Intro to Linked Open Data in Libraries Archives & Museums.

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Smithsonian CTO Series presentation, September 16, 2011

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  • Remember when Libraries Archives & Museums lead the internet revolution?\n
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  • exploring history on mobile apps\n
  • exploring history on mobile apps\n
  • people much smarter than I were already on it. earlier in 2009, the father of the World Wide Web, Tim Berners-Lee, was taking his message of Linked Open Data to the streets. How we can build a web of data... sounds familiar... and it seems to worked out the first time... From a web of documents, to a web of data\n
  • and that web of data is already growing rapidly...\n
  • What if we begin to apply this to the vast amounts of data at libraries, archives, and museums?\n
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  • It started for me with the book Linked, which was first published in 2002. I don’t think I read it until 2003 or so, but it changed my life. The explanations of mathematical graph and network theory in lay terms helped me to see how an understanding of interconnectedness would allow us to do amazing things with the disparate datasets around us. \n
  • --Our data and databases have been organized in tables\n--which works, but only to a point\n
  • The World Wide Web is much more like a graph, and the ability to link to disparate datasets relies on our ability to understand data as nodes and links in a graph\n
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  • Where did we get all that info about Ed? He published it here.\n
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  • In the last several years, Creative Commons have provided standardized, portable legal tools that make it easier for individuals and institutions to use. Also see licenses by Open Knowledge Foundation, designed for databases.\n
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  • Intro to Linked Open Data in Libraries Archives & Museums.

    1. 1. http://www.flickr.com/photos/pict_u_re/2372235999Linked Open DatainLibraries, Archives & MuseumsSmithsonian Institution @jonvossSeptember 16, 2011Jon VossHistorypin Strategic Partnerships Directorjon.voss@wearewhatwedo.org
    2. 2. Welcome• Goal: a solid, basic, conceptual understanding of Linked Open Data
    3. 3. Welcome• Goal: a solid, basic, conceptual understanding of Linked Open Data• A chance to collaborate with others, share knowledge, expertise, perspective; explore ideas
    4. 4. Linked Open Data in Libraries, Archive & Museums Culture TechnologyLODLAM Law
    5. 5. Linked Open Data in Libraries, Archive & Museums CultureLODLAM
    6. 6. http://www.flickr.com/photos/ohiouniversitylibraries/3485066089/
    7. 7. Linked Open Data in Cultural Context• It’s not just Libraries, • Changing expectations from Archives & Museums audiences, curators, technologists• Linked Open Data has evolved in the cultural • Increasingly Collaborative context of shared information, music, movies • http:// mashupbreakdown.com/• From rock to rap to hip-hop to mashups, industry lagging behind cultural change
    8. 8. The DJ in the Library?
    9. 9. History & Mashup Culture +2010 National Archives Photo Contest http://www.flickr.com/photos/37377809@N00/5304492185/in/pool-1633053@N21/
    10. 10. History & Mashup Culture http://www.flickr.com/photos/37377809
    11. 11. 2009 Linked Open Dataphotos by PhOtOnQuAnTiQuE, TED
    12. 12. Linking Open Data cloud diagram, by Richard Cyganiak and Anja Jentzsch. http://lod-cloud.net/
    13. 13. The LOD cloud as a whole grew by 300% in 2010 http://swib.org/swib11/
    14. 14. The LOD cloud as a whole grew by 300% in 2010 whereas the amount of data relevant for libraries grew by nearly 1000% http://swib.org/swib11/
    15. 15. LODLAM is a Growing Movement• in its infancy, but picking up steam• it requires experimentation• small, niche, domain-specific implementations• use cases, reasons for content providers to get excited about contributing
