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3. integumentary system

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3. integumentary system

  1. 1. Skin (cutaneous membrane) •largest organ of the human body with a surface area of 1.5-2.0 square meters in an average adult. •Each 5 square cm may have up to: 600 sweat glands 20 blood vessels 60,000 melanocytes and over a thousand nerve endings. “A waterproof, stretchable, washable and permanent-pressed coat of the human body that is guaranteed to last a lifetime with reasonable care”
  2. 2. 1. Protection Integument (“covering”) – tight cell junctions prevent bacterial invasion – lipids released retard evaporation – pigment protects somewhat against UV light – Langerhans cells alert immune system
  3. 3. 2. Thermoregulation How does it regulate temperature? – Sweating – Dilate/constrict of blood vessels – Goose bumps •High temperature Dilate surface blood vessels Sweating •Low temperature Surface vessels constrict shivering
  4. 4. • Shivering and constriction of surface vessels – raise internal body temperature as needed • Exercise – in moderate exercise, more blood brought to surface helps lower temperature – with extreme exercise, blood is shunted to muscles and body temperature rises
  5. 5. 3. Excretes Waste The skin removes the excess of water, pigments and salts from the blood through the sweat glands. subcutaneous
  6. 6. 4. Reduces water loss The uppermost layer of the skin, a thick impermeable membrane, is full of Keratin and is “cornified” or hardened
  7. 7. 5. Houses sensory receptors – touch, pressure, vibration, tickle, heat, cold, and pain arise in the skin
  8. 8. 6.Synthesis of Vit. D – activation of a precursor molecule in the skin by UV light – enzymes in the liver and kidneys modify the activated molecule to produce calcitriol, the most active form of vitamin D. – necessary vitamin for absorption of calcium from food in the gastrointestinal tract
  9. 9. Cutaneous membrane • Protects tissues from physical trauma, biological pathogens, and chemical trauma • Provides sensations Accessory Structures • Provides sensations • Produces secretions • Protects epidermal surfaces
  10. 10. Keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
  11. 11. Stratum Basale: • Mitotic layer, continuously replaces epidermal cells, turnover rate between 25 to 50 days Stratum Spinosum: • Cells are pushed upward and flatten out • Stratum Granulosum: Cells contain granules of Keratin
  12. 12. Stratum Lucidum: • Observed only in non-hairy or thick skin. Several layers of dead cells with indistinct boundaries Stratum Corneum: • Composed of 25 or more layers of dead squamous cells still joined by desmosomes. Eventually desmosomes break and cells flake off in a process called desquamation
  13. 13. Keratinocytes: Most common cells of the epidermis. Provides protection and waterproofing sealant Melanocytes: Produces and transfer the protein melanin to Keratinocytes. Melanin is a brown/black pigment that absorbs UV-light.
  14. 14. Langerhans cells: Arise from red bone marrow and migrate to the epidermis. They participate in immune responses against bacteria and viruses. Easily damaged by UV Merkel Cells: Found in the Stratum Basale, they contact the flattened process of sensory neuron. They respond to touch sensations
  15. 15. • Melanin produced in epidermis by melanocytes – melanocytes convert tyrosine to melanin • UV in sunlight increases melanin production – same number of melanocytes in everyone, but differing amounts of pigment produced – results vary from yellow to tan to black color
  16. 16. • Clinical observations – freckles or liver spots = melanocytes in a patch – albinism = inherited lack of tyrosinase; no pigment – vitiligo = autoimmune loss of melanocytes in areas of the skin produces white patches • The wide variety of colors in skin is due to three pigments - melanin, carotene, and hemoglobin (in blood in capillaries) - in the dermis.
  17. 17. Carotene in dermis: yellow-orange pigment (precursor of vitamin A) found in stratum corneum & dermis Hemoglobin in dermis: red, oxygen-carrying pigment in blood cells if other pigments are not present, epidermis is translucent so pinkness will be evident
  18. 18. Deeper layers of skin 10-20 times thicker than epidermis. Top layer arranged In ridges. Why are there ridges?
