Bibliographic Form Standards Daryl L. Superio SEAFDEC/AQD Library
Bibliography • a systematic list or enumeration of written works • a list of references to sources cited in the text of an article or book Reference • a set of bibliographic elements that refers to a work Bibliographic Element • a defined unit of information or data within a reference In-Text Reference • a brief designator that appears in the body of a work, is used to direct the user to a specific end-of-work reference, footnote, or other reference
In general a reference should contain: author/editor date of publication title of the work (article/chapter title) publication data (place of publication and name of publisher) Example: Primavera, J. H. & Sadaba, R. B. (2012). Beach forest species and mangrove associates in the Philippines. Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines: Aquaculture Dept., Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center.
The Chicago Manual of Style 16th ed., 2010- the latest edition first used by the students of University of Chicago used with all subjects in the real world: by books, magazines newspapers and other non-scholarly publications known as the most simplistic and concise means of citation focuses on citing information about the author rather than the date of a research source NB (Notes and Bibliography) system Example: Book Encena, Vincent C.II, & Nestor C. Bayona. Farming of the tropical abalone Haliotis asinina. Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines: Aquaculture Dept., Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, 2010.
The MLA Style Manual defined by Modern Language Association latest editions are: Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (7th ed., 2009) MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing (3rd ed., 2008) most commonly used in the liberal arts and humanities gives emphasis on the author name and page in the original text referencing sources through parenthetical citation and Works Cited pages Example: Book de la Peña, Leobert D. Prevention and control measures against viral nervous necrosis (VNN) in marine fish hatcheries. Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines: Aquaculture Dept., Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, 2010. Print.
The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association 6th ed., 2009-latest edition most commonly used in social sciences gives emphasis on the date and the title of the resource rather than the author. referencing sources in In-text Citations and Reference List Example: Book Primavera, J. H. & Sadaba, R. B. (2012). Beach forest species and mangrove associates in the Philippines. Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines: Aquaculture Dept., Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center.
Other Bibliographic Form Standards AMA Manual of Style a style guide by the editors of JAMA (Journal of the American Medical Association) and the Archives Journals most commonly used in medicine, health, and biological sciences specifies the writing and citation styles for use in scholarly publications in medicine internationally ACS Style Guide developed by the American Chemical Society used for research papers in the field of chemistry Kate L. Turabians Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations also known as Turabian Style based on Chicago Manual of Style designed for college students
double spaced hanging indention provide only references that document the article and provide recoverable data
entries usually contain the following elements: author, year of publication, title of the work and publishing data ensure that information is accurate and complete give special attention to: spelling of proper names and of words in foreign languages, including accents or other special marks completeness of journal titles, years, volume and issue numbers, page numbers, and electronic retrieval data.
give in parenthesis the year the work was published (for unpublished or informally published work, give the year the work was produced) for magazines, newsletters, and newspapers, give the year and the exact date of publication (month or month and day), separated by comma and enclosed in parentheses if given in season, give the year and the season, separated by comma and enclosed in parentheses. if no date is available, write n.d. in parentheses finish the element with a period after the closing parenthesis.
Alphabetizing names- arrange entries in alphabetical order by the surname of the first author followed by initials of the authors given name, and use the following rules for special cases: • alphabetize by the authors surname • alphabetize letter by letter • alphabetize the prefixes M’, Mc and Mac literally, not as if they were all spelled Mac. Disregard the apostrophe: MacArthur precedes McAllister, and MacNeil precedes MCmihy. • alphabetize entries with numerals chronologically (e.g. Macomber, J., II, precedes Macomber, J., III)
Order of several works by the same first author- when ordering several works by the same first author, give the authors name in the first and all subsequent references, and use the following rules to arrange the entries: one-author entries by the same author are arranged by year of publication, the earliest first one-author entries precede multiple-author entries beginning with the same surname (even if the multiple author work was published earlier) references with the same first author and different second or third authors are arranged alphabetically by the surname of the second author or, if the second author is the same, the surname of the third author, and so on references with the same authors in the same order are arranged by year of publication, the earliest first references by the same author (or by the same two or more authors in the same order) with the same publication date are arranged alphabetically by title (excluding A or The).