    16. 16. LODLAM is a product of our increasingly connected culture.• it’s an unfolding story, but it’s awn...• http://lod-lam.net • June 2-3, 100 people gathered from around the world to forward LODLAM in the next year
    17. 17. LODLAM is a product of our increasingly connected culture.• and that’s just the beginning... Linked Open Data
    18. 18. Linked Open Data in Libraries, Archive & Museums TechnologyLODLAM
    19. 19. Linked http://openlibrary.org/works/OL6048721W/Linked
    20. 20. Going from Tables to Graphs http://www.flickr.com/photos/thomasjwoods-com/2264301251
    21. 21. Going from Tables to Graphs • nodes and links in a graph
    22. 22. Going from Tables to Graphs• As computing power increases, the ability to build more and more complex graphs becomes a reality.• Human vs. Machine readable msulibraries lookbackmaps msulibraries internetarchive msulibraries librarycongress lookbackmaps internetarchive internetarchive librarycongress
    23. 23. Introducing Triples Nodes & Linksjonvoss
    24. 24. Introducing Triples Nodes & Links followsjonvoss
    25. 25. Introducing Triples Nodes & Links followsjonvoss SILibraries
    26. 26. Introducing Triples Nodes & Links follows jonvoss SILibraries• Quite simply: Subject, Predicate, Object
    27. 27. Introducing Triples Nodes & Links follows jonvoss SILibraries• Quite simply: Subject, Predicate, Object• gives us the ability to describe entities in a way that is machine readable
    28. 28. What do we know about the person: Ed Summers (aside from the fact that he rocks)?Bio: Hacker for libraries, digital archaeologist, pragmatist. bio knows depiction of knows http://inkdroid.org/ehs.rdf
    29. 29. Triples for machines• triples can be serialized in many different ways, including Resource Description Framework, RDF/XML, RDFa, N3, Turtle, etc, but they all describe things in the <subject><predicate><object> format.• of course, we need to be consistent and predictable for machines to understand us.
    30. 30. • we’re almost ready to talk to machines http://www.flickr.com/photos/oface/3306994117/
    31. 31. http://inkdroid.org/ehs.rdf
    32. 32. • consider graph demo: http://civilwardata150.net• Civil War vocabulary, or a way to link and traverse across datasets • Regiments, Battles, Places• Building apps that use this data
    33. 33. Now that we can see the code...• Books• Photos• Information
    34. 34. Tim Berners-Lee’s 4 rules of Linked Datahttp://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/LinkedData.html
    35. 35. Tim Berners-Lee’s 4 rules of Linked Data• Use URIs as names for thingshttp://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/LinkedData.html
    36. 36. Tim Berners-Lee’s 4 rules of Linked Data• Use URIs as names for things• Use HTTP URIs so that people can look up those names.http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/LinkedData.html
    37. 37. Tim Berners-Lee’s 4 rules of Linked Data• Use URIs as names for things• Use HTTP URIs so that people can look up those names.• When someone looks up a URI, provide useful information, using the standards (RDF*, SPARQL)http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/LinkedData.html
    38. 38. Tim Berners-Lee’s 4 rules of Linked Data• Use URIs as names for things• Use HTTP URIs so that people can look up those names.• When someone looks up a URI, provide useful information, using the standards (RDF*, SPARQL)• Include links to other URIs. so that they can discover more things.http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/LinkedData.html
    39. 39. Tim Berners-Lee: 5 Stars of Linked Data• This is NOT all or nothingMore thanks to Ed Summers: http://inkdroid.org/journal/2010/06/04/the-5-stars-of-open-linked-data/
    40. 40. A cautionary word about vocabularies http://www.flickr.com/photos/sillygwailo/272291003/
    41. 41. A cautionary word about vocabularies• Caution: what libraries call vocabularies is not necessarily what we mean...• This is how we organize information and triangulate the data we’re looking for• How we agree on predicates• Ontologies like FOAF, OWL, http://id.loc.gov/, VIAF, etc.
