮى‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﮭﺮﺑﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺎﻟﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺮق‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻛﺒﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺼﺮى‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﮭﺮﺑﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺎﻟﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺮق‬ ‫ﻻن‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺻﻒ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻰ‬‫ﻧﻘﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺄﻧﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺴﺎھﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺮاﺑﻄﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺬرﺗﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﮭﺮﺑﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺎﻟﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺮق‬ ‫ﻛﺎن‬ ‫اذا‬‫ﺻﻔﺮ‬ = ‫اﻟﻤﺮﺗﺒﻄﺘﯿﻦ‬‫اﻟﮭﯿﺪرﺟﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﺟﺰىء‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬‫اﻻﻛﺴﺠﯿﻦ‬ ‫وﺟﺰئ‬ ‫ﺛﺎﻟﺜﺎ‬:‫اﻟﺨﺎﺻﯿﺔ‬‫اﻟﻔﻠﺰﯾﺔ‬‫واﻟﻼﻓﻠﺰﯾﺔ‬ ‫رﺋﯿﺴﯿﺔ‬ ‫أﻧﻮاع‬ ‫أرﺑﻌﺔ‬ ‫إﻟﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻘﺴﻢ‬‫ﻓﻠﺰات‬ )-‫ﻻﻓﻠﺰات‬-‫ﻓﻠﺰات‬ ‫أﺷﺒﺎه‬-( ‫ﺧﺎﻣﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬ : ‫اﻟﻔﻠﺰات‬ ‫أﺷﺒﺎه‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬ ‫ھﻰ‬‫اﺧﺮى‬ ‫أﺣﯿﺎﻧﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻼﻓﻠﺰات‬ ‫ﺧﻮاص‬ ‫وﻣﻊ‬ ‫أﺣﯿﺎﻧﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﻠﺰات‬ ‫ﺧﻮاص‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺧﻮاﺻﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﺸﺎﺑﮫ‬‫اﻟﺠﺮﻣﺎﻧﯿﻮم‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺴﯿﻠﯿﻜﻮن‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫اﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻧﻲ؟‬ ‫ﺗﺮﻛﯿﺒﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﻠﺰات‬ ‫أﺷﺒﺎه‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﺮف‬ ‫ﯾﺼﻌﺐ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﺎﻓﺆھﺎ‬ ‫أﻏﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﺪداﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻧﺎت‬ ‫اﺧﺘﻼف‬ ‫ﺑﺴﺒﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﻠﺰات‬‫اﻟﻼﻓﻠﺰات‬‫اﻟﻔﻠﺰات‬ ‫اﺷﺒﺎه‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﯾﺤﺘﻮى‬ ‫ﺗﻜﺎﻓﺆھﺎ‬ ‫ﻏﻼف‬ ١‫او‬٢‫او‬٣‫إﻟﻜﺘﺮون‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﯾﺤﺘﻮى‬ ‫ﺗﻜﺎﻓﺆھﺎ‬ ‫ﻏﻼف‬ ٥‫او‬٦‫او‬٧‫إﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻧﺎت‬ ‫اﻻﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻧﺎت‬ ‫ﻋﺪد‬ ‫ﯾﺨﺘﻠﻒ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﺗﻜﺎﻓﺆھﺎ‬ ‫ﻏﻼف‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ‬ ‫اﺛﻨﺎء‬ ‫اﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫او‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺘﺮون‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺪ‬ ‫إﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻤﯿﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﯿﻤﯿﺎﺋى‬‫ﻌﻠﻞ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻣﻞ‬ ‫ﻏﺎز‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻗﺮب‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺘﺸﺒﮭﺔ‬‫ﯾﺴﺒﻘﮭﺎ‬‫اﻟﺪورى‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺪول‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺗ‬‫او‬ ‫إﻟﻜﺘﺮون‬ ‫اﻛﺘﺴﺎب‬ ‫إﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﯿﻞ‬‫اﻛﺜﺮاﺛﻨﺎء‬‫اﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ‬ ( ‫ﻋﻠﻞ‬ )‫اﻟﻜﯿﻤﯿﺎﺋﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺘﺸﺒﺔ‬‫اﻟ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺪول‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﯾﻠﯿﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻣﻞ‬ ‫ﻏﺎز‬ ‫ﺑﺄﻗﺮب‬‫ﺪورى‬‫ﺗﻜﺘﺴﺐ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ﺗﻔﻘﺪ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﯾﻤﻜﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻧﺎت‬ ‫اﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫او‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺘﺮون‬ ‫ﺗﻔﻘﺪ‬ ‫ﻻﻧﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺤﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺟﺒﺔ‬ ‫أﯾﻮﻧﺎﺗﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﯿﻤﯿﺎﺋﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ‬ ‫اﺛﻨﺎء‬ ‫او‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺘﺮون‬ ‫ﺗﻜﺘﺴﺐ‬ ‫.ﻻﻧﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺤﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻟﺒﺔ‬ ‫أﯾﻮﻧﺎﺗﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﯿﻤﯿﺎﺋﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ‬ ‫اﺛﻨﺎء‬ ‫اﻛﺜﺮ‬‫أﯾﻮﻧﺎﺗﮭﺎ‬‫ﺗﻜﻮن‬ ‫ﻗﺪ‬‫ﻣﻮﺟﺒﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺤﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻟﺒﺔ‬ ‫او‬
  9. 9. /‫ا‬ ٩ 9 ‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺬﻛﺮة‬٢٠١٧‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﺮ‬ ‫اﺑﻮ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻟﺪ‬ 9 ‫واﻟﺼﻔﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﻠﺰﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺪرج‬‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻼﻓﻠﺰﯾﺔ‬‫اﻟﺤﺪﯾﺚ‬ ‫اﻟﺪوري‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺪول‬ ‫وﺟﮫ‬‫وﺟﮫ‬‫وﺟﮫ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻘﺎرﻧﺔ‬‫اﻟﻤﻘﺎرﻧﺔ‬‫اﻟﻤﻘﺎرﻧﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺎت‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬‫اﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺎت‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬‫اﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺎت‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬‫اﻟﺪورات‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬‫اﻟﺪورات‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬‫اﻟﺪورات‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﻠﺰﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻔﺔ‬‫اﻟﻔﻠﺰﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻔﺔ‬‫اﻟﻔﻠﺰﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻔﺔ‬‫اﻟﺬرى‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺪد‬ ‫ﺑﺰﯾﺎدة‬ ‫اﻟﻔﻠﺰﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺰداد‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻞ‬‫؟‬ ‫اﻟﺬرى‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺠﻢ‬ ‫زﯾﺎدة‬ ‫ﺑﺴﺒﺐ‬‫ﻓ‬‫اﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻧﺎت‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺪ‬ ‫ﯿﺴﮭﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻜﺎﻓﺆ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻞ‬‫اﻟﺴﯿﺰﯾﻮم‬‫اﻧﺸﻂ‬‫؟‬ ‫اﻟﻔﻠﺰات‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺪ‬ ‫ﻓﯿﺴﮭﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺬرى‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺠﻢ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫اﻛﺒﺮھﻢ‬ ‫ﻻﻧﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻜﺎﻓﺆ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻧﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﺬرى؟‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺪد‬ ‫ﺑﺰﯾﺎدة‬ ‫اﻟﻔﻠﺰﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺬرى‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺠﻢ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﺺ‬ ‫ﺑﺴﺒﺐ‬ ‫اﻻﻓﻠﺰﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻔﺔ‬‫اﻻﻓﻠﺰﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻔﺔ‬‫اﻻﻓﻠﺰﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻔﺔ‬‫اﻟﺬرى‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺪد‬ ‫ﺑﺰﯾﺎدة‬ ‫اﻟﻼﻓﻠﺰﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻞ‬‫؟‬ ‫اﻟﻜﮭﺮﺑﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺎﻟﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﺺ‬ ‫ﺑﺴﺒﺐ‬‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻗﺪرﺗﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﻘﻞ‬ ‫ﻧﺤﻮھﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺴﺎھﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺮاﺑﻄﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻧﺎت‬ ‫ﺟﺬب‬ ‫اﻟﺬرى‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺪد‬ ‫ﺑﺰﯾﺎدة‬ ‫اﻟﻼﻓﻠﺰﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺰداد‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻞ‬‫؟‬ ‫زﯾﺎدة‬ ‫ﺑﺴﺒﺐ‬‫اﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻧﺎت‬ ‫ﺟﺬب‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻗﺪرﺗﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﺰداد‬ ‫اﻟﻜﮭﺮﺑﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺎﻟﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﺤﻮھﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﯿﻤﯿﺎﺋﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺮاﺑﻄﺔ‬ ‫؟‬ ‫ﻓﻠﺰات‬ ‫اﻟﻼ‬ ‫اﻧﺸﻂ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﻠﻮر‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻞ‬‫اﻟﻜﮭﺮﺑﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺎﻟﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫اﻛﺒﺮھﻢ‬ ‫ﻻﻧﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺮاﺑﻄﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻧﺎت‬ ‫ﺟﺬب‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻗﺪرﺗﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﺰداد‬‫اﻟﻜﯿﻤﯿﺎﺋﯿﺔ‬‫ﻧﺤﻮة‬ ‫ﺑﻌﻨﺼﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺪورة‬ ‫ﺗﺒﺪا‬‫اﻟﻔﻠﺰﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻞ‬ ‫ﺛﻢ‬ ‫ﻗﻮى‬ ‫ﻓﻠﺰ‬‫وﺗﺰداد‬ ‫اﻟﻼﻓﻠﺰات‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻈﮭﺮ‬ ‫ﺛﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﻠﺰات‬ ‫اﺷﺒﺎة‬ ‫اﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻧﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﺣﺘﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺬرى‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺪد‬ ‫ﺑﺰﯾﺎدة‬ ‫اﻟﻼﻓﻠﺰات‬ ‫اﻗﻮى‬ ‫اﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻧﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﺣﺘﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺬرى‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺪد‬ ‫ﺑﺰﯾﺎدة‬ ‫اﻟﻼﻓﻠﺰﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻔﺔ‬‫اﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬7A‫ﺧﺎﻣﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﻐﺎز‬ ‫اﻟﺪورة‬ ‫ﺗﻨﺘﮭﻰ‬ ‫ﺛﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺴﻠﺴﻠﺔ‬‫اﻟﻨﺸﺎط‬‫اﻟﻜﯿﻤﯿﺎﺋﻲ‬‫اﻟﻜﯿﻤﯿﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺎﻃﮭﺎ‬ ‫درﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺐ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﺎزﻟﯿﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﺗﯿﺒﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﻠﺰﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﺗﯿﺐ‬ ‫ھﻲ‬