Order of several works by different first authors with the same surname arrange works by different authors with the same surname alphabetically by first initial. Order of works with group authors or with no authors- alphabetize group authors, such as associations or government agencies, by the first significant word of the name. Full official names should be used. if, and only if, the work is signed "Anonymous" begin the entry with the word Anonymous spelled out, and alphabetize the entry as if Anonymous were a true name. if there is no author, move the title to the author position, and alphabetize the entry by the first significant word of the title. treat legal references like references with no author; that is, alphabetize legal references by the first significant item in the entry (word or abbreviation).
Reference List: Author/Authors Single authors- last name first, followed by author initials. Bagarinao, T. U. (2011). The sea turtles captured by coastal fisheries in the NorthEastern Sulu Sea, Philippines: Documentation, care and release. Herpetological Conservation and Biology, 6(3), 353-363. Two Authors- List by their last names and initials. Use the ampersand instead of "and." Catacutan, M. R, & Coloso, R. M. (1997). Growth of juvenile Asian sea bass, Lates calcarifer, fed varying carbohydrates and lipid levels. Aquaculture, 149, 137-144.
Three to Seven Authors- List by last names and initials; commas separate author names, while the last author name is preceded again by ampersand. Bagarinao, T. U., Doyola-Solis, E. F., & Fernando-Teves, J. E. (2010). The pawikan album: The sea turtles captured around Panay and Guimaras Islands, Philippines. Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines: Aquaculture Dept., Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center. More than Seven Authors-List by last names and initials; commas separate author names. After the sixth authors name, use an ellipses in place of the author names. Then provide the final author name. There should be no more than seven names. Naylor, R. L., Goldburg, R. J., Primavera, J. H., Kautsky, N., Beveridge, M. C. M., Clay, J. ... Troell, M. (2000, 29 June). Effect of aquaculture on world fish supplies. Nature, 405, 1017-1024.
Reference List: Books • Basic Format for Books Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Location: Publisher. • Edition Other Than the First Quinitio, E. T. & Parado-Estepa, F. D. (2008). Biology and hatchery of mud crabs Scylla spp. (2nd ed.). Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines: Aquaculture Dept., Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center. • Article or Chapter in an Edited Book Salayo, N. D. (2010). Milkfish marketing in the Philippines. In I. C. Liao & E. M. Leaño (Eds.). Milkfish aquaculture in Asia (pp. 105-127). Keelung, Taiwan: National Taiwan University.
Edited Book, No Author Lio-Po, G. D. & Inui, Y. (Eds). (2010). Health management in aquaculture. Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines: Aquaculture Dept., Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center. Edited Book with an Author or Authors Purcell, S. W. (2010). Managing sea cucumber fisheries with an ecosystem approach. A. Lovatelli, M. Vasconcellos, & Y. Ye (Eds). Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. A Translation Primavera, J. H. & Apud, F. D. (1976). Tulun-an sa pagpabuad sing lukon. (T. P. Saracho, Tran.). Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines: Aquaculture Dept., Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center. (Original work published 1976) Multivolume Work Poppe, G. T. (2008). Philippine marine mollusks (Vols. 1-4). Hackenheim, Germany: ConchBooks.
Reference List: Articles in Periodicals Basic Form authors are named last name followed by initials; publication year goes between parentheses, followed by a period. title of the article is in sentence-case periodical title is run in title case, and is followed by the volume number which, with the title, is also italicized or underlined. Author, A. A., Author, B. B. & Author, C. C. (Year).Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number(issue number), pages.
Article in Journal Paginated by Volume- begin with page one in issue one, and continue numbering issue two where issue one ended, etc. Ayson, F. G. & Takemura, A. (2006). Daily expression patterns for mRNAs of GH, PRL, SL, IGF-I and IGF-II in juvenile rabbitfish, Siganus guttatus, during 24-h light and dark cycles. General and Comparative Endocrinology,149 (3), 261-268. Article in Journal Paginated by Issue- begin with page one every issue; therefore, the issue number gets indicated in parentheses after the volume. The parentheses and issue number are not italicized or underlined. Surtida, A. P. (2000). Realizing green aquaculture. SEAFDEC Asian Aquaculture, 22(2), 26-27, 34.
• Article in Magazine Eguia, M. R. & Taniguchi, N. (July/August, 2006). DNA markers help manage Nile tilapia stocks. Global Aquaculture Advocate, 9(4), 48-50 .• Article in Newspaper- Unlike other periodicals, p. or pp. precedes page numbers for a newspaper reference in APA style. Single pages take p., e.g., p. B2; multiple pages take pp., e.g., pp. B2, B4 or pp. C1, C3-C4. Ayson, F. G. (2012, December 19). Seafdec research advances ‘rabbitfish technology’. Philippine Daily Inquirer, p. A12.
