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Topic 
Bond Valuation 
Presented to: 
Sir KHALID ANJUM 
Presented by: 
Usman Ghani 
Yasir Iqbal 
Aslam Khan 
Azeem Haider
• Definition of Bond and Bond valuation 
• Types of Bonds 
• Reasons for Issuing Bonds 
• Risk in Bonds 
• Measuring Bond Yield 
3
A bond is a long-term debt 
instrument that pays the 
bondholder a specified amount 
of periodic interest over a 
specified period of time.
 Par or Face Value - 
 The amount of money that is paid to the bondholders at maturity. 
For most bonds this amount is $1,000. It also generally represents 
the amount of money borrowed by the bond issuer. 
 Coupon Rate - 
 The coupon rate, which is generally fixed, determines the periodic 
coupon or interest payments. It is expressed as a percentage of the 
bond's face value. It also represents the interest cost of the bond to 
the issuer. 
5
 Interest rate risk 
 Default risk 
 Marketability Risk 
 Callability Risk 
 Reinvestment Risk 
6
 Bond Valution 
 Current Yield 
 Yield To Maturity 
 Yield To Call 
7
 Bo = $I x (PVIFAi,n) +m x (PVIFi,n) 
8
Bo = $100x(PVIFA10%,10years)+$1000x (PVIFA10%,10years) 
= $100 x (6.145) + $1000 x (0.386) 
= $614.50 + 386.00 
= $1000 
9
 Discount 
The amount by which a bond sells a value that is 
less than it par value. 
 Premium 
The amount by which a bond sells a value that is 
greater than it par value. 
10
Interest rate risk 
The chance that interest rates will change 
and thereby the required return and bond 
value. Rising rates which result in 
decreasing bond value are of greatest 
concern. 
11
 The current Yield relates the annual coupon 
interest to the market price. It is expressed as: 
Annual interest 
Current Yield = Price 
12
 The Current Yield of a 10 Year, 12 % coupon 
Bond with a Par value of Rs.1000 and selling for 
Rs.950. what is current yield. 
120 
Current yield = 950 
= 12.63 
13
 When you purchase a bond, you are not quoted a 
promised rate of return. Using the information on 
Bond price, maturity date, and coupon payments, 
you figure out the rate of return offered by the 
bond over its life. 
14
 C C C M 
 P = (1+r) + (1+r)2 + (1+r)n + (1+r)n 
15
 Assume Hunter buys a 10-year bond from the KLM 
corporation on January 1, 2003. The bond has a face 
value of $1000 and pays an annual 10% coupon. The 
current market rate of return is 12%. Calculate the price 
of this bond today. 
1. Draw a timeline 
16 
$100 
$100 $100 
$100 
$100 $100 
$100 
$100 
$100 
$100 
$1000 
+ 
??
Find the PV of the face value 
◦ PV = CFt / (1+r)t 
◦ PV = $1000/ (1+.12)10 
◦ PV = $321.97 
Add the two values together to get the total PV 
◦ $565.02 + $321.97 = $886.99 
17
 Sometimes you will be asked to find the realized rate of 
return for a bond. 
 This is the return that the investor actually realized from 
holding a bond. 
 Using time value of money concepts, you are solving for 
the required rate of return instead of the value of the 
bond. 
18
THANK YOU 
19

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Bond Valuation Financial Management

  • 1. 1
  • 2. Topic Bond Valuation Presented to: Sir KHALID ANJUM Presented by: Usman Ghani Yasir Iqbal Aslam Khan Azeem Haider
  • 3. • Definition of Bond and Bond valuation • Types of Bonds • Reasons for Issuing Bonds • Risk in Bonds • Measuring Bond Yield 3
  • 4. A bond is a long-term debt instrument that pays the bondholder a specified amount of periodic interest over a specified period of time.
  • 5.  Par or Face Value -  The amount of money that is paid to the bondholders at maturity. For most bonds this amount is $1,000. It also generally represents the amount of money borrowed by the bond issuer.  Coupon Rate -  The coupon rate, which is generally fixed, determines the periodic coupon or interest payments. It is expressed as a percentage of the bond's face value. It also represents the interest cost of the bond to the issuer. 5
  • 6.  Interest rate risk  Default risk  Marketability Risk  Callability Risk  Reinvestment Risk 6
  • 7.  Bond Valution  Current Yield  Yield To Maturity  Yield To Call 7
  • 8.  Bo = $I x (PVIFAi,n) +m x (PVIFi,n) 8
  • 9. Bo = $100x(PVIFA10%,10years)+$1000x (PVIFA10%,10years) = $100 x (6.145) + $1000 x (0.386) = $614.50 + 386.00 = $1000 9
  • 10.  Discount The amount by which a bond sells a value that is less than it par value.  Premium The amount by which a bond sells a value that is greater than it par value. 10
  • 11. Interest rate risk The chance that interest rates will change and thereby the required return and bond value. Rising rates which result in decreasing bond value are of greatest concern. 11
  • 12.  The current Yield relates the annual coupon interest to the market price. It is expressed as: Annual interest Current Yield = Price 12
  • 13.  The Current Yield of a 10 Year, 12 % coupon Bond with a Par value of Rs.1000 and selling for Rs.950. what is current yield. 120 Current yield = 950 = 12.63 13
  • 14.  When you purchase a bond, you are not quoted a promised rate of return. Using the information on Bond price, maturity date, and coupon payments, you figure out the rate of return offered by the bond over its life. 14
  • 15.  C C C M  P = (1+r) + (1+r)2 + (1+r)n + (1+r)n 15
  • 16.  Assume Hunter buys a 10-year bond from the KLM corporation on January 1, 2003. The bond has a face value of $1000 and pays an annual 10% coupon. The current market rate of return is 12%. Calculate the price of this bond today. 1. Draw a timeline 16 $100 $100 $100 $100 $100 $100 $100 $100 $100 $100 $1000 + ??
  • 17. Find the PV of the face value ◦ PV = CFt / (1+r)t ◦ PV = $1000/ (1+.12)10 ◦ PV = $321.97 Add the two values together to get the total PV ◦ $565.02 + $321.97 = $886.99 17
  • 18.  Sometimes you will be asked to find the realized rate of return for a bond.  This is the return that the investor actually realized from holding a bond.  Using time value of money concepts, you are solving for the required rate of return instead of the value of the bond. 18