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Lecture #2

Cultural Branding
in Practice
7.11.2009, Cultural Branding course
University of Lapland




Henri Weijo guest lecture
Aalto Media Factory
Agenda for today
•  Quick recap of yesterday
•  Introducing cultural branding
•  How it works
•  How it relates to the other branding
   models
•  How the 4 models work together
•  Hybrid branding strategies
So yesterday…
•  We learned about the birth of branding
•  We learned about how branding became
   a strategic function
•  Mind-share branding
•  Emotional branding
•  Viral branding
•  So now on to cultural branding
Cultural
Branding
Introducing cultural branding
•  Put together and formally
   introduced by Douglas Holt in
   his 2004 book “How Brands
   Become Icons”
•  The themes and thinking had
   been developed academic
   articles before this, though
   (Holt’s and others’)
•  To a certain degree a
   culmination of the rise of CCT
   thinking in marketing
What is “culture”?
•  excellence of taste in the fine arts and
   humanities, also known as high culture
•  an integrated pattern of human
   knowledge, belief, and behavior that
   depends upon the capacity for symbolic
   thought and social learning
•  the set of shared attitudes, values, goals,
   and practices that characterizes an
   institution, organization or group.
What is “culture”?
•  excellence of taste in the fine arts and
   humanities, also known as high culture
•  an integrated pattern of human
   knowledge, belief, and behavior that
   depends upon the capacity for
   symbolic thought and social learning
•  the set of shared attitudes, values,
   goals, and practices that characterizes
   an institution, organization or group.
Cultural icons
•  The goal of cultural
   branding is to build the
   brand into a cultural icon
•  An icon is a symbol of an
   ideal that people hold in
   considerable esteem
•  Other than brands,
   politicians, movies, books,
   photographs and even
   events can have iconic
   value
The thinking behind it
•  “Anthropologists have always
   known we live in an experience
   economy,” (Sherry) explains. “All
   consumption is about experience.
   And once you take that view,
   products are not simply tools or
   benefits or practical utilitarian     John Sherry Jr.

   kinds of things, but they’re really
   more about meaning. They’re the
   way people create meaning and
   transform meaning and so forth.”
Identity brands
•  The cultural branding model is
   intended for branding mostly
   identity categories
•  Identity brands = value of
   products as a means of self-
   expression
•  Products such as clothing,
   home decor, beauty, leisure,
   entertainment, automotive,
   food, and beverage etc. 
   “ego-expressive products”
Identity brands
•  Identity goods are a subset of
   symbolic goods, significantly
   different from substantive
   products (Khalil 2000)
•  Symbolic products enhance the
   sense of self-regard, substantive
   products relate to personal
   welfare
•  Most products combine elements
   of both symbolic and substantive
   products (Hogg & Mitchell 1996)
Identity brands
•  Brands, products and styles provide a
   tangible method of meaning
   transference for consumers who seek to
   both fit in to peer groups and express
   individuality (Tuten 2007)
•  Consumers feel their identity-building
   projects are intense “personal quests”,
   but in truth similar quests are shared by
   many in the population (Holt 2004, p. 6)
Brand meaning
•  Brands are historical artifacts moving
   through time and carriers of meaning (Holt
   2004, p. 1-4, 38)
•  Brand meaning is a result of collective
   interpretations by multiple stakeholders
   over numerous historical moments (Hatch &
   Rubin 2005)
•  Many of the assumptions in the other
   branding models don’t take historical and
   cultural context into account
The gist of Holt’s criticism
•  “Timeless consistency" can be impossible
   to attain, same for controlling a brand
   identity
•  The idea is to align the brand with the right
   identity myth in a credible and appealing
   way in its marketing communication ( Holt
   2004, p. 11, 214-215)
•  Brands respond to changes by “speaking
   again” in new contexts, and adapt old
   meanings to new circumstances
Identity myths?

