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Structure of skin relating to problems like dry skin, acne vulgaris, pigmentation, wrinkles, prickly heat, body odour, structure of hair, hair growth cycle, oral cavity problems

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Structure of skin relating to problems like dry skin, acne vulgaris, pigmentation, wrinkles, prickly heat, body odour, structure of hair, hair growth cycle, oral cavity problems

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This single presentation contains a complete information about structure of skin and its relating to problems such as dry skin, acne vulgaris, pigmentation, prickly heat, wrinkles, body odour, structure of hair and hair growth cycle, oral cavity problems.

This single presentation contains a complete information about structure of skin and its relating to problems such as dry skin, acne vulgaris, pigmentation, prickly heat, wrinkles, body odour, structure of hair and hair growth cycle, oral cavity problems.

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Structure of skin relating to problems like dry skin, acne vulgaris, pigmentation, wrinkles, prickly heat, body odour, structure of hair, hair growth cycle, oral cavity problems

  1. 1. Structure of skin relating to problems like dry skin,acne,wrinkles,prickly heat,pigmentation. Presented by:- Submitted to:- Jaswanth gowda B. H. Dr. Shankar S. J. 2nd semester M.Pharm Dept. Of Pharmaceutics Dept. of Pharmaceutics Vivekananda college of pharmacy Vivekananda college of pharmacy Bangalore
  2. 2. Content:- • Structure of Skin • Dry skin • Acne vulgaris • Prickly heat • Wrinkles • Body odour • Structure of hair & hair growth cycle • Common problems associated with oral cavity
  3. 3. Cosmetics Definition As per European Union the cosmetics is defined as “Any substance or preparation intended to be placed in contact with various external parts of the human body (epidermis, hair system, nails, lips and external genital organs) or with the teeth and the mucous membrane of the oral cavity with a view mainly to cleaning them, perfuming them, changing their appearance or correcting body odours or protecting them or keeping them in good condition. The term cosmeceuticals was coined in 1980 by the dermatologist Albert Kligman.
  4. 4. Skin • Skin is the largest organ of the body, accounting for about 15% of the total adult body weight. • It protects against external particles. • It prevents excessive water loss from the body. • It helps in Thermoregulation.
  5. 5. Structure of Skin 1. Epidermis (Outer layer responsible for colour) 2. Dermis (Contains hair follicle & sweat glands) 3. Hypodermis (Made of fat & connective tissue)
  6. 6. 1. Epidermis • Outer layer of skin, acts as barrier to infections. • Made of keratinized stratified squamous epithelial cells. • Cells are formed by mitosis in basal layer, then get pushed into more superficial layers of strata. • It is avascular layer that depends on blood vessel in underlying dermis for its nutrition.
  7. 7. Structure of Epidermis The epidermis contains 5 major layers:- 1. Stratum basale/Stratum germinativum 2. Stratum spinosum 3. Stratum granulosum 4. Stratum lucidum 5. Stratum corneum
  8. 8. 2. Dermis • Middle layer of skin, that contains nerves, hair roots, sweat glands, oil glands & blood vessels. • Made of dense irregular connective tissue having collagen & fibers, separated from epidermis by basement membrane. • Highly vascular & highly innervated. • Contains sensory receptors for touch, pressure, vibration, pain & temparature.
  9. 9. 3. Hypodermis • Present below dermis. • Deep to skin & also known as Subcutaneous tissue. • Consists layer of fats & adipose tissue. • Main cells present are Fibroblast, Adipose tissue, Macrophages. • Functions as energy source by storing fat.
  10. 10. Types of Skin 1. Oily skin:- • They have large pores, shiny complexation, blackheads, pimples by sebaceous glands. • Oiliness of skin can be increased by factors like stress, hormones, heat & humidity 2. Combination skin:- • It is oily in some areas like chin, nose, forehead but may be dry in some areas like cheeks.
  11. 11. 3. Normal skin:- • It has medium level of oil and water. • Not shiny or oily because oil glands are not highly active. 4. Sensitive skin:- • It show redness, itching, dryness. • Can be irritated in response to certain skin care products.
