Overview of Open Data, Linked Data and Web Science


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Overview of Open Data, Linked Data and Web Science

  1. Making Emergent CreativityOverview of Open Data, Linked Data and Web Science Haklae Kim, PhD. , August 2012
  2. Best PracticesLondon 2012: Open Data Olympics 2
  3. TodayThis Presentation .....Conceptual overview Case Studies The Semantic Web What We Will Do 3
  4. 4
  5. Let’s StartBig Data“data that becomes large enough that it cannot be processed using conventional methods” “Big Data is like Sex in High School–Lots of people are talking about it, but few are having it.” -Eric Hansen, SiteSpect founder and CEO 5
  6. DefinitionWhat is Open (Government) Data? “Open” freely material (data) is open if it can be used, reused and redistributed by anyone “Government data” produced or data and information commissioned by government or government controlled entities. Source: Open Knowledge Foundation, 2010 6
  7. •  Transparency•  Participation•  Collaboration“My administration is committed to creating an unprecedented level ofopenness in Government.” – Barack Obama “Memorandum for the Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies – Transparency and Open Government” Jan 2009
  8. TodayThis Presentation .....Conceptual overview Case Studies The Semantic Web What We Will Do 8
  9. 9  h"p://www.prac+calpar+cipa+on.co.uk/odi/wp-­‐content/uploads/2010/06/Open-­‐Data-­‐Impacts-­‐Timeline-­‐Dra@-­‐0.1.png  
  10. Case Studies Top 10 Apps: Data.gov.uk Where Does My Money Go OurProperty.co.uk OpenlyLocal.com PlanningAlerts.com 10Source: Telegraph, 2010, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/news/7044147/Data.gov.uk-Top-Ten-Apps-so-far.html
  11. Public Sector DatasetThe State of Open Government Data Source: http://tinyurl.com/44rub56 11
  12. Open Data StrategiesOpen data instruments“The application of the four types of instruments by the five countries is depicted – the largerthe circle the more instruments are applied” – Huijboom & Van den Broek, 2011. Education and training Voluntary approaches US AU ES UK DK DK UK ES AU US ES DK US ES DK AU AU UK UK US Economic instruments Legislation and control 12
  13. Critical factors Drivers and barries of open data policy implementation 1 Strategies and experience in front runner countries Closed government culture 2 Political leadership Privacy legislation 3 Regional initiatives Limited quality of data 4 Citizen initiatives Limited user-friendliness/information overload 5 Market initiatives Lack of standardization of open data policy 6 Emerging technologies Security threats 7 European legislation Existing charging models 8 Thought leaders Uncertain economic impact 9 Possibility of monitoring government Digital divide 10 Budgets cuts Network overloadSource:  Huijboom  and  Van  den  Broek,  2011   13
  14. TodayThis Presentation .....Conceptual overview Case Studies The Semantic Web What We Will Do 14
  15. Let’s StartWeb in Transition“a steady progression from a document-centric Web to one that is data-centric, including the mediation of semantics” (Source: Mike, 2007) 15
  16. OverviewThe Semantic Web & Linked Data“The Semantic Web isnt just about putting data on the web. It is about making links, so that aperson or machine can explore the web of data.  With linked data, when you have some of it,you can find other, related, data” - TBL. 5 Stars Open linked data ★ Make your stuff available on the Web ★★ Make it available as structured data ★★★ Use open, standard formats (instead of excel) ★★★★ Use a open data format – URLs, descriptions ★★★★★ Link your data to other people’s data 16
  17. OverviewGrowth of Interlinks… Linked Data provides the means to reach the goal of the Semantic Web– “the emergence of a Web of Data” 2007-05-01 2007-10-08 2007-11-10 2008-02-28 2008-03-31 2008-09-18 2009-03-05 2009-03-27 2009-07-14 2010-09-22 17
  18. Structured Wikipedia Multimedia Content DBpedia BBC Commercial Product Government Data Best Buy UK Gov October, 2011 18295 interlinked datasets, approximately 31 billions triples
  19. QuestionWhat is the Semantic Web for? Standards Inference Search Intelligence 19
  20. Case StudiesGoogle’s Semantic SearchPeople should be able to ask questions and we should understand their meaning, or they should be able totalk about things at a conceptual level. ... A lot of people will turn to things like the semantic Web as a possibleanswer to that.“ - Google Vice President of Search Products & User Experience Marissa Mayer an initiative launched on 2 June 2011 by Bing, Google and Yahoo!to "create and support a common set of schemas forstructureddata markup on web pages."Freebase is an open, Creative Commons licensed repositoryof structured data of almost 22 million entities. An entity is asingle person, place, or thing connected by a graph.The Knowledge Graph is a collection of information sources thathelp discern a user’s specified intent with each individual query.The graph is actually an encyclopedia with structured http://schema.org/docs/full.html information obtained from the web. (currently, 200 millionentities) 20