    “imaginative stories and
  images that selectively draw
 on history as source material,
 which function to continually
   re-imagine and vitalize the
       nation’s ideology”
Joseph Campbell and myths
           •  Campbell states that myths
              have universal appeal
           •  Monomyth theory =
              important myths from
              around the world which
              have survived for
              thousands of years all
              share a fundamental
              structure
           •  Used a lot in storytelling,
              even Hollywood
More on identity myths
•  Myths define culture by expressing its
   shared emotions and ideals (Solomon et al.
   1999, p. 447)
•  People feel anxieties when their personal
   life experiences and realities are in conflict
   with what the national ideology expects of
   them (Holt 2004, p. 45, 57, 210-213)
•  People’s identification with an identity myth
   is dependent on how well it soothes
   people’s anxieties in their personal identity
   building projects
Common anxieties
• people’s ambitions at work
• gender roles and sexuality
• their dreams for their children
• their fears of technology
• college graduation
• retirement
• mid-life crisis
• “the construction, maintenance and dissolution
  of key life roles that significantly alters one’s
  concept of self”
(Holt 2004, p. 212; Fournier 1998)
Can you think of any anxieties
that are specific to Finland?

What about myths that soothe
them?
How brands soothe anxieties
•  Carriers of identity myths offer relief
   through ritualistic consumption of the
   product/text/brand
•  Brands are special, because even if they
   aren’t as affective as e.g. movies, they
   enable ritual and frequent consumption
•  For example, by wearing a t-shirt of a
   certain myth, the myth is “transferred” to
   the person  in Finnish: “vaatteet on mun
   aatteet”
Probably the most famous example:
Star Wars as a soother of post-Vietnam
anxiety in America
Brands and identity myths
•  A brand’s strength is dependent on how
   well a brand encapsulates an identity
   myth and how strongly people identify
   with that myth
•  The brand manager’s role = to look back
   and understand the brand’s “genealogy”
   and match it fit the proper identity myth
•  Note: Holt’s view is a tad US-centric, more
   on that in the last lecture
Populist worlds
•  The “place” where the identity myth
   resides and gives it its legitimacy and
   cultural appeal
•  Usually in the fringes of society (punks,
   hippies, bikers, gays, extreme athletes
   etc.)
•  People feel drawn to them when they
   notice that the populist world has an
   “answer” for an anxiety
Populist worlds
•  The brand must “earn” a place in the
   populist world if it wants to credibly
   portray the myth
•  The insiders who live in the populist
   world determine the brand’s (and other
   people’s) worthiness to claim
   membership in the populist world
Three constituencies
•  Insiders - legitimize the brand as an icon for the
   populist world
•  Followers – enthusiastic fans of the brand, not
   members of the populist world
•  Feeders – opportunistic bandwagoners of the
   brand’s identity value, the vast majority of
   consumers and were attracted by followers
•  The brand must keep the insiders happy, or at
   least tolerant of the brand’s presence in the
   world  the insiders are the real target audience
•  If the brand manages this, the followers and
   feeders will follow
... (2) which will                               1. Keep these guys
attract a following for                          happy, or at least
the brand…                                       tolerant of the brand
                                                 by defending the
                                                 populist world and its
                                                 ethos




                     ... (3) and the rest will
                     follow
How do you keep the insiders happy?

•  The brand must show two things:
  –  literacy – a understanding of the populist world’s
     rules, idioms, and codes (Holt 2004, p. 65).
  –  fidelity - to the populist world it draws from, and
     sacrifice short term financial gains to gain
     authenticity (Holt 2004, p. 89)
•  “Harmony between good and
   world” (McCracken 1986)
•  Without legitimacy, a brand’s marketing strategy
   will not resonate with the target audience (Tuten
   2007)
Case: Harley Davidson
•  Probably the most
   analyzed case in all
   of branding  has
   been featured as a
   case of all branding
   models
•  The most
   comprehensive case
   in Holt’s book
So to recap…
•  Brands are carriers of meaning
•  Some brands become iconic by
   encapsulating a powerful ideal
•  The most successful brands have been
   rooted into very relevant populist worlds
•  The key is to manage this link to the
   populist world by showing respect to the
   people living “in” the populist world
How the branding
models fit together
The branding models are connected