  12. 12. Dry skin • It is also known as Xerosis. • Low level of sebum present. • Usually feels tight and uncomfortable. • Chapping and cracking are signs of extremely dry, dehydrated skin. • 10-20% of water content in stratum corneum is required to keep skin soft and pliable. • Barrier alteration cause increase in Transepidermal water loss. • This result in drying out, precipitating dry skin condition. • Feels like taut, rough and itchy.
  13. 13. Causes:- • The oils glands do not supply enough lubrication to skin which results in dehydration. • Environmental factors like low humidity, wind, cold whether leads to dry skin. • Poor diet, nutritional deficiency majorly vit A & vit B can lead to dry skin. • Genetic conditions. • Facial skin been washed with surfactant based products often experience temporary tightness sensation. • Medications, cosmetics and medical conditions like diabetes, hypothyroidism, malnutrition also lead to dry skin.
  14. 14. Acne vulgaris “It is an inflammation skin condition that occurs when oil and dead skin cells blocks the pore opening causing sebum to build up inside the pore”. (or) “Acne is a chronic disease caused by inflammation of sebaceous glands”. • People with acne have larger sebaceous glands that release more sebum into skin. • High sebum & keratinization result in formation of plug in pores give rise to blocked hair follicle.
  15. 15. • Accumulation of sebum encourages proliferation of anaerobic bacteria, proprioni bacterium acne (p. acnes), staphylococcus albus. • Bacteria produce lipase enzyme that hydrolyse triglyceride in sebum to produce free fatty acids and glycerol. • Acne causes variety of flaws like blackheads, whiteheads, pimples, nodules & cysts. • It affects 80% teenagers and many adults due to hormonal changes.
  16. 16. Causes:- • Heat, humidity, UV-light, cosmetics, excessive use of surfactants. • Stress may aggravate skin by triggering the release of androgen & cortisol which can stimulate excess oil production and mix with dead, finally promotes bacterial growth to develop acne.
  17. 17. Acne life cycle Stage 1:- Clogged pores Cell lining pores shed & mix with excess sebum produced by sebaceous glands forming a plug, leads to clogged pores. Stage 2:- Bacteria Accumulated sebum & dead cells attract the bacteria that is naturally found in skin, which feeds on oil and multiply rapidly inside pores.
  18. 18. Stage 3:- Inflammation This bacterial overgrowth triggers the natural inflammatory response causing swelling & redness. This can ultimately lead to discoloration & scarring.
  19. 19. Types of Acne 1. Papule:- A small, red, raised bump around a hair follicle. 2. Pustule:- A red bump with a white pus “head” at its tip. 3. Nodule:- An infection or blockage deep within the hair follicle that causes a solid, closed lump under skin. 4. Cyst:- A painful, closed lump under the skin, filled with pus like a nodule.
  20. 20. Pigmentation • It means colouring. • Skin gets its colour from pigment called Melanin. • Pigmentation occurs due to deposition of melanin, which is produced by specialized cells called melanocytes within melanosomes & transferred to keratinocytes.
  21. 21. Types of pigmentation 1. Hyperpigmentation (a) Frekles (b) Lentigo (c) Post-inflammatory pigmentation (d) Melasma 2. Hypopigmentation (a) Vitiligo
  22. 22. (a) Freckles:- • It is most common type of pigmentation. • It is also known as “Ephelides”. • They are circular spots usually tan (or) light brown in colour. • They appear darker during sunny months and fade in winter. • They develop after repeated exposure to sunlight particularly if one have fair complexation. • They develop majorly on nose.
  23. 23. (b) Lentigo (or) Solar lentigines (or) sun spots:- • They are also termed as Liver spots. • Usually their colour may vary from light brown to black. • These spots are caused by uv-rays exposure from sun. • People with lighter skin tone are said to be more prone to sunspots. • These must be monitored as they may develop into skin cancer & melasma.
  24. 24. (c) Post-inflammatory pigmentation:- • It is a response to injury of skin and can be result of acne, burns & friction. • These skin conditions increase the production of pigments that cause dark spots. • This type of pigmentation results in tan, brown or black colour to skin. • It can be caused due to cosmetics, laser treatments or combination therapy.