  10. 10. /‫ا‬ ١٠ 10 ‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺬﻛﺮة‬٢٠١٧‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﺮ‬ ‫اﺑﻮ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻟﺪ‬ 10 ‫اﻟﻼﻓﻠﺰات‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻔﻠﺰات‬ ‫اﻟﻜﯿﻤﯿﺎﺋﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﻮاص‬‫اﻟﻼﻓﻠﺰات‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻔﻠﺰات‬ ‫اﻟﻜﯿﻤﯿﺎﺋﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﻮاص‬‫اﻟﻼﻓﻠﺰات‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻔﻠﺰات‬ ‫اﻟﻜﯿﻤﯿﺎﺋﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﻮاص‬ ‫اﻟﻜﯿﻤﯿﺎﺋﻰ‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺎﻃﮭﺎ‬ ‫درﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺐ‬ ‫ء‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﻠﺰات‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻔﻠﺰات‬ ‫اﻟﻜﯿﻤﯿﺎﺋﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﻮاص‬‫ﻟﻼﻓﻠﺰات‬ ‫اﻟﻜﯿﻤﯿﺎﺋﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﻮاص‬ ١-‫ﺗﻔﺎﻋﻠﮭﺎ‬‫ﻣﻊ‬‫اﻻﺣﻤﺎض‬ ‫اﻟﻔﻠﺰات‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺾ‬‫اﻻﺣﻤﺎض‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ‬‫درﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺐ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﯾﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﻀﮭﺎ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻜﯿﻤﯿﺎﺋﻰ‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺎﻃﮭﺎ‬ ١-‫ﺗﻔﺎﻋﻠﮭﺎ‬‫ﻣﻊ‬‫اﻻﺣﻤﺎض‬ ‫ﻻ‬‫اﻻﺣﻤﺎض‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ‬ ٢-‫ﺗﻔﺎﻋﻠﮭﺎ‬‫ﻣﻊ‬‫اﻻﻛﺴﺠﯿﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻻﻛﺎﺳﯿﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﻤﻰ‬ ‫ﻓﻠﺰﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻛﺎﺳﯿﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺔ‬ ‫اﻻﻛﺴﺠﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ‬ ٢-‫ﺗﻔﺎﻋﻠﮭﺎ‬‫ﻣﻊ‬‫اﻻﻛﺴﺠﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﻤﻰ‬ ‫ﻓﻠﺰﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫اﻛﺎﺳﯿﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺔ‬ ‫اﻻﻛﺴﺠﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺎﻣﻀﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻻﻛﺎﺳﯿﺪ‬ -‫ﺳﻠﻮﻛﮭﺎ‬‫ﻣﻊ‬‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺬوب‬ ‫اﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻷﻛﺎﺳﯿﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺾ‬‫ھﯿﺪروﻛﺴﯿﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫ﻗﻠﻮﯾﺎت‬ ‫وﺗﻌﻄﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺪﯾﺪ‬ ‫اﻛﺴﯿﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﯾﺬوب‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫وﺑﻌﻀﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎﻏﻨﺴﯿﻮم‬ -‫ﺳﻠﻮﻛﮭﺎ‬‫ﻣﻊ‬‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫أﺣﻤﺎض‬ ‫ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺎﻣﻀﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻷﻛﺎﺳﯿﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﺬوب‬ ‫اﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻷﻛﺎﺳﯿﺪ‬‫اﻟﺤﻤﺮاء‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻤﺲ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺎد‬ ‫ورﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺰرق‬ ‫ﻓﻠﺰﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻛﺎﺳﯿﺪ‬ ‫ھﻰ‬ ‫ﻗﻠﻮﯾﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻘﻮاﻋﺪ‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﻟﯿﺴﺖ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻞ‬‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﻻﯾﺬوب‬ ‫ﺑﻌﻀﮭﺎ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﯾﺬوب‬ ‫ﺑﻌﻀﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻻن‬ ‫ﻗﻮاﻋﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﻠﻮﯾﺎت‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻞ‬‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ذاﺋﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﻮاﻋﺪ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺎرة‬ ‫اﻟﻘﻠﻮﯾﺎت‬ ‫ﻻن‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺎﻣﻀﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻻﻛﺎﺳﯿﺪ‬‫ورﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻤﺮ‬ ‫ﻻﻓﻠﺰﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻛﺎﺳﯿﺪ‬ ‫ھﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺰرﻗﺎء‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻤﺲ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺎد‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﺮددة؟‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻻﻛﺎﺳﯿﺪ‬ ‫اﻻﻟﻤﻮﻧﯿﻮم‬ ‫اﻛﺴﯿﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫اﻻﻛﺎﺳﯿﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺾ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺮف‬‫ﻋﻠﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ‬ ‫ﻻﻧﮭﺎ‬‫ﻗﺎﻋﺪﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻛﺎﺳﯿﺪ‬ ‫اﻻﺣﻤﺎض‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬‫ﻣﺎء‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻣﻠﺢ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮن‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺎﻻﺗﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﻼ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻣﻀﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻛﺎﺳﯿﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﻮاﻋﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻔﻠﺰات‬‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺳﻠﻮﻛﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻮدﯾﻮم‬Na ‫اﻟﺒﻮﺗﺎﺳﯿﻮم‬K ‫ﺑﻔﺮﻗﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﯾﺸﺘﻌﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺬي‬ ‫اﻟﮭﯿﺪروﺟﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻏﺎز‬ ‫وﯾﺘﺼﺎﻋﺪ‬ ‫ﻟﺤﻈﯿﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﯾﺘﻔﺎﻋﻼن‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺎﻟﺴﯿﻮم‬Ca ‫اﻟﻤﺎﻏﻨﯿﺴﯿﻮم‬Mg ‫اﻟﺒﺎرد‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺷﺪﯾﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﺒﻂء‬ ‫ﯾﺘﻔﺎﻋﻼن‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺪﯾﺪ‬Fe ‫اﻟﺨﺎرﺻﯿﻦ‬Zn ‫اﻟﻤﺮﺗﻔﻌﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺮارة‬ ‫درﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﻂ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺎﺧﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﯾﺘﻔﺎﻋﻼن‬ ‫اﻟﻨﺤﺎس‬Cu‫اﻟﻔﻀﺔ‬Ag‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﯾﺘﻔﺎﻋﻼن‬ ‫ﻻ‬
  11. 11. /‫ا‬ ١١ 11 ‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺬﻛﺮة‬٢٠١٧‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﺮ‬ ‫اﺑﻮ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻟﺪ‬ 11 ١-‫ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ‬‫اﻷﻗﻼء‬1A ‫أﻗﺼﻰ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻊ‬‫اﻟﺪوري‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺪول‬ ‫ﯾﺴﺎر‬‫اﻻﺳﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﮭﺬا‬ ‫وﺳﻤﯿﺖ‬‫ﻋﻠﻞ‬‫ﻣﺤﺎﻟﯿﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ‬ ‫ﻷﻧﮭﺎ‬‫ﻗﻠﻮﯾﺔ‬ : ‫ﯾﺎﺗﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻞ‬- ١-‫اﻟﻜﯿﺮوﺳﯿﻦ؟‬ ‫ﺳﻄﺢ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺖ‬ ‫واﻟﺒﻮﺗﺎﺳﯿﻮم‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻮدﯾﻮم‬ ‫ﯾﺤﻔﻆ‬ ‫ﻛﯿﻤﯿﺎﺋﯿﺎ‬ ‫ﺟﺪا‬ ‫ﻧﺸﻄﮫ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬ ‫ﻷﻧﮭﺎ‬‫ﺑﻔﺮﻗﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﯾﺸﺘﻌﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺬى‬ ‫اﻟﮭﯿﺪروﺟﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻏﺎز‬ ‫ﯾﺘﺼﺎﻋﺪ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ‬ ٢-‫اﻟﺒﺮاﻓﯿﻦ؟‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﯾﺤﻔﻆ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻦ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻜﯿﺮوﺳﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻠﯿﺜﯿﻮم‬ ‫ﯾﺤﻔﻆ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺎل‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﯾﺸﺘﻌﻞ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻜﯿﺮوﺳﻦ‬ ‫ﺳﻄﺢ‬ ‫ﻓﻮق‬ ‫ﻓﯿﻄﻔﻮ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﯿﺮوﺳﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﺜﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻗﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻠﯿﺜﯿﻮم‬ ‫ﻛﺜﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻻن‬ ٣-‫ﺻﻮر‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺟﺪ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻦ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺒﯿﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻔﺮدة‬ ‫اﻻﻗﻼء‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺟﺪ‬ ‫ﻻ‬‫ﻣﺮﻛﺒﺎت؟‬ ‫ة‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻌﺎم‬ ‫ﻣﻠﺢ‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﻛﺒﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺔ‬ ‫اﺧﺮى‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﺤﺪ‬ ‫ﻛﯿﻤﯿﺎﺋﯿﺎ‬ ‫ﻧﺸﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬ ‫ﻻﻧﮭﺎ‬ ٤-‫اﻟﺴﯿﺰﯾﻮم‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺼﺮ‬ ‫ﯾﻌﺘﺒﺮ‬Cs‫اﻟﻔﻠﺰات؟‬ ‫أﻧﺸﻂ‬ ‫ھﻮ‬‫اﻟﺬرى‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺠﻢ‬ ‫ﺣﯿﺚ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬ ‫اﻛﺒﺮ‬ ‫ﻻﻧﺔ‬‫اﻟﺘﻜﺎﻓﺆ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺘﺮون‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺪ‬ ‫ﻓﯿﺴﮭﻞ‬ ‫اﻷﻗﻼء؟‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬ ‫ﺧﻮاص‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺠﺮﺑﺔ‬ ‫وﺿﺤﻰ‬ : ‫اﻷدوات‬‫ﺻﻮدﯾﻮم‬–‫ﺑﻮﺗﺎﺳﯿﻮم‬–‫ﺗﺮﺷﯿﺢ‬ ‫ورق‬–‫ﻣﺎء‬ ‫ﺑﮫ‬ ‫ﺣﻮض‬ : ‫اﻟﺨﻄﻮات‬ ‫ﻓﯿﮫ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺤﻔﻮظ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﯿﺮوﺳﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺋﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﻤﺺ‬ ‫ﺣﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺠﻢ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺻﻮدﯾﻮم‬ ‫ﻗﻄﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺘﺨﺮج‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﻮض‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﺤﺮص‬ ‫ﻧﻀﻌﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﺛﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﺷﯿﺢ‬ ‫ورﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻮدﯾﻮم‬ ‫ﻗﻄﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﻠﻒ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻮﺗﺎﺳﯿﻮم‬ ‫ﻓﻠﺰ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺳﺒﻖ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻧﻜﺮر‬ : ‫اﻟﻤﻼﺣﻈﺔ‬‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻮﺗﺎﺳﯿﻮم‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻮدﯾﻮم‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﯾﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ‬‫ﺑﻔﺮﻗﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﯾﺸﺘﻌﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺬى‬ ‫اﻟﮭﯿﺪروﺟﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻏﺎز‬ ‫ﯾﺘﺼﺎﻋﺪ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬ :‫اﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎج‬١-‫ﺑﻔﺮﻗﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﯾﺸﺘﻌﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺬى‬ ‫اﻟﮭﯿﺪروﺟﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻏﺎز‬ ‫ﯾﺘﺼﺎﻋﺪ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻛﯿﻤﯿﺎﺋﯿﺎ‬ ‫ﻧﺸﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬ ‫اﻻﻗﻼء‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬ ٢-‫اﻟﺤﺠﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻛﺒﺮ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺒﻮﺗﺎﺳﯿﻮم‬ ‫اﻟﺬرى‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺠﻢ‬ ‫ﻻن‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻮدﯾﻮم‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺎط‬ ‫اﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻮﺗﺎﺳﯿﻮم‬‫ﻟﻠﺼﻮدﯾﻮم‬ ‫اﻟﺬرى‬ ٢-‫ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ‬‫اﻷﻗﻼء‬‫اﻷرﺿﯿﺔ‬2A) ‫اﻟﻔﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺛﺎﻧﻲ‬ ‫وھﻲ‬S( : ‫اﻷرﺿﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻷﻗﻼء‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬ ‫ﺧﻮاص‬ ‫ﻻﻛﺘﺸﺎف‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺎط‬ : ‫اﻷدوات‬٣‫ﻣﺎء‬ ‫ﺑﮭﺎ‬ ‫أﺣﻮاض‬–‫ﻻﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﻏﻨﯿﺴﯿﻮم‬ ‫ﺷﺮﯾﻂ‬-‫ﺑﺎرﯾﻮم‬ ‫ﻗﻄﻌﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻟﺴﯿﻮم‬ ‫ﻗﻄﻌﺔ‬ :‫اﻟﺨﻄﻮات‬‫واﻟﺒﺎرﯾﻮم‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺎﻟﺴﯿﻮم‬ ‫وﻗﻄﻌﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎﻏﻨﺴﯿﻮم‬ ‫ﺷﺮﯾﻂ‬ ‫:ﻧﻀﻊ‬‫أﺣﻮاض‬ ‫اﻟﺜﻼث‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ :‫اﻟﻤﻼﺣﻈﺔ‬‫اﻟﻜﺎﻟﺴﯿﻮم‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫وﺗﻘﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺎرﯾﻮم‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺗﺰداد‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﺼﺎﻋﺪة‬ ‫اﻟﮭﯿﺪروﺟﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺎﻋﺎت‬ ‫ﻋﺪد‬ ‫ﻧﻼﺣﻆ:اﺧﺘﻼف‬ ‫ﺑﻔﺮﻗﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﺤﻮب‬ ‫ﻏﯿﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫وﺗﻔﺎﻋﻠﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎﻏﻨﺴﯿﻮم‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫أﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻞ‬ ‫ﺛﻢ‬ :‫اﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎج‬‫اﻻﻗﻼء‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺎﻃﺎ‬ ‫اﻗﻞ‬ ‫اﻻرﺿﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻻﻗﻼء‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬ ‫ان‬