    42. 42. In summary Linked• Graphs• Human AND Machine readable• Triples, RDF• Vocabulary, agreed terms for organizing info
    43. 43. Linked Open Data in Libraries, Archive & MuseumsLODLAM Law
    44. 44. The “Open” part of Linked Open Open Data• Considerations and ramifications• Difference between shared, published, open• Legal tools• Precedents/Examples
    45. 45. Expose yourself, be vulnerable• This is the major cultural shift, the tide rising amongst institutions, that data wants to be free in a culture economy.• There is value in sharing• It does require a leap of faith, but risks and rewards should be carefully considered and calculated• Excellent resource: JISC Open Bibliographic Data Guide http://obd.jisc.ac.uk/
    46. 46. What will happen to your data?• If you want people to do something with your data/metadata, you have to put it out there• But once you do, it’s [mostly] out of your control. Yet it can be a part of something much greater than any of the component parts• Roots and Wings• Lessig: Humility of the Web
    47. 47. What will happen to your data?• working with Open Data from NOAA at wherecamp 2011. http://www.nauticalcharts.noaa.gov/history/CivilWar/
    48. 48. Metadata vs. data, assets, digital surrogates• A key conceptual shift with Open Data is looking at metadata and data as two separate things, that can have different licensing and permissions
    49. 49. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/cwp/item/2003653763/
    50. 50. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2003653763/marc/
    51. 51. What are the legal tools for publishing Open Data?
    52. 52. Legal Tools• http://creativecommons.org/licenses/• http://www.opendatacommons.org/licenses/ Open Data Published Data CC BY CC BY-NC-ND CC0 CC BY-NC Public Domain Mark CC BY-NDPublic Domain Dedication and License (PDDL) CC BY-SAAttribution License (ODC-By)Open Database License (ODC-ODbL) CC BY-NC-SA
    53. 53. Concerns and Limitations• There is some argument about whether or not metadata can be protected under copyright at all. Copyright protects a creative work, and some argue that metadata is scientific fact, rather than creative work.• Databases are protected differently in the EU and US, for example.• Public Domain and No Known Copyright Restrictions...• Issuing blanket copyright over all works on a website, even though some may be in the public domain
    54. 54. Examples and precedents• Bibliographic data: • British Library (CC0), University of Michigan (CC0), Stanford (CC-BY) have published large, raw datasets of original bibliographic data they have created
    55. 55. Examples and precedents• Civil War Data 150 • Metadata from contributing federal institutions are largely considered to be Public Domain. • State, local, university & individual researchers are considering policies for metadata publishing on a case by case basis.
    56. 56. Examples and precedentshttp://googleancientplaces.wordpress.com/public-domain/
    57. 57. http://ckan.net/
    58. 58. Sciences leading the way vs. Humanities?• In the sciences, there have been a lot of advances in the realm of Open Data, which will provide models for humanities research as well
    59. 59. Sciences leading the way vs. Humanities?• In the sciences, there have been a lot of advances in the realm of Open Data, which will provide models for humanities research as well • Nano Publishing: the idea of publishing datasets separately from research findings, so that it can more easily be built upon and integrated into other datasets. Several scientific journals have already started this.
    60. 60. Sciences leading the way vs. Humanities?• In the sciences, there have been a lot of advances in the realm of Open Data, which will provide models for humanities research as well • Nano Publishing: the idea of publishing datasets separately from research findings, so that it can more easily be built upon and integrated into other datasets. Several scientific journals have already started this. • Federally funded medical research must have a data management plan and some funders are requiring that data be published separately from analysis and findings as Open Data
    61. 61. In summary Open• put it out there...• legal tools• published, shared, and/or open• metadata vs. assets
    62. 62. What Would You Do?• Conceptualizing domains, Linked Open Data projects, collaborations, etc
    63. 63. Google Refine• A tool for large datasets, cleaning and reconciling• http://code.google.com/p/google-refine/• Extremely powerful, though scripting language has not yet been very well documented.• Enables you to reconcile data against the 20 million + known entities in Freebase
    64. 64. Join the LODLAM movement• #lodlam hashtag on Twitter
    65. 65. Join the LODLAM movement• #lodlam hashtag on Twitter• http://groups.google.com/group/lod-lam
    66. 66. Join the LODLAM movement• #lodlam hashtag on Twitter• http://groups.google.com/group/lod-lam• http://lod-lam.net proceedings online and on the road for the next year at various annual meetings and conferences
    67. 67. Join the LODLAM movement• #lodlam hashtag on Twitter• http://groups.google.com/group/lod-lam• http://lod-lam.net proceedings online and on the road for the next year at various annual meetings and conferences• Contribute!
    68. 68. You’re not alone...

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