  25. 25. Types of Post-inflammatory pigmentation:- Epidermal:- (surface layer) It can tan, brown or dark brown in colour & it may take months to year to get rid of it. Dermal:- (Inner layer) It can be bluish gray in colour & may be permanent if it’s left untreated.
  26. 26. (d) Melasma:- • It is a pigmentation deeper in the skin dermis & common among people with darker skin tone. • It appears on face as larger brown patches with a non- distinct border. • It is caused due to increased sun exposure, the mechanism probably involve over production of melanin by hyper-functional melanocytes. • Other than sun exposure, aggravation factors include are auto-immune thyroid disorder & photosensitizing drugs. • Usually appears across the upper cheeks, forehead, upper lip & chin areas.
  27. 27. (e) Vitiligo:- • It is a type of Hypopigmentation disorder. • It is an acquired, pigmentary anomaly of the skin characterized by depigmented patches surrounded by normal border. • These lesions are hypersensitive to uv-light & burn easily when exposed to sun. • Major cause is genetics, auto-immune hypothesis, neurogenic hypothesis.
  28. 28. Prickly heat • It is aslo called as heat rash/miliaria. • It is itchy inflammation of superficial layers of skin, typically with rash of small vesicles, common in hot humid whether. • They are red bumps on a skin & an itchy or prickly feeling on skin. • Heat rash is common in summer months & particularly in humid climates. • These conditions are usually self-limited and resolves in hours to a few days without treatment. • Any body part can be affected, majorly face, neck, back, abdomen, elbow folds, groin.
  29. 29. Causes:- • It is caused by trapped sweat, when the body is hot the sweat glands get activated to produce sweat on skin. • When body kept in warm state, the constant sweat production can overload sweat glands, this can cause the sweat ducts to get blocked by trapping sweat in deep layers of skin with help of bacterias. • This trapped sweat irritates the skin by forming the rash on it. • Most common trigger for prickly heat is exposure to heat for long time.
  30. 30. Types of heat rash:- 1. Clear (Miliaria crystallina) 2. Red (Miliaria rubra) 3. White/Yellow (Miliaria pustulosa) 4. Deep (Miliaria profunda)
  31. 31. 1. Clear (Miliaria crystallina) • It sometimes called as miliaria sudamina. • This happens when the blockage of sweat ducts occur at closer surface of skin. • The rash is like tiny clear spots & may look like beads of sweat. • It might be least itchy condition (or) no itch at all. • The spots tend to disappear within a few hours (or) days.
  32. 32. 2. Red (Miliaria rubra) • It is a most common type. • It is caused when the blockage of the sweat ducts occur at deeper part of the outer layer of skin (Epidermis). • Crops of tiny red bumpy spots develop. • The rash may occur within days of coming into hot climate. However the rash doesn’t appear until weeks or months have passed in hot climate. • The rash tend to go within a few days if you get out of the hot environment & stop sweating. • On the affected area of skin there is a reduced amount of sweat or no sweat at all.
  33. 33. 3. White/Yellow (Miliaria pustulosa) • In this type the bumps on the skin become infected with the bacteria living on the skin surface. • The fluid inside the bumps contain pus. 4. Deep (Miliaria profunda) • It is uncommon and caused when the blockage of sweat ducts occurs at the level of middle layer of skin (Dermis). • It typically occurs in people who live in a hot climate who repeatedly had miliaria rubra.
  34. 34. Wrinkles • Wrinkles are known as Rhytide. • It is a fold, ridge or crease on the skin. • Wrinkles on skin is promoted by habitual facial expression, aging, poor hydration, sun damage, smoking & other various factors. • Wrinkles are formed when the skin loses its elasticity. • Skin retain the lines resulting from smiling & other facial expressions, over the time these lines deepen into face and forms the wrinkles. • The first wrinkles appear in weak skin tissue around eyes, cheeks & around lips.
  35. 35. Causes:- a) Smoking b) Exposure to uv-light c) Repeated facial expressions d) Age
  36. 36. Body odour • It is perceived unpleasant smell that body can give when bacteria present on skin breaks down the sweat into acid. • Body odour caused by combination of sweat & bacteria, normally found in skin.
  37. 37. Causes of excessive sweating:- • Emotional factors like anxiety, stress, embracement leads to excessive sweat secretion. • Illness & medications can also cause excessive sweating. • Hereditary problems.