  19. 19. Ridges help the epidermis bind to the dermis. The uneven ridges create fingerprints
  20. 20. Dermis • Reticular region: consists of dense irregular CT Contain most of the accessory Structures 3. Papillary Region: Consist of areolar Tissue 4. Dermal Papilla: Fingerlike projections that greatly increase surface area 1 2 3 4
  21. 21. Apocrine sweat glands: • Found in the Axillae, nipples, labia, and glans penis. • Begin to function at puberty and are affected by hormones • Produce odorous thick secretion • Possible pheromone function Sudoriferous (eccrine) Sweat Gland: • Widespread (3,000/sq. in.) • Produce thin watery secretion • Controlled by nervous system • Thermoregulation • Excretion of urea • Antibacterial action
  22. 22. Sebaceous “Oil” gland: • Secrete sebum • Coats hair shaft and lubricates the epidermis • Secreted to hair follicles • Not associated with hair on the labia, glans penis, and lips • Activity controlled by sex- hormones • Modified in external ear canal to produce cerumen or ear wax (ceruminous glands)
  23. 23. Mammary Glands: • Anatomically related to apocrine sweat glands • Development controls by sex hormones and pituitary hormones • Produce milk
  24. 24. Ceruminous Glands: • Modified sweat glands found in the external auditory canal • Produce cerumen or ear wax • Helps trap foreign particles from reaching the eardrum
  25. 25. Hair: • Present on most skin except palmer surface, and plantar surface • Growth controlled by genetics and sex hormones • Provides protection and sensory input • Each hair has an arrector pili muscle
  26. 26. Split ends
  27. 27. Nails – protective covers of ends of fingers and toes.
  28. 28. Meissner’s Corpuscles: • Present in dermal papilla • Specialized sensory neuron nerve endings • Respond to touch ( tactile) • Most numerous in thick or non-hairy skin of the palmar and plantar surfaces
  29. 29. Pacinian Corpuscle: • Encapsulated sensory nerve ending • Located at the hypodermis/dermis junction • Respond to pressure
  30. 30. • The hair growth cycle consists of a growing stage and a resting stage. – Growth cycle = growth stage & resting stage • Growth stage – lasts for 2 to 6 years – matrix cells at base of hair root producing length • Resting stage – lasts for 3 months – matrix cells inactive & follicle atrophies – Old hair falls out as growth stage begins again • normal hair loss is 70 to 100 hairs per day • Both rate of growth and the replacement cycle can be altered by illness, diet, high fever, surgery, blood loss, severe emotional stress, and gender. • Chemotherapeutic agents affect the rapidly dividing matrix hair cells resulting in hair loss.
  31. 31. • Hair color is due primarily to the amount and type of melanin. • Graying of hair occurs because of a progressive decline in tyrosinase. – Dark hair contains true melanin – Blond and red hair contain melanin with iron and sulfur added – Graying hair is result of decline in melanin production – White hair has air bubbles in the medullary shaft • Hormones influence the growth and loss of hair (Clinical applications).