  12. 12. /‫ا‬ ١٢ 12 ‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺬﻛﺮة‬٢٠١٧‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﺮ‬ ‫اﺑﻮ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻟﺪ‬ 12 ‫اﻻرﺿﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻻﻗﻼء‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻻﻗﻼء‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬ ‫ﺧﻮاص‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﻧﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻘﺎرﻧﺔ‬ ‫وﺟﮫ‬‫اﻻﻗﻼء‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬‫اﻻرﺿﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻻﻗﻼء‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺪول‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﻗﻌﮭﺎ‬‫اﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺪول‬ ‫ﯾﺴﺎر‬ ‫اﻗﺼﻰ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻊ‬1A‫ﺿﻤﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬S ‫اﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺪول‬ ‫ﯾﺴﺎر‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻊ‬2A‫ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬ ‫ﺿﻤﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺌﺔ‬S ‫اﻟﺘﺴﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺳﺒﺐ‬‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﺬوب‬ ‫ﻻﻧﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻻﻗﻼء‬ ‫ﺑﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬ ‫ﺳﻤﯿﺖ‬ ‫ﻗﻠﻮﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺎﻟﯿﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮن‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺟﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﻛﺒﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻜﻮن‬ ‫ﻻﻧﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻻرﺿﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻻﻗﻼء‬ ‫ﺳﻤﯿﺖ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﯿﺮى‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺠﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫اﻻرﺿﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﺸﺮة‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻜﺎﻓﺆ‬‫اﻟﺘﻜﺎﻓﺆ‬ ‫اﺣﺎدﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻠﺰﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬:‫ﻋﻠﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﻔﻘﺪ‬ ‫ﻻﻧﮭﺎ‬1‫اﻟﻜﯿﻤﯿﺎﺋﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ‬ ‫اﺛﻨﺎء‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺘﺮون‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻜﺎﻓﺆ‬ ‫ﺛﻨﺎﺋﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻠﺰﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬:‫ﻋﻠﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﻔﻘﺪ‬ ‫ﻻﻧﮭﺎ‬2‫اﻟﻜﯿﻤﯿﺎﺋﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ‬ ‫اﺛﻨﺎء‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺘﺮون‬ ‫اﻻﯾﻮن‬‫واﺣﺪة‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺟﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺷﺤﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻤﻞ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺟﺒﺔ‬ ‫اﯾﻮﻧﺎﺗﮭﺎ‬:‫ﻋﻠﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﻔﻘﺪ‬ ‫ﻻﻧﮭﺎ‬1‫اﻟﻜﯿﻤﯿﺎﺋﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ‬ ‫اﺛﻨﺎء‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺘﺮون‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺟﺒﺘﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﺷﺤﻨﺘﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻤﻞ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺤﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺟﺒﺔ‬ ‫اﯾﻮﻧﺎﺗﮭﺎ‬:‫ﻋﻠﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﻔﻘﺪ‬ ‫ﻻﻧﮭﺎ‬2‫اﻟﻜﯿﻤﯿﺎﺋﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ‬ ‫اﺛﻨﺎء‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺘﺮون‬ ‫اﻟﻜﯿﻤﯿﺎﺋﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﺸﺎط‬‫اﻟﺬرى‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺪد‬ ‫ﺑﺰﯾﺎدة‬ ‫اﻟﻜﯿﻤﯿﺎﺋﻰ‬ ‫ﯾﺰداداﻟﻨﺸﺎط‬‫ﻋﻠﻞ‬: ‫ﺑﺴﺒﺐ‬‫اﻟﺘﻜﺎﻓﺆ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻧﺎت‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺪ‬ ‫ﻓﯿﺴﮭﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺬرى‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺠﻢ‬ ‫زﯾﺎدة‬ ‫اﻟﺬرى‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺪد‬ ‫ﺑﺰﯾﺎدة‬ ‫اﻟﻜﯿﻤﯿﺎﺋﻰ‬ ‫ﯾﺰداداﻟﻨﺸﺎط‬‫ﻋﻠﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻜﺎﻓﺆ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻧﺎت‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺪ‬ ‫ﻓﯿﺴﮭﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺬرى‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺠﻢ‬ ‫زﯾﺎدة‬ ‫:ﺑﺴﺒﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻮﺻﯿﻞ‬‫و‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺤﺮارة‬ ‫اﻟﻜﮭﺮﺑﺎء‬ ‫اﻟﻜﮭﺮﺑﺎء‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺤﺮارة‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻮﺻﯿﻞ‬ ‫ﺟﯿﺪة‬‫اﻟﻜﮭﺮﺑﺎء‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺤﺮارة‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻮﺻﯿﻞ‬ ‫ﺟﯿﺪة‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ‬‫ﻛﺜﺎﻓﺘﮭﺎ‬‫ﺻﻐﯿﺮة‬ Li –Na – K‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﺜﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫اﻗﻞ‬ Rb – Cs‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﺜﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫اﻛﺒﺮ‬ ‫اﻻﻗﻼء‬ ‫ﻛﺜﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻛﺒﺮ‬ ‫ﻛﺜﺎﻓﺘﮭﺎ‬ Ca‫ﻛﺜﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫اﻗﻠﮭﺎ‬ Ba‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﻐﻮص‬ ‫ﺟﻤﯿﻌﮭﺎ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻛﺜﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫اﻛﺒﺮھﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﯾﻠﯿﻮم‬Be ‫ﻣﺎﻏﻨﺴﯿﻮم‬Mg ‫ﻛﺎﻟﺴﯿﻮم‬Ca ‫ﺳﺘﺮاﻧﺸﯿﻮم‬Sr ‫ﺑﺎرﯾﻮم‬Ba ‫اﻟﻜﯿﻤﯿﺎﺋﻲ‬‫اﻟﻨﺸﺎط‬‫ﯾﺬداد‬ ‫اﻟﻠﯿﺜﯿﻮم‬Li ‫اﻟﺼﻮدﯾﻮم‬Na ‫اﻟﺒﻮﺗﺎﺳﯿﻮم‬K ‫اﻟﺮﺑﯿﺪﯾﻮم‬Rb ‫اﻟﻜﯿﻤﯿﺎﺋﻲ‬‫اﻟﻨﺸﺎط‬‫ﯾﺬداد‬
  13. 13. /‫ا‬ ١٣ 13 ‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺬﻛﺮة‬٢٠١٧‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﺮ‬ ‫اﺑﻮ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻟﺪ‬ 13 ٣٣٣---‫ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔاﻟﮭﺎﻟﻮﺟﯿﻨﺎت‬‫ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔاﻟﮭﺎﻟﻮﺟﯿﻨﺎت‬‫ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔاﻟﮭﺎﻟﻮﺟﯿﻨﺎت‬777AAA : ‫اﻟﮭﺎﻟﻮﺟﯿﻨﺎت‬‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻊ‬‫اﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺪول‬ ‫ﯾﻤﯿﻦ‬7A‫ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺎت‬ ‫ﺿﻤﻦ‬‫اﻟﻔﺌﺔ‬P ‫اﻷﻣﻼح‬ ‫ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻨﻲ‬‫ﺑﺎﻟﮭﺎﻟﻮﺟﯿﻨﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ھﺬه‬ ‫وﺳﻤﯿﺖ‬‫ﻋﻠﻞ‬‫اﻟﻔﻠﺰات‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ‬ ‫ﻷﻧﮭﺎ‬‫أﻣﻼح‬ ‫ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺔ‬ : ‫اﻟﮭﺎﻟﻮﺟﯿﻨﺎت‬ ‫ﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻔﺎت‬ ١-: ‫ﻋﻠﻞ‬ ‫أﺣﺎدﯾﺔاﻟﺘﻜﺎﻓﺆ‬ ‫ﻓﻠﺰﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬‫واﺣﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﺈﻟﻜﺘﺮون‬ ‫ﺗﺸﺎرك‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ﺗﻜﺘﺴﺐ‬ ‫ﻻﻧﮭﺎ‬‫اﻟﻜﯿﻤﯿﺎﺋﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ‬ ‫اﺛﻨﺎء‬ ٢-‫اﻟﺬرة‬ ‫ﺛﻨﺎﺋﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺟﺰﯾﺌﺎﺗﮭﺎ‬Cl2 , F2 ٣-‫ﻻ‬‫ﺗﻮﺟﺪ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻔﺮدة‬‫ﻣﺮﻛﺒﺎت‬ ‫ﺻﻮرة‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺟﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺒﯿﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺻﻨﺎﻋﯿﺎ‬ ‫ﯾﺤﻀﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺬي‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺼﺮاﻹﺳﺘﺎﺗﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎء‬‫ﻋﻠﻞ‬‫ﻻﻧﮭﺎ‬‫ﻛﯿﻤﯿﺎﺋﯿﺎ‬ ‫ﻧﺸﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬ ٤-‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺼﺮ‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﯾﺤﻞ‬‫أﻣﻼﺣﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺎﻟﯿﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻠﯿﮫ‬. ٥٥٥---‫اﻟﻐﺎزﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻮرة‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﯿﺰﯾﺎﺋﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻟﺘﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﺪرج‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ( ‫واﻟﻜﻠﻮر‬ ‫اﻟﻔﻠﻮر‬ )‫اﻟﯿﻮد‬ ) ‫اﻟﺼﻠﺒﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻮرة‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ( ‫اﻟﺒﺮوم‬ ) ‫اﻟﺴﺎﺋﻠﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻮرة‬( ‫واﺳﺘﺨﺪاﻣﺎﺗﮫ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺾ‬ ‫ﺧﻮاص‬‫واﺳﺘﺨﺪاﻣﺎﺗﮫ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺾ‬ ‫ﺧﻮاص‬‫واﺳﺘﺨﺪاﻣﺎﺗﮫ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺾ‬ ‫ﺧﻮاص‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ‬‫اﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪام‬‫اﻟﺴﺒﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻮدﯾﻮم‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺎﺋﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻔﺎﻋﻞ‬ ‫ﻗﻠﺐ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺮارة‬ ‫ﻧﻘﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﯾﺴﺘﺨﺪم‬‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻮوي‬ ‫ﺧﺎرﺟﮫ‬‫ﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪاﻣﮭﺎ‬‫اﻟﺒﺨﺎرﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺼﻮل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﮭﺮﺑﺎء‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻮﻟﯿﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﻼزﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺤﺮارة‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻮﺻﯿﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻠﺰﺟﯿﺪ‬ ‫ﻻﻧﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﯿﻠﯿﻜﻮن‬‫ﯾ‬‫ﺴﺘﺨﺪم‬‫ﺻﻨﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬‫اﻟﺴﯿﻠﯿﻜﻮن‬ ‫ﺷﺮاﺋﺢ‬‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻤﺒﯿﻮﺗﺮ‬ ‫اﺟﮭﺰة‬ ‫ﺻﻨﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮﺻﻼت‬ ‫اﺷﺒﺎه‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻻﻧﮫ‬‫ﯾﺘﻮﻗﻒ‬‫ﻟﻠﻜﮭﺮﺑﺎء‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺻﯿﻠﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﺣﺮارﺗ‬ ‫درﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬‫ﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎل‬ ‫اﻟﻨﯿﺘﺮوﺟﯿﻦ‬‫ﯾﺴﺘﺨﺪم‬‫اﻟﻌﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻗﺮﻧﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﻔﻆ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬) ‫ﻏﻠﯿﺎﻧﮫ‬ ‫درﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﻻﻧﺨﻔﺎض‬-١٩٦(‫م‬ ْ ‫اﻟﻜﻮﺑﻠﺖ‬٦٠‫اﻟﻤﺸﻊ‬ Co ‫ﯾﺴﺘﺨﺪم‬‫اﻻﻏﺬﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﻔﻆ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬‫أن‬ ‫دون‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺮاﺛﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﺎﺛﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﻤﻨﻊ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﺪرﻣﻨﮫ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻣﺎ‬ ‫أﺷﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻷن‬ ‫اﻹﻧﺴﺎن‬ ‫ﺻﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﺆﺛﺮ‬.