•  Each model represents and evolutionary
   step in the marketplace, consumers,
   brand & marketing thinking and overall
   progress in management
•  Tougher competition has driven the
   models in different product categories
•  That doesn’t mean they can’t or shouldn’t
   be used together, because they’re
   intended for different purposes
•  “Hybrid branding strategies”
Conceptual differences
•  Branding and brand management as
   disciplines are changing really fast
•  It’s important to stop every now and then
   and do sort of a status check
•  Talking about different things with the
   same concepts can’t be good for
   strategic planning
•  “When you say ‘brand’ you mean…”
Key concepts in branding
•  Brand: a distinguishable entity that provides value for
   both companies and consumers
•  Branding: the pursuit to differentiate one producer’s
   products from another
•  Brand management: the choices related to an
   organization’s attempts to influence brands it controls
•  Consumer: single actor who can be considered to be in
   the sphere of influence of a brand
•  Competitive environment: any other instances outside
   the company’s control
•  Note: branding != brand management!
Brand
•  The common ground for all models:
   1.  something that provides value for both the company and
       consumers
   2.  a brand helps a company differentiate its products from other
       products
•  The biggest differences come from what kind of
   “value” brands provide to consumers
•  Note: I did NOT evaluate product categories with
   brands, I took Holt’s definition as given
Brand (cont.)
•  Mind-share: value is consumers' awareness and the
   presence in their minds
•  For companies, the value is the so-called "product+"
   notion of brand equity
•  “How much can we charge on top of a similar generic
   product?”

•  Emotional: mind-share notion of equity + the "story" of
   the brand and its emotiveness
•  The “emotional brand” is not tied to (abstract)
   associations, but more complex emotions and desires
Brand (cont.)
•  Viral branding: brand equity = the discussion around
   the brand + the devotion of its consumers
•  Consumers are, in essence, the brand’s equity!
•  EXAMPLE: consumers rejecting Snapple or Airwalk?

•  Cultural branding: brand equity = the brand's cultural
   heritage + the brand's current cultural position + the
   populist world’s cultural value +/- the other cultural
   products fighting for space in the same cultural market
Brand (conclusions)
•  Mind-share: The equity of a brand is its associations
   and their strength!
•  Emotional: Yes, but instead of associations, let’s say
   emotions, because emotions are deeper!
•  Viral: Emotions result in actions, so equity is really
   about how people act on the brand’s behalf
•  Cultural: Yes, but it’s culture that shapes our social
   interactions, so it’s really the brand’s and its
   consumers’ cultural standing that define equity (and
   emotions, and actions)!
Branding
•  The biggest differences relate to the notion of control
•  Mind-share sees branding as a very controllable
   function, and managers should never "let go" of the
   reins (to retailers, subsidiaries etc.)
•  Just make sure the visuals, tone of voice etc. are
   consistent, and you’re OK!

•  Emotional is mind-share + slight acknowledgement
   that consumers have power (+ how to work around it)
•  Pepper everything with the brand’s story! And I do
   mean everything.
Branding (cont.)
•  Viral: brands are out of control, so let’s embrace it!
•  Viral is about making sure that consumers have
   something to talk about + have the channels to do so

•  Cultural: control is based on initiative and
   understanding "what” the brand is
•  The brand's cultural heritage and its constituencies
   give you little room to operate, but if you have shown
   literacy and fidelity towards what the brand stands for,
   the consumers will let you lead (for now)
Branding (cont.)
•  Viral & emotional both stress small details and
   consumer touch points where they can experience the
   brand
•  For viral, it’s about creating topics of discussion (don’t
   be afraid to be original, even weird!)
•  For emotional, it’s about having more entry points to
   feature the brand
•  Storytelling: emotional tells you how a story should be
   told at different touch points (design), cultural tells
   you what kind of story should be told and to whom,
   viral tells you how the story spreads (channels)
Brand management
•  My focus was on how strategic brand management
   (and branding) were seen and how it relates to the
   organization
•  Is it just tactics or strategic thinking?
•  Mind-share: brand management is a top level
   function, heavily coordinated
•  Emotional: brand management is managing the
   details, the whole organization must embody the
   "story"
Brand management (cont.)
•  Viral: "viral is an addition to the toolbox”
•  But then again the model calls for building products
   that will create buzz, so which is it?
•  Also, viral calls for transparency and an overhaul in
   employee training and rewarding
•  Viral branding's problem: it hasn't been collected into
   a single discipline yet, it's very scattered at the
   moment. Lack of academic writing hurts.
•  Cultural: brand management is a consumer
   management and communications issue
•  Faarquah (1994) “Branding is more than
   communication!)
Brand management (concl.)
•  Holt (2004): Iconic brands are strong brands if you
   measure them with mind-share, emotional and viral
   standards  “ante to the market”
•  So if the basis for all models is mind-share, and mind-
   share is strategic, aren’t they all strategic?
•  Not necessarily. E.g. proponents of Total Marketing
   call for all sections of the company to be considered
   marketing. “Strategic” is thus a question of degree.
•  Emotional, viral & cultural all call for making the
   brand seem scarce and limiting short term sales to not
   hurt the long term. That’s strategic!
Competitive Environment
•  Competitive advantages are quickly copied
•  “Only branding can provide competitive advantage
   anymore” (take this with a grain of salt, though)