  32. 32. Acne – infection of sebaceous gland
  33. 33. Whitehead-sebum lodges in ducts bec of improper discharging blackhead- whitehead blackened by oxidation
  34. 34. Furuncles and carbuncles
  35. 35. Benign tumor – fleshy growths on neck, armpits and body. Harmless! Tumor
  36. 36. Vascular Birthmarks – Blood vessel abnormality affecting .5% of population – darkens skin
  37. 37. Dermatitis – dry, sensitive skin
  38. 38. Athlete’s Foot Ring WormFungal Infection
  39. 39. Impetigo – bacterial infection
  40. 40. Disorders of the Skin Psoriasis – chronic inflammation
  41. 41. SkinCancer: three common types Melanoma Squamous cell Carcinoma Basal cell carcinoma
  42. 42. ABCD Rule for Detection
  43. 43. Warts- viral infection Plane warts Common wart Plantar wart
  44. 44. VAMPIRES AND WEREWOLVES • Porphyria- rare skin condition; genetic - can not make the iron-containing heme part of hemoglobin -accumulation of porphyrins; lesions appear when exposed to the sun -fingers, toes, nose become mutilated, degeneration of gums, rampant hair growth -symptoms become aggravated by exposure to some chemicals including garlic
  45. 45. Characteristics of Porphyria ( 5Ps) a. Puberty b. Psychiatric abnormality c. Pain d. Polyneuropathy e. Photosensitivity Treatments: • Injection of heme molecules from healthy rbcs • Middle ages ( no injections)- drank blood
  46. 46. Touch me Nots- Epidermolysis bullosa • Hereditary • Lack of keratin in basal cells of epidermis • A simple touch can cause layers to separate and blister
  47. 47. SKIN SIGNS 1. Red skin- HBP, polycythemia, allergy, blushing 2. Pale ( pallor)- anemia, LBP, fear and anger 3. Purplish/bluish- severe heart disease, pneumonia 4. Yellow-jaundice 5. Bronze – addison’s disease 6. Moist/hot- hyperthyroidism 7. Rashes- measles, chicken pox and infectious dss 8. Vitamin deficiency- rough, cracked scaly around corners of mouth 9. Black/bluish marks- hematoma (clots)
  48. 48. • When an injury extends to tissues deep to the epidermis, the repair process is more complex than epidermal healing, and scar formation results. • Healing occurs in 4 phases – inflammatory phase has clot unite wound edges and WBCs arrive from dilated and more permeable blood vessels – migratory phase begins the regrowth of epithelial cells and the formation of scar tissue by the fibroblasts – proliferative phase is a completion of tissue formation – maturation phase sees the scab fall off • Scar formation – hypertrophic scar remains within the boundaries of the original wound – keloid scar extends into previously normal tissue • collagen fibers are very dense and fewer blood vessels are present so the tissue is lighter in color
  49. 49. 1. Inflammatory stage: a. Blood clot forms b. Inflammation is the result of vasodilation which helps deliver WBC’s to help eliminate microbes 2. Migratory Phase: a. Clot becomes a scab b. Epithelial cells migrate beneath scab to repair epithelium c. Fibroblast migrate into the area to repair connective tissue d. New tissue is called granulation tissue
  50. 50. 3. Proliferative phase: a. Extensive growth of epithelial cells b. Deposition of collagen fibers by fibroblasts c. Continued growth of vascular network 4. Maturation phase: a. Scab sloughs off b. Collagen fibers become more organized c. Fibroblasts decrease in number
  51. 51. • Collagen fibers decrease in number & stiffen • Elastic fibers become less elastic • Fibroblasts decrease in number • decrease in number of melanocytes (gray hair, blotching) • decrease in Langerhans cells (decreased immune responsiveness) • reduced number and less-efficient phagocytes
  52. 52. • Your body is composed of approximately 100 Trillion cells • About 16% of your body weight is skin • The skin is completely renewed every 27 days • You will make almost 1000 new skins in a lifetime • If all the layers of your skin were laid out on the ground, it would cover about 20 m2 or 2 parking spaces
  53. 53. • A fingernail or toenail takes about 6 months to grow from base to tip • Fingernails grow faster than toenails • An average human scalp has 100,000 hairs • We lose between 40 and 100 hairs per day • Blondes have more hair than brunettes
  54. 54. • Fingerprints provide traction for grasping objects • Even identical twins have different fingerprints • Every square inch of dermis contains twenty feet of blood vessels • Skin on our hands and feet is thicker. When we bathe, skin takes on water and swells slightly. • In the thicker areas, increased surface area creates crowding. The skin must wrinkle to accommodate the changes
  55. 55. • Friction of the epidermis causes cell division to increase. • This outward thickening is called a callus. • Sometimes growth is inward, creating a corn. • Humans shed about 600,000 particles of skin per hour – about 1.5 pounds per year. • At age 70, you will have lost about 105 lbs. of skin.

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