  14. 14. /‫ا‬ ١٤ 14 ‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺬﻛﺮة‬٢٠١٧‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﺮ‬ ‫اﺑﻮ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻟﺪ‬ 14 :‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﺗﺮﻛﯿﺐ‬- ‫ھﯿﺪروﺟﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﺬرﺗﯿﻦ‬ ‫ذرةأﻛﺴﺠﯿﻦ‬ ‫ارﺗﺒﺎط‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﯾﺘﻜﻮن‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﺟﺰئ‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻨﮭﻤﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺰاوﯾﺔ‬ ‫أﺣﺎدﯾﺘﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺎھﻤﯿﺘﯿﻦ‬ ‫راﺑﻄﺘﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻜﻮﯾﻦ‬١٠٤.٥‫درﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﯾﻮﺟﺪ‬ : ( ‫)ﻋﻠﻞ‬‫ھﯿﺪروﺟﯿﻨﯿﺔ؟‬ ‫رواﺑﻂ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﺟﺰﯾﺌﺎت‬ ‫ﻟﻼﻛﺴﺠﯿﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﮭﺮﺑﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺎﻟﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻻن‬‫اﻛﺒﺮﻣﻦ‬‫ﻟﻠﮭﯿﺪروﺟﯿﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﮭﺮﺑﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺎﻟﺒﯿﺔ‬‫ﻗﻮة‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻨﮭﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﺸﺄ‬ ‫ﻟﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺘﺮوﺳﺘﺎﺗﯿﻜﻰ‬ ‫ﺟﺬب‬‫اﻟﮭﯿﺪروﺟﯿﻨﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺮاﺑﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﻤﻰ‬ ‫ﺿﻌﯿﻔﺔ‬ :‫اﻟﮭﯿﺮوﺟﯿﻨﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺮاﺑﻄﺔ‬‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﻄﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮﻛﺒﺎت‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺾ‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﺸﺎ‬ ‫ﺿﻌﯿﻔﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺘﺮوﺳﺘﺎﺗﯿﻜﻰ‬ ‫ﺟﺬب‬ ‫ﻗﻮة‬ ‫ھﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺴﺎھﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺮاﺑﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﺿﻌﻒ‬ ‫اﻟﮭﯿﺪروﺟﯿﻨﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺮاﺑﻄﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺮاﺑﻄﺔ‬ ‫و‬‫اﻟﺘﺴﺎھﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺮاﺑﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﺿﻌﻒ‬ ‫اﻟﮭﯿﺪروﺟﯿﻨﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺎء‬ ‫اﻟﻔﯿﺰﯾﻘﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﻮاص‬ ‫اوﻻ‬ ‫ﻗﻮىﻠﻤﻌﻈﻢ‬ ‫ﻗﻄﺒﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺬﯾﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﯾﻌﺘﺒﺮ‬:(‫اﻟﺴﻜﺮ)ﻋﻠﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺴﺎھﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮﻛﺒﺎت‬ ‫وﺑﻌﺾ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻌﺎم‬ ‫ﻣﻠﺢ‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫اﻷﯾﻮﻧﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮﻛﺒﺎت‬ ‫ھﯿﺪروﺟﯿﻨﯿﺔ‬ ‫رواﺑﻂ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮن‬ ‫ﻻﻧﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻜﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﺬوب‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺴﺎھﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮﻛﺒﺎت‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺾ‬ :‫اﻟﻄﺒﯿﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﯿﺎه‬ ‫ﻣﺼﺎدر‬:‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫اھﻤﯿﺔ‬-:‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺨﺪاﻣﺎت‬- ١-‫اﻟﺒﺤﺎر‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎﺋﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﻄﺤﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺤﯿﻄﺎت‬ ‫و‬‫و‬‫اﻷﻧﮭﺎر‬ ٢-‫اﻟﯿﻨﺎﺑﯿﻊ‬ ‫و‬ ‫واﻟﻌﯿﻮن‬ ‫اﻵﺑﺎر‬ ‫اﻷﻣﻄﺎر‬ ‫ﻣﯿﺎه‬ ‫و‬ ١-‫اﻟﺤﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺎﺋﻨﺎت‬ ‫ﻟﺠﻤﯿﻊ‬ ‫ﺿﺮورى‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ٢-‫ﺑﻠﺪان‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻓﻌﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﻞ‬ ‫وﺳﯿﻠﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﯾﻌﺘﺒﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ‬ ٣-‫ﻟﺘﻮﻟﯿﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﺮﺋﯿﺴﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺼﺪر‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﯾﻌﺘﺒﺮ‬‫اﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﮭﺮﺑﯿﺔ‬ ١-‫اﻟﻐﺴﯿﻞ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻌﺎم‬ ‫ﻃﮭﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫ﺷﺨﺼﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺨﺪاﻣﺎت‬ ‫اﻻﺳﺘﺤﻤﺎم‬ ‫و‬ ( ‫اﻟﺠﻨﻮﺑﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻣﺮﯾﻜﺎ‬ ‫ﻗﺎرة‬ ‫اﺳﺘﮭﻼﻛﺎ‬ ‫)اﻛﺜﺮ‬ ٢-‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫زراﻋﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺨﺪاﻣﺎت‬ ‫اﻻراﺿﻰ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺼﻼح‬ ‫و‬ ‫رى‬‫ا‬‫ﻟﺰراﻋﯿﺔ‬ ( ‫اﺳﯿﺎ‬ ‫ﻗﺎرة‬ ‫اﺳﺘﮭﻼﻛﺎ‬ ‫)اﻛﺜﺮ‬ ٣-‫ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪم‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺼﺎﻧﻊ‬ ‫ﺟﻤﯿﻊ‬ ‫ﺻﻨﺎﻋﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺨﺪﻣﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎء)اﻛﺜﺮ‬( ‫اورﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻗﺎرة‬ ‫اﺳﺘﮭﻼﻛﺎ‬
  15. 15. /‫ا‬ ١٥ 15 ‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺬﻛﺮة‬٢٠١٧‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﺮ‬ ‫اﺑﻮ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻟﺪ‬ 15 ‫ﻗﻮى‬ ‫ﻗﻄﺒﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺬﯾﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫ان‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺠﺮﺑﺔ‬ ‫وﺿﺤﻰ‬ : ‫اﻻدوات‬٣‫زﺟﺎﺟﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻛﻮاب‬–‫ﻃﻌﺎم‬ ‫ﻣﻠﺢ‬–‫ﺳﻜﺮ‬–‫ﻃﻌﺎم‬ ‫زﯾﺖ‬–‫ﻟﻠﺘﻘﻠﯿﺐ‬ ‫ﻣﻠﻌﻘﺔ‬ : ‫اﻟﺨﻄﻮات‬١-‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺴﺎوﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﻤﯿﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ‬ ‫اﻻﻛﻮاب‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻼء‬ ٢-‫ﻃﻌﺎم‬ ‫زﯾﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﻠﻌﻘﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺳﻜﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻠﻌﻘﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺜﺎﻧﻰ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻃﻌﺎم‬ ‫ﻣﻠﺢ‬ ‫ﻣﻠﻌﻘﺔ‬ ‫اﻻول‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻜﻮب‬ ‫ﻧﻀﯿﻒ‬ ٣-‫ﺟﯿﺪا‬ ‫اﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ‬ ‫اﻻﻛﻮاب‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺘﻮﯾﺎت‬ ‫ﻧﻘﻠﺐ‬ : ‫اﻟﻤﻼﺣﻈﺔ‬‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﯾﺬوب‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻌﺎم‬ ‫زﯾﺖ‬ ‫اﻣﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﯾﺬوب‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻠﺢ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻜﺮ‬ ‫ان‬ ‫ﻧﻼﺣﻆ‬ : ‫اﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎج‬١-‫ﻗﻮى‬ ‫ﻗﻄﺒﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺬﯾﺐ‬ ‫ﻻﻧﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻌﺎم‬ ‫ﻣﻠﺢ‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﺬوب‬ ‫اﻻﯾﻮﻧﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮﻛﺒﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻈﻢ‬ ٢-‫ﯾﺬوب‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﻀﮭﺎ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﯾﺬوب‬ ‫ﺑﻌﻀﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺴﺎھﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮﻛﺒﺎت‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻜﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﺬوب‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ھﯿﺪروﺟﯿﻨﯿﺔ‬ ‫راﺑﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮن‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺴﺎھﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻟﻤﺮﻛﺒﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺴﺎھﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫واﻟﻤﺮﻛﺒﺎت‬‫اﻟﻄﻌﺎم‬ ‫زﯾﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﺬوب‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ھﯿﺪروﺟﯿﻨﯿﺔ‬ ‫راﺑﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮن‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ١.:‫واﻻﻧﺼﮭﺎر‬ ‫اﻟﻐﻠﯿﺎن‬ ‫درﺟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ارﺗﻔﺎع‬- ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﯾﻐﻠﻲ‬١٠٠‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫وﯾﺘﺠﻤﺪ‬‫ﺻﻔﺮ‬‫درﺟﺔ‬‫ﻋﻠﻞ‬ ‫ﺳﯿﻠﯿﺰﯾﻮس‬‫اﻟﮭﯿﺪروﺟﯿﻨﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺮواﺑﻂ‬ ‫:ﺑﺴﺒﺐ‬‫ﺟﺰﯾﺌﺎﺗﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻦ‬. ٢.‫ﻗﯿﻢ‬ ‫ارﺗﻔﺎع‬‫اﻟﻜﺎﻣﻨﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺮارة‬: ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺎء‬- ‫وﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺎﺋﻠﺔ‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔاﻟﺼﻠﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻐﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﯾﻘﺎوم‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬‫اﻟﻐﺎزﯾﺔ؟‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺎﺋﻠﺔ‬‫ﻋﻠﻞ‬‫ﻟﻠﻤﺎء‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺎﻣﻨﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺮارة‬ ‫ﻗﯿﻢ‬ ‫ارﺗﻔﺎع‬ ‫ﺑﺴﺒﺐ‬ ‫؟؟‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺮاﺋﻖ‬ ‫اﻃﻔﺎء‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﯾﺴﺘﺨﺪم‬: ‫ﻋﻠﻞ‬- ‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻌﯿﺪ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﺛﻨﺎء‬ ‫اﻻﺣﺘﺮاق‬ ‫ﺣﺮارة‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﺒﯿﺮة‬ ‫ﻛﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﯾﺴﺘﮭﻠﻚ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﻻن‬‫اﻟﺴﺎﺋﻠﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻮﯾﻠﺔ‬ ‫اى‬‫اﻟﻐﺎزﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻰ‬ ٤-‫ﻟﻠﻤﺎء‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻮﻋﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺮارة‬ ‫ﻗﯿﻤﺔ‬ ‫ارﺗﻔﺎع‬ ‫؟‬ ‫اﻟﺠﻮ‬ ‫ﺣﺮارة‬ ‫درﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺘﻐﯿﺮ‬ ‫اﻻﻧﺴﺎن‬ ‫ﺟﺴﻢ‬ ‫ﺣﺮارة‬ ‫درﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﻻﺗﺘﻐﯿﺮ‬ : ‫ﻋﻠﻞ‬ ‫ارﺗﻔﺎع‬ ‫ﺑﺴﺒﺐ‬‫اﻟ‬‫اﻟﻨﻮﻋﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺤﺮارة‬‫اﻻﻧﺴﺎن‬ ‫ﺟﺴﻢ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮدة‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺎء‬ ٥-: ‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﻛﺜــــــــــﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﯾﺸﺬ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫وھﻮ‬ ‫ﻛﺜﺎﻓﺘﮫ‬ ‫إن‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮاد‬ ‫ﺟﻤﯿﻊ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬‫اﻟﺴﺎﺋﻠﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻛﺜﺎﻓﺘﮫ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫أﻗﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻠﺒﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ‬ : ‫ﯾﺎﺗﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻞ‬١-‫اﻟﻤﺎء؟‬ ‫ﺳﻄﺢ‬ ‫ﻓﻮق‬ ‫اﻟﺜﻠﺞ‬ ‫ﯾﻄﻔﻮ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﺳﻄﺢ‬ ‫ﻓﻮق‬ ‫اﻟﺜﻠﺞ‬ ‫ﯾﻄﻔﻮ‬ ‫ﻟﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﻛﺜﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻗﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺜﻠﺞ‬ ‫ﻛﺜﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻻن‬ ٢-‫اﻟﻘﻄﺒﯿﺔ؟‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺎﻃﻖ‬ ‫اﺳﻤﺎك‬ ‫ﺗﺘﺠﻤﺪ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫اﻻﺳﻤﺎك‬ ‫ﺗﻌﯿﺶ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﺳﻄﺢ‬ ‫ﻓﻮق‬ ‫اﻟﺜﻠﺞ‬ ‫ﻓﯿﻄﻔﻮ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﻛﺜﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻗﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺜﻠﺞ‬ ‫ﻛﺜﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻻن‬‫ا‬‫ﻻﻋﻤﺎق‬ ٣-‫اﻟﻤﺎء؟‬ ‫ﻛﺜﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻗﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺜﻠﺞ‬ ‫ﻛﺜﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺎﺋﻠﺔ؟‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﻛﺜﺎﻓﺘﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻗﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻠﺒﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﻛﺜﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫او‬‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﺣﺠﻢ‬ ‫ﯾﺰداد‬ ‫او‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺠﻤﺪ؟‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺮارة‬ ‫درﺟﺔ‬ ‫اﻧﺨﻔﺎض‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻻﻧﺔ‬٤o ‫اﻟﺮواﺑﻂ‬ ‫ﺑﻮاﺳﻄﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﺟﺰﯾﺌﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﺘﺠﻤﻊ‬ ‫س‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻛﺜﯿﺮةو‬ ‫ﻓﺮاﻏﺎت‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻨﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺠﻢ‬ ‫ﻛﺒﯿﺮة‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﺳﺪاﺳﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺛﻠﺞ‬ ‫ﺑﻠﻠﻮرات‬ ‫ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﮭﯿﺪروﺟﯿﻨﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﺜﺎﻓﺘﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻞ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺣﺠﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﯾﺰداد‬ ٤-‫اﻟﻔﺮﯾﺰر؟‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫وﺿﻌﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﻐﻠﻖ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻜﻤﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻤﻠﺆة‬ ‫اﻟﺰﺟﺎﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻜﺴﺮ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻓﯿﻀﻐﻂ‬ ‫ﺣﺠﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﯾﺰداد‬ ‫ﯾﺘﺠﻤﺪ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﻻن‬‫ﻓﺘﻨﻜﺴﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺰﺟﺎﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺎء‬ ‫اﻟﻜﯿﻤﯿﺎﺋﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﻮاص‬ ‫ﺛﺎﻧﯿﺎ‬
  16. 16. /‫ا‬ ١٦ 16 ‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺬﻛﺮة‬٢٠١٧‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﺮ‬ ‫اﺑﻮ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻟﺪ‬ 16 ١-‫اﻟﺘﺄﯾﻦ‬ ‫ﺿﻌﯿﻒ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬ : ‫:اﻟﺘﺎﯾﻦ‬‫ﺳﺎﻟﺒﺔ‬ ‫اﯾﻮﻧﺎت‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺟﺒﺔ‬ ‫أﯾﻮﻧﺎت‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺴﺎھﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮﻛﺒﺎت‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺾ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻮل‬ ‫ھﻮ‬ ‫ﺿﻌﯿﻒ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫وﯾﻌﺘﺒﺮ‬‫اﻟﺘﺄﯾﻦ‬. ٢-‫اﻟﺸﻤﺲ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺎد‬ ‫ورﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺄﺛﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻌﺎدل‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻌﺎدل‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬‫؟‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻤﺲ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺎد‬ ‫ورﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺎﺛﯿﺮ‬: ‫ﻋﻠﻞ‬- ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺌﻮﻟﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮﺟﺒﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﮭﯿﺪروﺟﯿﻦ‬ ‫اﯾﻮﻧﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﺪد‬ ‫ﯾﻌﻄﻰ‬ ‫ﯾﺘﺎﯾﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﻻن‬ ‫اﻟﻘﻠﻮﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺌﻮﻟﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺎﻟﺒﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﮭﯿﺪروﻛﺴﯿﺪ‬ ‫اﯾﻮﻧﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﺪد‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺎوى‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺎﻣﻀﯿﺔ‬ ٣-:‫اﻟﺘﺤﻠﻞ‬ ‫ﯾﻘﺎوم‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬- ‫ﻋﻨﺼﺮﯾﮫ‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﻻﯾﻨﺤﻞ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﮭﯿﺪروﺟﯿﻦ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻻﻛﺴﯿﺠﯿﻦ‬‫ﺑﺎﻟﺤﺮارة‬ ‫أو‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺒﯿﻌﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻈﺮوف‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻠﻞ‬ ‫دون‬ ‫اﻟﺤﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺎﺋﻨﺎت‬ ‫ﺧﻼﯾﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎﺋﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺤﺎﻟﯿﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﺒﻘﻰ‬ ‫وﻟﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺎﺋﻨﺎت‬ ‫ﺧﻼﯾﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮدة‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎﺋﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻘﺎءاﻟﻤﺤﺎﻟﯿﻞ‬‫ﺗﺤﻠﻞ؟؟‬ ‫دون‬:‫ﻋﻠﻞ‬- ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺤﺮارة‬ ‫أو‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺒﯿﻌﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻈﺮوف‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﮭﯿﺪروﺟﯿﻦ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻻﻛﺴﯿﺠﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺼﺮﯾﮫ‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﯾﻨﺤﻞ‬ ‫ااﻟﻤﺎءﻻ‬ ‫ﻻن‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺎء‬ ‫اﻟﻜﮭﺮﺑﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺤﻠﯿﻞ‬ ‫ﻟ‬ ‫ھﻮﻓﻤﺎن‬ ‫ﻓﻮﻟﺘﺎﻣﺘﺮ‬ ‫ﺟﮭﺎز‬ ‫ﯾﺴﺘﺨﺪم‬‫ﻠ‬‫ﺘﺤﻠﯿﻞ‬‫ﻟ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﮭﺮﺑﻰ‬‫ﻠﻤﺎء‬‫اﻟﻤﺤﻤﺾ‬. ‫اﻟﮭﯿﺪروﺟﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻏﺎز‬ ‫ﯾﺘﺠﻤﻊ‬‫اﻟﻤﺼﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﻓﻮق‬ ‫اﻷﻛﺴﺠﯿﻦ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﮭﺒﻂ‬ ‫ﻓﻮق‬ ‫ﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬١:٢‫ﺣﺠﻢ‬ ‫ﺿﻌﻒ‬ ‫اﻟﮭﯿﺪروﺟﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻏﺎز‬ ‫ﺣﺠﻢ‬ ‫ﺣﺠﻤﺎاى‬‫اﻷﻛﺴﺠﯿﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻮث‬ ‫ﻣﺎدة‬ ‫أي‬ ‫إﺿﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ھﻮ‬‫اﻟﺤﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺎﺋﻨﺎت‬ ‫وﺣﯿﺎة‬ ‫ﺻﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اذى‬ ‫ﻣﺼﺪر‬ ‫ﯾﺠﻌﻠﮫ‬ ‫ﻣﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺧﻮاﺻﮫ‬ ‫ﺗﻐﯿﺮﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﻣﻔﮭﻮم‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺠﺮﺑﺔ‬ ‫وﺿﺤﻰ‬‫اﻟﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻮث‬‫ء‬ ‫اﻷدوات‬٣‫زﺟﺎج‬ ‫اﻛﻮاب‬–‫ﺻﻨﺎﻋﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻈﻒ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻠﻘﺘﯿﻦ‬–‫زراﻋﻰ‬ ‫ﺳﻤﺎد‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻠﻘﺘﯿﻦ‬–‫ﺻﻨﺒﻮر‬ ‫ﻣﺎء‬–‫ﺧﻀﺮاء‬ ‫ﻃﺤﺎﻟﺐ‬ ‫ﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺎء‬ : ‫اﻟﺨﻄﻮات‬١-‫اﻻﺧﻀﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺪار‬ ‫ﻣﻨﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﻼ‬ ‫اﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻧﻀﯿﻒ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻨﺒﻮرﺛﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﻤﺎء‬ ‫اﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ‬ ‫اﻻﻛﻮاب‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻠﺊ‬ ٢-‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻠﻘﺘﯿﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺜﺎﻧﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻰ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﻈﻒ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻠﻘﺘﯿﻦ‬ ‫اﻻول‬ ‫اﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻧﻀﯿﻒ‬‫اﻟﺴﻤﺎد‬‫اﺿﺎﻓﺎت‬ ‫ﺑﺪون‬ ‫اﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺰراﻋﻰ‬ ٣-‫اﯾﺎم‬ ‫ﻟﻌﺪة‬ ‫ﻣﺸﻤﺲ‬ ‫ﻣﻜﺎن‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﻐﻄﯿﺘﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ‬ ‫اﻻﻛﻮاب‬ ‫ﻧﻀﻊ‬ ‫ﺛﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻼﺣﻈﺔ‬‫ﺗ‬‫اﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﻃﺒﯿﻌﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻤﻮ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻻول‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﺒﻄﺊ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻤﻮ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺜﺎﻧﻰ‬ ‫اﻻﻧﺎء‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﯾﻌﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺤﺎﻟﺐ‬ ‫ﻨﻤﻮ‬ ‫اﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎج‬١-‫ﻟﻠﻄﺤﺎﻟﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺮﯾﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻤﻮ‬ ‫اﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﯾﺆدى‬ ‫اﻟﺰراﻋﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻻﺳﻤﺪة‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻮث‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫اﻷﻛﺴﺠﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﯾﻘﻠﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻤﺎ‬‫اﻻﺳﻤﺎك‬ ‫ﻣﻮت‬ ‫اﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻓﯿﺆدى‬ ٢-‫ﻟﻼﺳﻤﺎك‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﺎح‬ ‫اﻟﻐﺬاء‬ ‫ﻛﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﯾﻘﻠﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻄﺤﺎﻟﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻤﻮاﻟﺒﻄﺊ‬ ‫اﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﯾﺆدى‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻨﻈﻒ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻮث‬ ‫اﻻﺳﻤﺎك‬ ‫ﻣﻮت‬ ‫اﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻓﯿﺆدى‬ ٣--: ‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻮث‬‫اﻟﺤﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻜﺎﺋﻨﺎت‬ ‫اذى‬ ‫ﻣﺼﺪر‬ ‫ﺗﺠﻌﻠﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺧﻮاﺻﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻐﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﻣﺎدة‬ ‫اى‬ ‫اﺿﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ھﻮ‬