  38. 38. Hair • It is one of defining characteristics of mammals. • It is a protein filament that grows from follicles found in dermis. • It is an important biomaterial primarily composed of keratin protein. • It acts as barrier to foreign particles.
  39. 39. Functions of hair:- • Thermoregulation. • Facilitation for evaporation of perspiration. • Protection against foreign particles. • Heat insulation on head.
  40. 40. Structure of hair • Hair is divided in to two separate structures:- 1. Hair root:- located below epidermis. 2. Hair shaft:- located above epidermis.
  41. 41. 1. Hair root a) Hair follicle:- It is tube like pocket in the skin or scalp that contains the hair root. b) Hair bulb:- It is lowest part of strand of hair, thickened, club shaped. c) Dermal papilla:- It is a small, cone shaped elevation located at the base of the hair follicle that fits into the hair bulb.
  42. 42. d) Arrector pili muscle:- It is a small involuntary muscle in the base of the hair follicle, when it contracts we get goosebumps. e) Sebaceous glands:- They are oil glands in the skin that are connected to hair follicles, it secretes sebum.
  43. 43. 2.Hair shaft a) Hair cuticle:- • It is outermost layer of hair. • Consists of a single overlapping layers of transparent, scale like cells. • Protects inner structure of hair. • Creates shiny and smoothness. • It doesn't contain melanin.
  44. 44. b) Cortex:- • It is the middle layer of hair. • 90% of total hair weight come from this part. • Elasticity and colour are results of protein in the cortex. • It contains moisture and determines texture of hair. • It contain natural pigment called melanin.
  45. 45. c) Medulla:- • It is a innermost layer of hair. • Usually it is present in thick and coarse hair. • It doesn’t possess any use hence it is not always present.
  46. 46. Hair pigment a) Melanin:- They are tiny grains of pigment in the cortex that gives hair its natural colour. b) Eumelanin:- It provides natural dark brown to black hair colour. c) Pheomelanin:- It provides natural colours ranging from red to yellow colour.
  47. 47. Types of hair a) Vallus hair:- • They are short, fine, un-pigmented, downy and usually appears on parts of the body that they are normally considered as hairless regions like forehead, bald scalp, eyelids. • It doesn’t possess medulla. • It helps with evaporation of perspiration (sweat). • Women normally have 55% more vallus than men.
  48. 48. b) Terminal hair:- • They are long, coarse, pigmented hair found on the scalp, legs, arms. • It is present in bodies of both male and female. • It consists of medulla.
  49. 49. Hair growth cycle The three stages of hair growth are:- 1. Anagen phase (Growth) 2. Catagen phase (Regression) 3. Telogen phase (Rest or Shedding)
  50. 50. 1. Anagen phase:- • It is a growth phase. • In this phase where the hair physically grows approximately 1 to 1.5cm long per month. • It begins in the papilla and can last from 2 to 6 years. • As far as the hair stays in this phase, the longer it will grow. • During this phase, the cells in papilla divide to form new hair fibres and follicle buries itself into dermal layer of skin to nourish strand. • About 80-85% of hair present on head are in anagen phase.
  51. 51. 2. Ctagen phase:- • It is a transition stage. • At the end of anagen, mitotic activity of matrix cells is diminished and follicle enters a highly controlled involuntary phase known as catagen. • The first sign of catagen is the stoppage of melanin production in hair bulb and apoptosis of follicular melanocytes. • Ultimately the follicle is 1/6th of its original length causing the hair shaft to be pushed upward. • Catagen lasts approximately 2 weeks in humans, regardless of the site and follicle type.
  52. 52. 3. Telogen phase:- • This phase is defined as the duration between complexation of follicular regression and the onset pf the next anagen phase. • This phase lasts for about 2-3 months • Around 10-15% of all hairs present in body are in telogen phase. • Finally hairs fallout, approximately 50 to 80 hairs per day are lost.
  53. 53. Oral cavity • Lips • Tongue • Palate • Retromolar trigone • Floor of mouth • Buccal mucosa • Gingiva
  54. 54. • Hard palate:- The bony front portion of the roof of the mouth. • Soft palate:- The muscular back portion of the roof of the mouth. • Retromolar trigone:- The area behind the wisdom teeth. • Floor of the mouth:- Under the tongue. • Buccal mucosa:- The innrer lining of lips and cheeks. • Gingiva:- Gums.