  21. Case StudiesApple’s SiriAsk Siri how Apple recorded the best quarter in history for a tech company, and her answer should be: "Me." Siri (Speech Interpretation and Recognition Interface) is Knowledge Navigator (1987)an intelligent personal assistant and knowledge a concept described by former Apple Computer CEO Johnnavigator which works as an application for Apples iOS. Sculley in his 1987 book, Odyssey. A Brief History- In December 2007 Siri, Inc. was formed by Dag Kittlaus(CEO), Adam Cheyer (VP Engineering), and Tom Gruber(CTO/VP Design).- Siri Inc. went after funding and by November 2009 it hadsecured $15.5 million investment, resulted in the creation ofthe first Siri application, which debuted on the iPhone 3GS inFebruary 2010.- Siri acquired by Apple; iPhone becomes the Virtual PersonalAssistant (Source: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QRH8eimU_20) 21
  22. Case StudiesActive OntologyA processing formalism where distinct processing elements are arranged according to ontology notions;an execution environment. Basic concepts * Ontology : A data structure - Formal representation for domain knowledge - Classes, attributes, relations * Active Ontology : A processing environment - Processing elements arranged according to ontology notions - Communication channels P movie P genre P actor P rating rule set rule rule rule condition condition condition action action action (Baur et al., 2007) 22
  23. WhyLinked Data and Open Government Data 23
  24. Linked  Data  life  cycles  1 2 3 4 5 6 data modeling publishing discovery integration use cases awarenessthedatahub Neologism Google Refine VoID LATC 24/7 datacatalogsLOD cloud DataCube RDB2RDF DCAT duke data.gov prefix.cc Sindice Sig.ma data.gov.uk CKAN
  25. TodayThis Presentation .....Conceptual overview Case Studies The Semantic Web What We Will Do 25
  26. Reality CheckData.gov in crisis Data.gov, along with a number of other data-related sites of the government such as USAspending.gov and Apps.gov, are slated to be shut down due to budget cuts. The current annual budget of $37 million will be reduced to $2 million. – (Guardian April 11) 26
  27. Reality Check in Korea고려 사항1 정부의 역할: 시스템 구축 vs 생태계 구축 - 통제가 아닌 효율적인 서비스 지향 - 데이터 공개 및 연계를 위한 로드맵 수립 - 정부기관의 데이터 소유 인식 전환 필요2 데이터 플랫폼: 정부 vs 민간 vs 커뮤니티 - 자발적인 참여와 소비를 촉진하는 전략 필요 - 데이터 범주에 따른 차별화된 공개 전략3 데이터 민감성: WikiLeaks vs Open Data - 데이터의 활용에 따른 최적화된 서비스 모델 - 서비스 범위에 따른 구축비용/운영 모델4 서비스 범위: Domestic vs International - 국제 표준에 기반한 데이터 접근 서비스 제공 - 통계 기반 시각화에 한정된 모델 지양5 데이터 내용: 통계/수치 데이터 vs 정보형 데이터 - 데이터 특성에 맞는 기술 적용 모델 수립 - 지능적인 데이터 매쉬업 지원을6 데이터 형식: human-readable vs machine-readable 위한 데이터 모델링 검토 27
  28. Conceptual Architecture Vision of Government Open Data “realise significant economic benefits by enabling businesses and non-profit organisations to build innovative applications and websites using public data.” 28(Ding et al., 2012)
  29. Conceptual Architecture Roadmap of linked open government data “the combination of machine power and human power and deliver higher-quality data to a wide range of data consumers via visualization, mashups, and more.” 29(Ding et al., 2012)
  30. SummaryData on the Web Data is information about things Data is something machines can process Data drives applications (e.g. web sites, mobile services) Data is relations among things 30
  31. SummaryOpen Data vs Linked Data Open Data starts with making available the data that you already have, in whatever format. •  Equal access for all Open Data •  Licensing, legal issues •  Transparency •  Changing the way government works •  URIs Linked Data •  HTTPs •  RDF vocabularies •  Standards 31
  32. What We Will DoInterdisciplinary Collaboration Difficult Concluding Remarks Hope is not a strategy and the “change” has been change for the worse, and not better. 32
  33. References- Charles Baur, Adam Cheyer, Didier Guzzoni, Active, a platform for building intelligent software- Noor Huijboom and Tijs Van den Broek, Open Data: an international comparison of strategies, European journal of ePractices, March/April 2011- Li Ding, Vassilios Peristeras, and Michael Hausenblas, Linked Open Government Data, IEEE Intelligent Systems, May/June 2012-  Page 1: http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/diagrams/websci/Marius%20Watz%20-%20Web%20Science%20artwork.png-  Page 4: http://www.go-gulf.com/60seconds.jpg-  Page 9: http://cloud.frontpagemag.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/obama11.jpg-  Page 27: http://www.patentlyapple.com/.a/6a0120a5580826970c0168e5ccdd81970c-800wi-  Page 29: http://programminggeeks.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/05/Programming-Geeks-Web-Science.jpg-  Page 29: http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-C0Kyck90Djo/T4KZTg3k1XI/AAAAAAAAAsE/RUp165S0FCQ/s1600/Commitment.jpegPage 2 Case Studies-  http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2012/aug/03/london-2012-olympics-open-data-  http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-19050139-  http://london2012.nytimes.com/results-  http://www.guardian.co.uk/sport/interactive/2012/jul/23/could-you-be-a-medallist-  http://www.guardian.co.uk/sport/datablog/2012/aug/13/olympics-2012-data-journalism-  http://www.guardian.co.uk/sport/datablog/interactive/2012/jul/26/london-2012-price-olympic-games-visualised 33
  34. For more informationcontact Haklae Kim viahaklae.kim@gmail.comTwitter: haklaekimOr read up on thesonagi blog at:http://blogweb.co.krhttp://thedatahub.kr