  17. 17. /‫ا‬ ١٧ 17 ‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺬﻛﺮة‬٢٠١٧‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﺮ‬ ‫اﺑﻮ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻟﺪ‬ 17 ‫اﻟﺒﯿﺌﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻠﻮﺛﺎت‬:‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﯿﺌﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻠﻮﺛﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻘﺴﻢ‬- ‫اﻟﻤﺎﺋﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻠﻮث‬ ‫اﻧﻮاع‬:‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻮث‬ ‫اﻧﻮاع‬-: ‫اﻟﺘﻠﻮث‬ ‫ﻧﻮع‬‫اﺳﺒﺎﺑﺔ‬‫اﺿﺮارة‬ ١‫ﺗﻠﻮث‬ .: ‫ﺑﯿﻮﻟﻮﺟﻲ‬‫ﻓﻀﻼت‬ ‫اﺧﺘﻼط‬ ‫ﺳﺒﺒﺔ‬‫واﻟﺤﯿﻮان‬ ‫اﻹﻧﺴﺎن‬‫ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺎء‬‫اﻟﺘﯿﻔﻮد‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻠﮭﺎرﺳﯿﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫اﻷﻣﺮاض‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺒﺒﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻮﺑﺎﺋﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺒﺪى‬ ‫اﻻﻟﺘﮭﺎب‬ ‫و‬ ٢-‫ﺗﻠــﻮث‬: ‫ﻛﯿﻤﯿﺎﺋﻲ‬-‫اﻟﻤﺼﺎﻧﻊ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﻠﻔﺎت‬ ‫ﺻﺮف‬ ‫ﺳﺒﺒﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺮع‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﺤﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﺮف‬ ‫وﻣﯿﺎه‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﻛﯿﺰﺑﻌﺾ‬ ‫زﯾﺎدة‬ ‫اﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﯾﺆدى‬.:‫ﻓﻤﺜﻼ‬- ‫اﻟﺮﺻﺎص‬ ‫ﺗﺮﻛﯿﺰ‬ ‫ارﺗﻔﺎع‬‫اﻟﻤﺦ‬ ‫ﺧﻼﯾﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻮت‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﯾﺆدي‬ ‫و‬‫اﻟﺰﺋﺒﻖ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﻛﯿﺰ‬ ‫ارﺗﻔﺎع‬‫اﻟﺒﺼﺮ‬ ‫إﻟىﻔﻘﺪان‬ ‫ﯾﺆدي‬ ‫و‬‫اﻟﺰرﻧﯿﺦ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﻛﯿﺰ‬ ‫ارﺗﻔﺎع‬‫ﯾﺆدي‬‫ا‬‫ﻟﻰ‬‫ﺑﺴﺮﻃﺎن‬ ‫اﻹﺻﺎﺑﺔ‬ ‫زﯾﺎدة‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺒﺪ‬ ٣‫ﺗﻠــــﻮث‬ .:‫ﺣﺮاري‬‫ﺳﺒﺒﺔارﺗﻔﺎع‬‫درﺟﺔ‬‫ﺣﺮارة‬‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬‫ﻓﻰ‬‫ﺑﻌﺾ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺎﻃﻖ‬‫اﻟﺒﺤﺮﯾﺔ‬‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬‫ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪم‬‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻔﺎﻋﻼت‬ ‫ﺗﺒﺮﯾﺪ‬‫اﻟﻨﻮوﯾﺔ‬ ‫ھﻼك‬ ‫اﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﯾﺆدى‬ ‫ﻣﻤﺎ‬‫اﻟﻜﺎﺋﻨﺎت‬‫اﻟﺒﺤﺮﯾﺔ‬‫ﻧﺘﯿﺠﺔ‬ ‫اﻧﻔﺼﺎل‬‫اﻷﻛﺴﺠﯿﻦ‬‫ﻋﻦ‬‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ٤‫إﺷﻌﺎﻋﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻮث‬ .‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺸﻌﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮاد‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺮب‬ ‫ﺳﺒﺒﺔ‬‫اﻟﻨﻮوﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻔﺎﻋﻼت‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺤﺎر‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺬرﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬ ‫أوإﻟﻘﺎء‬‫اﻟﻤﺤﯿﻄﺎت‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺮﻃﺎن‬ ‫ﺑﻤﺮض‬ ‫اﻻﺻﺎﺑﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﯾﺆدى‬ ‫ﻣﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻠﻮث‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﺣﻤﺎﯾﺔ‬‫ﻣﺼﺮ‬ ١-‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﺤﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﺮف‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺼﺎﻧﻊ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﻠﻔﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻘﺎء‬ ‫ﻋﺪم‬ ٢-‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﯿﺘﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﯿﻮاﻧﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻘﺎء‬ ‫ﻋﺪم‬ ٣-‫ﻷﻧﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﻼﺳﺘﯿﻚ‬ ‫زﺟﺎﺟﺎت‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻨﺒﻮر‬ ‫ﻣﺎء‬ ‫ﺗﺨﺰﯾﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﺪم‬‫ﺗﻄﮭﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻠﻮراﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪم‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ‬‫ﺑﺎﻟﺴﺮﻃﺎن‬ ‫اﻹﺻﺎﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺪﻻت‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎءﻓﺘﺰﯾﺪ‬ ٤-‫ﻟﻠﺸﺮب‬ ‫ﺻﻼﺣﯿﺘﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺪى‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺤﺪﯾﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫دورﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﺧﺘﺒﺎرات‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻞ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻘﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻄﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮﯾﺮ‬ ٥-‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﺧﺰاﻧﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﻄﮭﯿﺮ‬‫اﻟﻤﻨﺎزل‬ ‫أﺳﻄﺢ‬ ‫ﻓﻮق‬‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮار‬ ٦-‫اﻟﻨﺎس‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﯿﺌﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻮﻋﻲ‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺮ‬ ‫ﻃﺒﯿﻌﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻠﻮﺛﺎت‬‫ﺻﻨﺎﻋﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻠﻮﺛﺎت‬ : ‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫ﻃﺒﯿﻌﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻇﻮاھﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﺪرھﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺎﺋﻨﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻮت‬ ‫و‬ ‫واﻧﻔﺠﺎراﻟﺒﺮاﻛﯿﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻐﺎﺑﺎت‬ ‫ﺣﺮاﺋﻖ‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫اﻹﻧﺴﺎن‬ ‫أﻧﺸﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﺪرھﺎ‬: ‫اﻟﻘﺎء‬‫اﻟﻤﻨﺎزل‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺼﺎﻧﻊ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﻠﻔﺎت‬‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺤﺎر‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬‫اﻟﻤﺤﯿﻄﺎت‬
  18. 18. /‫ا‬ ١٨ 18 ‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺬﻛﺮة‬٢٠١٧‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﺮ‬ ‫اﺑﻮ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻟﺪ‬ 18 ‫اﻟﺠﻮي‬ ‫اﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬ ‫ﻗﯿﺎس‬ ‫أﺟﮭﺰة‬‫ﺑﺎﻟﺒﺎروﻣﺘﺮات‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺮف‬ ‫ﺑﺄﺟﮭﺰة‬ ‫اﻟﺠﻮى‬ ‫اﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬ ‫ﯾﻘﺎس‬ ‫اﻟﺠﮭﺎز‬‫اﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪام‬ ‫اﻻﻧﯿﺮوﯾﺪ‬‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻧﻮع‬ ‫ھﻮ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﯿﻮم‬ ‫ﻃﻘﺲ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﯾﺴﺘﺨﺪم‬ ‫ﺷﺨﺼﻲ‬ ‫ﺟﮭﺎز‬ ‫ھﻮ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺎروﻣﺘﺮات‬ ‫أﻧﻮاع‬ ‫اﻻﻟﺘﯿﻤﯿﺘﺮ‬‫اﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬ ‫ﺑﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺤﻠﯿﻖ‬ ‫ارﺗﻔﺎع‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺎﺋﺮات‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﯾﺴﺘﺨﺪم‬ ‫ﺟﮭﺎز‬ ‫اﻟﺠﻮى‬ :‫اﻻﯾﺰوﺑﺎر‬‫ﺗﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺤﻨﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺧﻄﻮط‬ ‫ھﻰ‬‫اﻟﺠﻮى‬ ‫اﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﺴﺎوﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻘﺎط‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻦ‬‫اﻟﺠﻮى‬ ‫اﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬ ‫ﺧﺮاﺋﻂ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫وﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪم‬ :‫اﻟﺠﻮى‬ ‫اﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬ ‫ﺧﺮﯾﻄﺔ‬‫ﺗ‬: ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﺴﺘﺨﺪم‬ ١-‫ﺗﺤﺪﯾﺪ‬‫اﻟﻤﺮﺗﻔﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺮﯾﺎح‬ ‫ﺗﺘﺤﺮك‬ ‫ﺣﯿﺚ‬ ‫اﻟﺮﯾﺎح‬ ‫ﺣﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫اﺗﺠﺎة‬H‫اﻟﻨﺨﻔﺾ‬ ‫اﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻰ‬L ٢-‫اﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﻮى‬ ‫اﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺪﯾﺪ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﻘﯿﻘﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﻮى‬ ‫اﻟﻐﻼف‬‫ﻏﺎزى‬ ‫ﻏﻼف‬ ‫ھﻮ‬‫ارﺗﻔﺎع‬ ‫ﺣﺘﻰ‬ ‫وﯾﻤﺘﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻮرھﺎ‬ ‫ﺣﻮل‬ ‫ﻣﻌﮭﺎ‬ ‫وﯾﺪور‬ ‫اﻟﺠﮭﺎت‬ ‫ﺟﻤﯿﻊ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻻرض‬ ‫ﯾﺤﯿﻂ‬١٠٠٠‫ﻛﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺤﺮ‬ ‫ﺳﻄﺢ‬ ‫ﻓﻮق‬ ‫اﻟﺠﻮي‬ ‫اﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬‫اﻟﺠﻮى‬ ‫اﻟﻐﻼف‬ ‫ارﺗﻔﺎع‬ ‫وﻃﻮﻟﮫ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﺣﺎت‬ ‫وﺣﺪة‬ ‫ﻣﻘﻄﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﮭﻮاء‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻮد‬ ‫وزن‬ ‫ھﻮ‬٠ : ‫ﻗﯿﺎﺳﮫ‬ ‫ﺣﺪة‬) ‫اﻟﺒﺎر‬b) ‫ﺑﺎر‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻠﻠﻲ‬ ‫او‬ (mb(‫اﻟﺒﺎر‬ : ‫ﻣﻠﺤﻮﻇﺔ‬b=١٠٠٠‫ﺑﺎر‬ ‫ﻣﻠﻰ‬bm ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺘﺎد‬ ‫اﻟﺠﻮى‬ ‫اﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬‫وﯾﺴﺎوى‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺤﺮ‬ ‫ﺳﻄﺢ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮى‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﻮى‬ ‫اﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬ ‫ھﻮ‬٧٦‫ﯾﻌﺎدل‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫وھﻮ‬ ‫زﺋﺒﻖ‬ ‫ﺳﻢ‬١٠١٣,٢٥.‫ﺑﺎر‬ ‫ﻣﻠﻠﻰ‬
  19. 19. /‫ا‬ ١٩ 19 ‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺬﻛﺮة‬٢٠١٧‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﺮ‬ ‫اﺑﻮ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻟﺪ‬ 19 :‫اﻟﺠﻮى‬ ‫اﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺆﺛﺮة‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻮاﻣﻞ‬‫ھﻰ‬‫اﻟﺒﺤﺮ‬ ‫ﺳﻄﺢ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫اﻻرﺗﻔﺎع‬٠‫اﻟﺠﻮى‬ ‫اﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬ ‫ﯾﻘﻞ‬ ‫اﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻰ‬ ‫ارﺗﻔﻌﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻜﻠﻤﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺤﺮ‬ ‫ﺳﻄﺢ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫اﻻرﺗﻔﺎع‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻼف‬ ‫ﯾﺨﺘﻠﻒ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﻮى‬ ‫اﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺠﺮﺑﺔ‬ ‫أﺛﺒﺖ‬٠ ‫اﻷدوات‬٤‫و‬ ‫ﻛﺒﯿﺮة‬ ‫ﻛﺘﺐ‬٦، ‫اﻟﺒﻼﺳﺘﯿﻚ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫رﻗﺎﺋﻖ‬٣. ‫اﻷﻟﻮان‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻠﺼﺎل‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻗﻄﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﻄﻮات‬‫اﻟﺼﻠﺼﺎل‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻧﻜﻮن‬٣. ‫اﻟﻜﺘﺐ‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻦ‬ ‫وﻧﻀﻌﮭﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻤﺎﺛﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﺮات‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻼﺣﻈﺎت‬ : ‫ﻧﻼﺣﻆ‬ . ‫ﻋﻠﯿﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬ ‫ﻧﺘﯿﺠﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻠﺼﺎل‬ ‫ﻛﺮات‬ ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﻐﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﺣﺪوث‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻔﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻜﺮة‬ ‫ﺣﺪث‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺒﯿﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻐﯿﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻠﻮﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻜﺮة‬ ‫ﺣﺪث‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻔﯿﻒ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻐﯿﺮ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎج‬ ‫وزﻧﮭﺎ‬ ‫زاد‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻃﻮﻟﮭﺎ‬ ‫زاد‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺘﺐ‬ ‫ﻋﺪد‬ ‫زاد‬ ‫ﻛﻠﻤﺎ‬‫اﻟﻜﯿﻔﯿﺔ‬ ‫وﺑﻨﻔﺲ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻠﺼﺎل‬ ‫ﻗﻄﻊ‬ ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﻛﺒﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﻐﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﻓﺤﺪث‬ ‫اﻟﺠﻮى‬ ‫اﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬ ‫ﯾﺰداد‬ ‫وﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫وزﻧﺔ‬ ‫ﯾﺰداد‬ ‫اﻟﮭﻮاء‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻮد‬ ‫ﻃﻮل‬ ‫زاد‬ ‫:ﻛﻠﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﯾﻘﻞ‬ ‫اﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻰ‬ ‫ارﺗﻔﻌﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﻠﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻞ‬ : ‫س‬‫اﻟﺠﻮى؟‬ ‫اﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬ ‫اﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬ ‫ﯾﻘﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫وزﻧﮫ‬ ‫ﻓﯿﻘﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻮداﻟﮭﻮاء‬ ‫ﻃﻮل‬ ‫ﯾﻘﻞ‬ ‫اﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻰ‬ ‫ارﺗﻔﻌﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﻠﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻻﻧﺔ‬‫اﻟﺠﻮي‬ ‫؟‬ ‫اﻟﮭﻮاء‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻮد‬ ‫ﻃﻮل‬ ‫ﻧﻘﺺ‬ ‫اذا‬ ‫ﯾﺤﺪث‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ : ‫س‬‫اذا‬‫ﺿﻐﻄﮫ‬ ‫ﯾﻘﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫و‬ ‫وزﻧﮫ‬ ‫ﯾﻘﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﮭﻮاء‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻮد‬ ‫ﻃﻮل‬ ‫ﻧﻘﺺ‬ ‫و‬‫اذا‬‫ﺿﻐﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﯾﺰداد‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫و‬ ‫وزﻧﺔ‬ ‫ﯾﺰداد‬ ‫اﻟﮭﻮاء‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻮد‬ ‫ﻃﻮل‬ ‫زاد‬ ‫اﻟﺠﻮى؟‬ ‫اﻟﮭﻮاء‬ ‫ﻛﺜﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺤﺮ‬ ‫ﺳﻄﺢ‬ ‫ﻓﻮق‬ ‫اﻻرﺗﻔﺎع‬ ‫أﺛﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ : ‫س‬ ‫ﺿﻐﻄﮫ‬ ‫ﯾﻘﻞ‬ ‫وﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫وزﻧﮫ‬ ‫ﻓﯿﻘﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﻮى‬ ‫اﻟﮭﻮاء‬ ‫ﻛﺜﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺤﺮ‬ ‫ﺳﻄﺢ‬ ‫ﻓﻮق‬ ‫ارﺗﻔﻌﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﻠﻤﺎ‬٠ ‫اﻟﺠﻮي‬ ‫اﻟﻐﻼف‬ ‫ﻃﺒﻘﺎت‬