  55. 55. Structure of Tooth A healthy tooth can broadly be described in three parts:- a) Crown:- It is the part of tooth which is visible above the gum (gengiva). b) Neck:- The region of the tooth that is at the gum line, connecting the root and crown. c) Root:- It anchors the tooth within the gum. It lies below gum line and is not visible outside.
  56. 56. Common problems associated with oral cavity 1. Sensitive tooth 2. Bleeding gum 3. Periodontitis 4. Dental cavities / Tooth decay 5. Discoloured / Yellow tooth 6. Tartar 7. Bad breath
  57. 57. 1.Sensitive tooth:- • The sensitive nerves of tooth are covered by a layer called Dentin. • Dentin may become exposed to factors such as receding gums or gum disease, overzealous brushing, tooth whitening products. • Once the dentin exposure happens, a person can experience irritation or pain from eating foods that are hot or cold. • Even breathing in cold air can also cause pain, this condition is termed as tooth sensitivity.
  58. 58. 2. Bleeding gums:- • They are usually caused by inadequate plaque removal. • Plaque contains germs which attack the healthy tissue around the teeth. • This will further cause the gums to become inflamed and irritated, which will finally cause them to bleed while brushing. • This is also called gingivitis and it is the first stage of gum disease. • Poor oral hygiene, vitamin C deficiency can also cause this condition.
  59. 59. 3. Periodontitis:- • The accumulated plaque will eventually cause the gums to separate and recede from the teeth if not removed. • Germs can easily get trapped inside these pockets and attacks the gums and bone which is supporting the teeth. • Plaque will further harden into tartar and gingivitis has further progressed into more serious condition called periodontitis. • Periodontitis can further cause tooth loss and may affect overall health.
  60. 60. 4. Tooth decay:- • When plaque forms on tooth, it secretes acids resulting in stickiness and adhere to the tooth. It further attacks enamel. • If the plaque is not removed, it can damage the tooth enamel. • This condition is termed as tooth decay and if it is untreated it will results in cavities or small holes on teeth. • It is basically caused by improper brushing or failure to brush regularly and also results due to smoking and consuming sugary foods. • Lack of fluoride also contribute to dental decay.
  61. 61. 5. Discoloured / Yellow tooth:- • Basically they are two types:- 1. Extrinsic discoloration:- It occurs in the outer layer of tooth called enamel, enamel stains can range from white streaks to yellow tints or brown spots. 2. Intrinsic discolouration:- It occurs in the inner structure of tooth called dentin, this can range from yellow to gray tint.
  62. 62. • Some of the major causes are  Food/Drinks.  Smoking/Chewing tobacco.  Inadequate brushing to remove plaque and stains by plaque.  Ageing.  Genetics.  Excessive usage of fluoride.
  63. 63. 6. Tartar:- • It is usually plaque that is hardened on teeth also known as dental calculus. • It can also form beneath the gums and can irritate gum tissues. • It gives plaque more surface area to grow. • In long term it causes a yellowish to brown discoloration on tooth. • As tarter is hardened on teeth, it cannot be removed by simple brushing and has to be mechanically removed by dental professionals.
  64. 64. 7. Bad breath:- • It is medically called as halitosis. • It is an unpleasant odour generated by the mouth caused due to poor oral hygiene or remained food particles or gum disease. • Bacteria living in our mouth can breakdown proteins and release bad smelling sulphur waste. This can be further worsen by proteins found in coatings of our mouth and in diets. • Bad breath can be caused or worsen by food, tobacco, dry mouth, pregnancy, certain medications and poor oral hygiene.
  65. 65. Types of smell:- • A cheesy smell usually indicates that bad breath due to nasal infection. • A fruity smell may indicate uncontrolled diabetes due to increased sugar level. • A fishy smell may indicate kidney disease (increased urea level can cause fishy smell). • An acidic smell can be sign of asthma or cystic fibrosis. • A sweet, musty smell may signal liver cirrhosis. • A faecal odour may point out bowel obstruction.
  66. 66. THANK YOU

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