Reference List: Other Print Sources An Entry in an Encyclopedia Szumiec, M. A. (2005). Pond aquaculture—modeling and decision support systems. In Water Encyclopedia (Vol. 3, pp. 375-379). Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley & Sons. Dissertation Abstract Sugiura, S. H. (1999). Development of low-pollution feeds for sustainable aquaculture. Dissertation Abstracts International – Part B. Science and Engineering,59(10), 5180.
• Dissertation Published Alapide-Tendencia, E. V. (2012). The relation between farming practices, ecosystem, and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) disease outbreaks in Penaeus monodon farms in the Philippines. (Doctoral dissertation). Wageningen, Netherlands: Wageningen University.• Dissertation Unpublished Santos, M. M. (2011). Genetic characterization of freshwater prawns (Macrobrachium spp.) in Cairawan River, Laua-an, Antique. (Unpublished master thesis). University of the Philippines in the Visayas, Miag-ao, Iloilo.
• Government Document Philippine Council for Agriculture, Aquatic and Natural Resources Research and Development. (2012). Induced spawning and larval rearing of ayungin (Leiotherapon plumbeus Kner) (PCAARRD Information Bulletin No. 20/2012). Los Baños, Laguna: Author.• Conference Proceedings Acosta, B. O., Coloso, R. M., de Jesus-Ayson, E. G. T., & Toledo, J. D. (Eds). Proceedings from Sustainable aquaculture development for food security in Southeast Asia towards 2020. Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines: Aquaculture Dept., Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center.
• Organization as Author Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, Aquaculture Department. (2009). Research and development for sustainable aquaculture in Southeast Asia: SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department strategic plans 2009-2012. Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines: Aquaculture Dept., Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center.• Unknown Author The Southeast Asian state of fisheries and aquaculture 2012. (2012). Bangkok, Thailand: Secretariat, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center. OR Anonymous. (2012). The Southeast Asian state of fisheries and aquaculture 2012. (2012). Bangkok, Thailand: Secretariat, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center.
Reference List: Electronic Sources (Web Publications)- online articles follow the same guidelines for printed articles. Include all information the online host makes available, including an issue number in parentheses. AquaTT. (2011, August). SEAFDEC/AQD Institutional Repository (SAIR). AquaTT Training News. Retrieved from http://www.aquatt.ie/index.php/153/137/aquatt-training- news- august-2011/#O1
• Online Scholarly Journal Article: Citing Dols- because online materials can potentially change URLs, APA recommends providing a Digital Object Identifier (DOl), when it is available, as opposed to the URL. DOIs are an attempt to provide stable, long-lasting links for online articles. They are unique to their documents and consist of along alphanumeric code. Many-but not all- publishers will provide an articles DOl on the first page of the document.• Article from an Online Periodical with DOl assigned Lebata, M. J. H., Walton, M. E., Biñas, J. B., Primavera, J. H., & Vay, L. L. (2012). Identifying mangrove areas for fisheries enhancement; population assessment in a patchy habitat. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 22(5), 652– 664. doi:10.1002/aqc.2235
• Article from an Online Periodical with no DOl Assigned Online scholarly journal articles without a DOl require the URL of the journalhome page. Remember that one goal of citations is to provide your readers with enough information to find the article; providing thejournal home page aids readers in this process. Watanabe, S., Kodama, M., Sumbing, J. G. & Lebata-Ramos, M. J. H. (2012). Diet-tissue stable isotopic fractionation of tropical sea cucumber, Holothuria scabra. Japan Agricultural Research Quarterly, 47(1), 127-134. Retrieved from http://www.jircas.affrc.go.jp/english/publication/jarq/47- 1/47- 01-15.pdf
Reference List: Bibliography. (2010). In ODLIS: Online dictionary of library and information science. Retrieved from http://www.abc-clio.com/ODLIS/odlisb.aspx Guidelines for the preparation of a bibliography. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.ala.org/ala/mgrps/divs/rusa/resources/guidelines/guidelinespreparation.cfi n Johns, J.(Ed.). (2004). Citation guide. Retrieved from http://www.sourceaid.com/reference/pdf/citation-guide.pdf Purdue OWL. (2013). APA formatting and style guide. Retrieved from http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/ Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). (2009). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.