  20. 20. /‫ا‬ ٢٠ 20 ‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺬﻛﺮة‬٢٠١٧‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﺮ‬ ‫اﺑﻮ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻟﺪ‬ 20 ‫ﻃﺒﻘ‬ ‫ﺧﺼﺎﺋﺺ‬‫اﻟﺠﻮى‬ ‫اﻟﻐﻼف‬ ‫ﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻘﺎرﻧﺔ‬ ‫وﺟﺔ‬‫اﻟﺘﺮوﺑﻮﺳﻔﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﻃﺒﻘﺔ‬‫اﻟﺴﺘﺮاﺗﻮﺳﻔﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﻃﺒﻘﺔ‬‫اﻟﻤﯿﺰوﺳﻔﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﻃﺒﻘﺔ‬‫اﻟﺜﺮﻣﻮﺳﻔﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﻃﺒﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﺗﯿﺒﮭﺎ‬ ‫و‬‫ﺳﺒﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺴﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻃﺒﻘﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻷوﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺒﻘﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﻮى‬ ‫اﻟﻐﻼف‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻞ‬‫ﺳﻤﯿﺖ‬‫ا‬‫ﻟﺘﺮوﺑﻮﺳﻔﯿﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻀﻄﺮﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻄﺒﻘﺔ‬‫؟‬‫ﻻﻧﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻘﻠﺒﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻈﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺘﻮى‬ ‫ﻓﯿﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﮭﻮاء‬ ‫ﺣﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺠﻮﯾﺔ‬ ‫رأﺳﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺒﻘﺔ‬ ‫ھﻲ‬‫اﻟﻐﻼف‬ ‫ﻃﺒﻘﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﺜﺎﻧﯿﺔﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﻮى‬ ‫اﻟﻐﻼف‬ ‫ﻃﺒﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﯿﮭﺎ‬ ‫وﯾﻄﻠﻖ‬ ‫اﻷوزوﻧﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﻮى‬‫ﻋﻠﻞ‬ ‫اﻷوزون‬ ‫ﻏﺎز‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻈﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺘﻮى‬ ‫ﻻﻧﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻐﻼف‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮد‬‫ا‬‫ﻟﺠﻮى‬ ‫ﻃﺒﻘﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺒﻘﺔ‬ ‫ھﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﻮى‬ ‫اﻟﻐﻼف‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻞ‬‫اﻟﻤﯿﺰوﺳﻔﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﻃﺒﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺳﻤﯿﺖ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻄﺒﻘﺔ‬‫؟‬‫ﺗﺤﺘﻞ‬ ‫ﻷﻧﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻃﺒﻘﺎت‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻄﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﻗﻌﺎ‬‫اﻟﻐﻼف‬ ‫اﻟﺠﻮى‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺮاﺑﻌﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺒﻘﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﻮى‬ ‫اﻟﻐﻼف‬ ‫ﻃﺒﻘﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺮارﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺒﻘﺔ‬ ‫وﻣﻌﻨﺎھﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻞ‬‫ﻃﺒﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺳﻤﯿﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻄﺒﻘﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺜﺮﻣﻮﺳﻔﯿﺮ‬ ‫أﺳﺨﻦ‬ ‫ﻷﻧﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺮارﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﻮى‬ ‫اﻟﻐﻼف‬ ‫ﻃﺒﻘﺎت‬٠ ‫ﺳﻤﻜﮭﺎ‬‫اﻟﺒﺤﺮ‬ ‫ﺳﻄﺢ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬‫ﺣﺘﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺮوﺑﻮﺑﻮز‬ )٨‫ﻛﻢ‬‫اﻟﻘﻄﺒﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻓﻮق‬‫و‬١٨‫ﻛﻢ‬ ‫اﻻﺳﺘﻮاء‬ ‫ﺧﻂ‬ ‫ﻓﻮق‬( ‫اى‬‫ﺳﻤﻜ‬‫ﮭﺎ‬)١٣(‫ﻛﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺮوﺑﻮﺑﻮز‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬١٣‫ﻛﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﻰ‬‫اﻟﺴﺘﺮاﺗﻮﺑﻮز‬٥٠‫ﻛﻢ‬ ‫ﺳﻤﻜﮭﺎ‬ ‫اى‬)٣٧‫ﻛﻢ‬( ‫اﻟﺴﺘﺮاﺗﻮﺑﻮز‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬٥٠‫ﻛﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﯿ‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬‫ﺰ‬‫وﺑﻮز‬٨٥‫ﻛﻢ‬ ‫ﺳﻤﻜﮭﺎ‬ ‫اى‬)٣٥‫ﻛﻢ‬( ‫ﻣﻦ‬‫اﻟﻤﯿﺰوﺑﻮز‬٨٥‫ﻛﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﻰ‬‫ارﺗﻔﺎع‬٦٧٥‫ﻛﻢ‬ ‫اى‬‫ﺣﻮاﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺴﻤﻜﮭﺎ‬ )٥٩٠( ‫ﻛﻢ‬ ‫ﺣﺮارﺗﮭﺎ‬ ‫درﺟﺔ‬‫اﻟﺤﺮارة‬ ‫درﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﯿﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﻤﻘﺪار‬٥ ٦.٥‫ارﺗﻔﻌﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﻠﻤﺎ‬ ‫س‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﺣﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺮ‬ ‫ﻛﯿﻠﻮ‬ ‫واﺣﺪ‬ ‫ﻧﮭﺎﯾﺘﮭﺎ‬‫اﻟﺘﺮوﺑﻮﺑﻮز‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬-٦٠٥ ‫س‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺰء‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺮارة‬ ‫درﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺜﺒﺖ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻔﻠﻰ‬-٦٠˚‫ﺗﺰداد‬ ‫ﺛﻢ‬ ‫ﻧﮭﺎﯾﺘﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﺣﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻻرﺗﻔﺎع‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺌﻮى‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻔﺮ‬ ‫درﺟﺔ‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬٠‫ﻋﻠﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺘﻮى‬ ‫ﻻﻧﮭﺎ‬‫اﻻوزون‬ ‫ﻃﺒﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻨﻔﺴ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﻮق‬ ‫اﻷﺷﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻤﺘﺺ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻰ‬‫ﺠﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﺎدرة‬‫ا‬‫ﻟﺸﻤﺲ‬٠ ‫اﻟﺤﺮارة‬ ‫درﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﯿﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻞ‬‫ﻛﻠﻤﺎ‬ ‫أﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻰ‬ ‫ارﺗﻔﻌﻨﺎ‬‫ﺣﺘﻰ‬‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﻧﮭﺎﯾﺘﮭﺎ‬‫إﻟﻰ‬-٩٠٥ ( ‫اﻟﻄﺒﻘﺎت‬ ‫)اﺑﺮد‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺮارة‬ ‫درﺟﺎت‬ ‫ﻓﯿﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺰداد‬ ‫ﺣﺘﻰ‬ ‫أﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻰ‬ ‫ارﺗﻔﻌﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﻠﻤﺎ‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻧﮭﺎﯾﺘﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﺣﻮاﻟﻲ‬١٢٠٠˚ ( ‫اﻟﻄﺒﻘﺎت‬ ‫اﺳﺨﻦ‬ ) ‫اﻟﺠﻮى‬ ‫اﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬‫ﻛﻠﻤﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﻮى‬ ‫اﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬ ‫ﻓﯿﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﯾﻘﻞ‬ ‫ﯾﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﺣﺘﻰ‬ ‫أﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻰ‬ ‫ارﺗﻔﻌﻨﺎ‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻧﮭﺎﯾﺘﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬١٠٠‫ﻣﻠﻠﻰ‬ )‫او‬ ‫ﺑﺎر‬٠.١‫اﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ( ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺘﺎد‬ ‫اﻟﺠﻮى‬ ‫ﻛﻠﻤﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﻮى‬ ‫اﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬ ‫ﻓﯿﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﯾﻘﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﯾﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﺣﺘﻰ‬ ‫أﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻰ‬ ‫ارﺗﻔﻌﻨﺎ‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻧﮭﺎﯾﺘﮭﺎ‬١‫ﺑﺎر‬ ‫ﻣﻠﻠﻰ‬ ) ‫او‬٠.٠٠١‫اﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ( ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺘﺎد‬ ‫اﻟﺠﻮى‬ ‫ﻛﻠﻤﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﻮى‬ ‫اﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬ ‫ﻓﯿﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﯾﻘﻞ‬ ‫ﯾﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﺣﺘﻰ‬ ‫أﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻰ‬ ‫ارﺗﻔﻌﻨﺎ‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻧﮭﺎﯾﺘﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬٠.٠١‫ﻣﻠﻠﻰ‬ ) ‫او‬ ‫ﺑﺎر‬١×١٠-٥ ( ‫اﻟﺠﻮىﺎﻟﻤﻌﺘﺎد‬ ‫اﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻤﯿﺰاﺗﮭﺎ‬١-‫ﻊ‬ ‫ﺟﻤﯿ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﮭ‬ ‫ﺪث‬ ‫ﺗﺤ‬ ‫ﺎر‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻷﻣﻄ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﻮﯾ‬ ‫ﻮاھﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﻈ‬ ‫ﺤﺐ‬ ‫واﻟﺴ‬ ‫ﺎح‬ ‫واﻟﺮﯾ‬‫ﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠ‬ ‫ﻮاﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﺣ‬ ‫ﻰ‬ ‫ﻋﻠ‬ ‫ﻮى‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺘ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﻻﻧﮭ‬ ٧٥‫ﻼف‬ ‫اﻟﻐ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﺘﻠ‬ ‫ﻦ‬ ‫ﻣ‬ % ‫اﻟﺠﻮى‬ ١-‫ﻏﺎز‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻈﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺘﻮى‬ ‫اﻟﺠﻮى‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻐﻼف‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮد‬ ‫اﻷوزون‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ارﺗﻔﺎع‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬٢٠:٤٠‫ﻓﻮق‬ ‫ﻛﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺤﺮ‬ ‫ﺳﻄﺢ‬٠ ١-‫ﺷﺪﯾﺪة‬ ‫ﻣﻀﻄﺮﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﻃﺒﻘﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺨﻠﺨﻞ‬‫ﻋﻠﻞ‬‫ﻻﺣﺘﻮاﺋﮭﺎﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻏﺎزى‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺪودة‬ ‫ﻛﻤﯿﺎت‬ ‫واﻟﮭﯿﺪروﺟﯿﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﮭﻠﯿﻮم‬٠ ١-‫ﯾﻄﻠﻖ‬‫ﻋﻠﯿﮭﺎ‬‫اﺳﻢ‬ )‫اﻷﯾﻮﻧﻮﺳﻔﯿﺮ‬(‫ﻋﻠﻞ‬‫ﻷن‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺰء‬‫اﻟﻌﻠﻮي‬‫ﻣﻨﮭﺎ‬‫ﯾﺤﺘﻮى‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬‫أﯾﻮﻧﺎت‬‫ﻣﺸﺤﻮﻧﺔ‬ ٢
  21. 21. /‫ا‬ ٢١ 21 ‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺬﻛﺮة‬٢٠١٧‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﺮ‬ ‫اﺑﻮ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻟﺪ‬ 21 ٢-‫ﻔﯿﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺮوﺑﻮﺳ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﻃﺒﻘ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ ‫درﺟ‬ ‫ﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻈ‬ ‫ﻰ‬ ‫ﻋﻠ‬ ‫ﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻤ‬ ‫اﻷرض‬ ‫ﺣﺮارة‬‫ﻋﻠﻞ‬ ‫ﻮاﻟﻲ‬‫ﺣ‬ ‫ﻰ‬‫ﻋﻠ‬ ‫ﻮى‬‫ﺗﺤﺘ‬ ‫ﻻﻧﮭﺎ‬ ٩٩‫ﺎء‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﺎر‬ ‫ﺑﺨ‬ ‫ﻦ‬ ‫ﻣ‬ % ‫اﻟﺠﻮى‬ ‫اﻟﮭﻮاء‬ ٣-‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﯿﮭ‬ ‫ﻮاء‬ ‫اﻟﮭ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺮﻛ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺎﻋﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﺼ‬ ‫ﺚ‬ ‫ﺣﯿ‬ ‫ﯿﺔ‬ ‫رأﺳ‬ ‫ﺎﺧﻨﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺴ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﮭﻮاﺋﯿ‬ ‫ﺎرات‬ ‫اﻟﺘﯿ‬ ‫ﺎرات‬ ‫اﻟﺘﯿ‬ ‫ﺒﻂ‬ ‫وﺗﮭ‬ ‫ﻰ‬ ‫ﻷﻋﻠ‬ ‫ﻷﺳﻔﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺎردة‬ ٢-‫اﻟﺘﺤﻠﯿﻖ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﯿﺎرون‬ ‫ﯾﻔﻀﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻔﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺰء‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻄﺎﺋﺮﺗﮭﻢ‬‫ﻋﻠﻞ‬ ‫اى‬ ‫او‬ ‫ﻏﯿﻮم‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺘﻮى‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻻﻧﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﮭﻮاء‬ ‫وﺣﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﺿﻄﺮاﺑﺎت‬ ‫اﻓﻘﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﯿﮭﺎ‬ ٢-‫اﻟﺸﮭﺐ‬ ‫ﻓﯿﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻜﻮن‬‫ﻋﻠﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﮭﻮاء‬ ‫ﺑﺠﺰﺋﯿﺎت‬ ‫اﺣﺘﻜﺎﻛﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻧﺘﯿﺠﺔ‬ ٢-‫ﺗﻘﻮم‬‫ﺑﺪور‬‫ھﺎم‬‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫اﻻﺗﺼﺎﻻت‬‫اﻟﻼﺳﻠﻜﯿﺔ‬‫واﻟﺒﺚ‬ ‫اﻹذاﻋﯿﺔ‬‫ﻋﻠﻞ‬ ‫ﻻﻧﮭﺎ‬‫ﺗﻨﻌﻜﺲ‬‫ﻋﻠﯿﮭﺎ‬‫ﻣﻮﺟﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﺮادﯾﻮ‬‫اﻟﺘﻰ‬‫ﺗﺒﺜﮭﺎ‬‫ﻣﺮاﻛﺰ‬ ‫اﻻﺗﺼﺎﻻت‬‫أو‬‫ﻣﺤﻄﺎت‬ ‫اﻹذاﻋﺔ‬ ٣-‫ﯾﺤﺎط‬‫اﻷﯾﻮﻧﻮﺳﻔﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﺤﺰاﻣﯿﻦ‬‫ﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﯿﺴﯿﻦ‬‫ﯾﻌﺮﻓﺎن‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺳﻢ‬‫ﺣﺰاﻣﻲ‬‫ﻓﺎن‬‫أﻟﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﯾﻘﻮﻣﺎن‬‫ﺑ‬‫ﺘﺸﺘﯿﺖ‬‫اﻹﺷﻌﺎﻋﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻮﻧﯿﺔ‬‫اﻟﻀﺎرة‬‫ﺑﻌﯿﺪا‬‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫اﻷرض‬‫ﻣﺴﺒﺒﺔ‬‫ﻇﺎھﺮة‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻔﻖ‬‫اﻟﻘﻄﺒﻲ‬‫أواﻷورورا‬ ‫اﻷﻛﺴﻮﺳﻔﯿﺮ‬‫اﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻷﻗﻤﺎر‬ ‫ﻓﯿﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺒﺢ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺎرﺟﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻀﺎء‬ ‫اﻟﺠﻮى‬ ‫اﻟﻐﻼف‬ ‫ﻓﯿﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﯾﻨﺪﻣﺞ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬ ‫ھﻰ‬ ‫اﻷﻛﺴﻮﺳﻔﯿﺮ؟‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬ ‫أھﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫ھﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻘﺲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫واﻟﺘﻌﺮف‬ ‫اﻟﻘﺎرات‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻠﯿﻔﺰﯾﻮﻧﻲ‬ ‫واﻟﺒﺚ‬ ‫اﻻﺗﺼﺎﻻت‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪم‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻷﻗﻤﺎر‬ ‫ﻓﯿﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺒﺢ‬ ١-‫اﻻرﺗﻔﺎع‬ = ‫اﻻﻧﺨﻔﺎض‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺪار‬×٦,٥ ٢-‫اﻟﺴﻔﺢ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺮارة‬ ‫درﺟﺔ‬ = ‫اﻟﺠﺒﻞ‬ ‫ﻗﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺮارة‬ ‫درﺟﺔ‬–‫اﻻﻧﺨﻔﺎض‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺪار‬ ٣-‫اﻟﺴﻔﺢ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺮارة‬ ‫درﺟﺔ‬‫اﻻﻧﺨﻔﺎض‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺪار‬ + ‫اﻟﻘﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺮارة‬ ‫درﺟﺔ‬ = ٤-‫اﻟﺤﺮارة‬ ‫درﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺮق‬ = ‫اﻻرﺗﻔﺎع‬÷٦,٥ ‫ﻣﺴﺎﺋﻞ‬
  22. 22. /‫ا‬ ٢٢ 22 ‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺬﻛﺮة‬٢٠١٧‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﺮ‬ ‫اﺑﻮ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻟﺪ‬ 22 ‫ﻮن‬ ‫ﯾﺘﻜ‬ ‫ﻒ‬‫ﻛﯿ‬ ‫ﺰئ‬ ‫ﺟ‬ ‫اﻻوزون‬ : ‫ﺧﻄﻮﺗﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻻوزون‬ ‫ﺟﺰئ‬ ‫ﯾﺘﻜﻮن‬- ١-‫اﻟﺮاﺑﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻜﺴﺮ‬‫ﻓﻰ‬‫اﻷﻛﺴﺠﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﺟﺰئ‬O2 ‫ﺑﻨﻔﺴﺠﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﻮق‬ ‫ﻟﻸﺷﻌﺔ‬ ‫اﻣﺘﺼﺎﺻﮫ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬(UV) ‫ﺣﺮﺗﯿﻦ‬ ‫أﻛﺴﺠﯿﻦ‬ ‫ذرﺗﯿﻦ‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻓﯿﺘﺤﻮل‬2 O ٢-‫أوزون‬ ‫ﺟﺰئ‬ ‫ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺔ‬ ‫أﺧﺮ‬ ‫أﻛﺴﺠﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﺟﺰئ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺣﺮة‬ ‫أﻛﺴﺠﯿﻦ‬ ‫ذرة‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﺤﺪ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﻃﺒﻘ‬ ‫ﻊ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﻗ‬ ‫اﻻوزون‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻞ‬‫ﺗﻮﺟﺪ‬‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫اﻷوزون‬ ‫ﻃﺒﻘﺔ‬‫ﻃﺒﻘﺔ‬‫؟‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺘﺮاﺗﻮﺳﻔﯿﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻤﺲ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﺎدرة‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻨﻔﺴﺠﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻮق‬ ‫اﻷﺷﻌﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﻮىﺘﻘﺎﺑﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻐﻼف‬ ‫ﻃﺒﻘﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻃﺒﻘﺔ‬ ‫أول‬ ‫ﻷﻧﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻷﻛﺴﺠﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻏﺎز‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﮭﺎ‬ ‫و‬٠
  23. 23. /‫ا‬ ٢٣ 23 ‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺬﻛﺮة‬٢٠١٧‫اﻟﻤﻈﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﺮ‬ ‫اﺑﻮ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻟﺪ‬ 23 ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﻃﺒﻘ‬ ‫ﻤﻚ‬ ‫ﺳ‬ ‫اﻻوزون‬ ١-‫اﻻوزون‬ ‫ﻃﺒﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺳﻤﻚ‬٢٠‫ﻛﻢ‬ ٢-(‫)دوﺑﺴﻮن‬ ‫اﻹﻧﺠﻠﯿﺰى‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ‬ ‫أﻓﺘﺮض‬ ‫اﻷوزون‬ ‫ﻃﺒﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺳﻤﻚ‬ ‫أن‬‫ﯾﺼﺒﺢ‬٣‫ﻣﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﯿﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻇﺮوف‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺖ‬ ‫وﻗﻌﺖ‬ ‫اذا‬ ‫ﺻﻔﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺮارة‬ ‫ودرﺟﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺘﺎد‬ ‫اﻟﺠﻮى‬ ‫اﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬ ‫وھﻰ‬˚ ‫اﻟﺤﺮارة‬ ‫ودرﺟﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬ ‫ﺑـﻤﻌﺪل‬ ‫ﯾﻌﺮف‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫أو‬( ‫د‬ . ‫ض‬ . ‫)م‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺒﯿﻌﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻷوزون‬ ‫ﻛﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫اﻓﺘﺮض‬ ‫ذﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫وﺑﻨﺎء‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺎدل‬٣٠٠) ‫دوﺑﺴﻮن‬ ‫وﺣﺪة‬Du( ‫ﺔ‬ ‫أھﻤﯿ‬ ‫اﻷوزون‬ ‫اﻻﺷﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻘﺴﻢ‬‫اﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻨﻔﺴﺠﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﻮق‬٣‫ﺣﺴﺐ‬ ‫اﻧﻮاع‬١-‫اﻟﻤﻮﺟﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻮل‬٢-‫اﻻوزون‬ ‫ﻃﺒﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻧﻔﺎذھﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺪى‬ ‫ﺿﺎرة‬ ‫اﻟﻐﯿﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﺮﯾﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻨﻔﺴﺠﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﻮق‬ ‫اﻻﺷﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻨﻔﺎذ‬ ‫اﻻوزون‬ ‫ﻃﺒﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﻤﺢ‬‫و‬‫اﻟﺘﻰ‬‫أﺟﺴﺎم‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ( ‫د‬ ) ‫ﻓﯿﺘﺎﻣﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﺨﻠﯿﻖ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻮﻻدة‬ ‫ﺣﺪﯾﺜﻲ‬ ‫اﻷﻃﻔﺎل‬ ‫ﺗﻤﻨﻊ‬ ‫و‬‫وﻣﻌﻈﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻌﯿﺪة‬ ‫ﺑﻨﻔﺴﺠﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﻮق‬ ‫اﻷﺷﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﻔﺎذ‬‫اﻟﻤﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ‬ ‫اﻷﺷﻌﺔ‬‫ﺑﺎﻟﻐﺔ‬ ‫اﺿﺮار‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻞ‬‫اﻟﻀﺎرة‬ ‫ﺑﻨﻔﺴﺠﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﻮق‬ ‫اﻻﺷﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻻرض‬ ‫ﯾﺤﻤﻰ‬ ‫واﻗﻲ‬ ‫ﻛﺪرع‬ ‫اﻷوزون‬ ‫ﻃﺒﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫اﻻرض‬ ‫ﺳﻄﺢ‬ ‫اﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻮﺻﻮل‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ‬ ‫اﻷﺷﻌﺔ‬ ‫وﻣﻌﻈﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻌﯿﺪة‬ ‫ﺑﻨﻔﺴﺠﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﻮق‬ ‫اﻷﺷﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﻔﺎذ‬ ‫ﺗﻤﻨﻊ‬ ‫ﻻﻧﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻻﺷﻌﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﻮق‬ ‫ﺑﻨﻔﺴﺠﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻌﯿﺪة‬ UV-C ‫اﻟﻤﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ‬ UV-B ‫اﻟﻘﺮﯾﺒﺔ‬ UV-A ‫اﻟﻄﻮل‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮﺟﻰ‬ (‫)ﻧﺎﻧﻮﻣﺘﺮ‬ ٢٨٠:١٠٠٣١٥:٢٨٠٤٠٠:٣١٥ ‫ﻧﻔﺎذھﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺪى‬ ‫ﻃﺒﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻻوزون‬ ‫ﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻔﺬ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ١٠٠% ‫ﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻔﺬ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ٩٥% ‫ﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻔﺬ‬ ١٠٠% ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﻃﺒﻘ‬ ‫ﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﺂﻛ‬ ‫اﻷوزون‬ ‫اﻷوزون‬ ‫ﻃﺒﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﺂﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﯾﻮﺟﻮد‬‫ﯾﺘﺴﻊ‬ ‫او‬‫اﻷوزون‬ ‫ﺛﻘﺐ‬‫ﻓ‬‫ﻋﺎم‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺳﺒﺘﻤﺒﺮ‬ ‫ﺷﮭﺮ‬ ‫ﻰ‬٠‫ﻋﻠﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘ‬ ‫ﻓﻮق‬ ‫ﻋﺎم‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻮﻗﯿﺖ‬ ‫ھﺬا‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﻃﺒﯿﻌﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺮﯾﺎح‬ ‫ﺗﺪﻓﻌﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﺳﻮداء‬ ‫ﺳﺤﺐ‬ ‫ﺻﻮرة‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻠﻮﺛﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﺠﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺑﺴﺒﺐ‬‫ﺔ‬‫اﻟﻘﻄﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﻨﻮﺑﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬A‫اﺧﻀﺮ‬ ‫ﻟﻮﻧﮭﺎ‬‫ﻃﺒﯿﻌﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻻوزون‬ ‫درﺟﺔ‬ ‫اى‬ ‫ﺗﺎﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﯾﺤﺪث‬ ‫ﻟﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬ ‫اى‬٣٠٠‫دﺑﺴﻮن‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬B‫ﺑﻨﻔﺴﺠﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﻮﻧﮭﺎ‬‫ﺗﺎﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﺣﺪث‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬ ‫اى‬

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