•  Emotional: (visual) branding is now even more
   important because of globalization  images and
   experiences work better in different markets
•  Emotional: quality and logistics have been
   commoditized (Pine & Gilmore 1999)
•  Emotional & viral: Market information is nearing
   perfect, people can sniff out the best deals
Competitive Environment
•  Christopher (1996): "Consumer sophistication and
   advertising's declining impact are two of the biggest
   changes that have impacted the marketplace”
•  Arms race advertising: once one medium has been
   saturated and clogged, advertisers look for the next,
   e.g. Holt (2002) "Why do brands cause trouble?”
•  Viral was born as a result of traditional advertising
   losing its efficiency. Much of this is overstated, though
•  Cultural: your competitors are not only in the same
   product category, but also different fields altogether!
   (movies, books, films, politicians)
Brand building process (1/3)
1. Mind-share: put in place the brand organization, the
   thinking, the initial core promise, and the tangible
   brand elements. Emphasis strategic nature of brand
   building in organization.
2. Emotional: add more layers to the brand and take a
   heavy emphasis in sensorial elements of the brand and
   the brand’s experiential elements especially in retail
   environments. Make the brand “smashable”, so that the
   brand can be identified even from the tiniest bit
   (Lindstrom 2003)
Brand building process (2/3)
3. Viral: consumers should be able to pick up the brand
   they’ve just smashed and give new meaning to it.
   Crucial in online environments, where all brand
   elements need to be interactive and shareable. The
   brand’s communications need to become two-way
   channels for dialogue.
4. Cultural: work hard to get the right kind of consumers
   to give the brand meaning and be proactive in shaping
   the brand to become culturally relevant in the hands of
   storytellers as well. Monitor changes in brand meaning
   and try to guide this evolution to the right direction.
Brand building process (3/3)
Example:
Cultural branding
Emotional branding
Emotional branding
What about that “other” culture?
•  excellence of taste in the fine arts and
   humanities, also known as high culture
•  an integrated pattern of human
   knowledge, belief, and behavior that
   depends upon the capacity for symbolic
   thought and social learning
•  the set of shared attitudes, values, goals,
   and practices that characterizes an
   institution, organization or group

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Introduction to Cultural Branding and How it Relatos to Past Branding Models

  • 1. Lecture #2 Cultural Branding in Practice 7.11.2009, Cultural Branding course University of Lapland Henri Weijo guest lecture Aalto Media Factory
  • 2. Agenda for today •  Quick recap of yesterday •  Introducing cultural branding •  How it works •  How it relates to the other branding models •  How the 4 models work together •  Hybrid branding strategies
  • 3. So yesterday… •  We learned about the birth of branding •  We learned about how branding became a strategic function •  Mind-share branding •  Emotional branding •  Viral branding •  So now on to cultural branding
  • 5. Introducing cultural branding •  Put together and formally introduced by Douglas Holt in his 2004 book “How Brands Become Icons” •  The themes and thinking had been developed academic articles before this, though (Holt’s and others’) •  To a certain degree a culmination of the rise of CCT thinking in marketing
  • 6.
  • 7.
  • 8. What is “culture”? •  excellence of taste in the fine arts and humanities, also known as high culture •  an integrated pattern of human knowledge, belief, and behavior that depends upon the capacity for symbolic thought and social learning •  the set of shared attitudes, values, goals, and practices that characterizes an institution, organization or group.
  • 9. What is “culture”? •  excellence of taste in the fine arts and humanities, also known as high culture •  an integrated pattern of human knowledge, belief, and behavior that depends upon the capacity for symbolic thought and social learning •  the set of shared attitudes, values, goals, and practices that characterizes an institution, organization or group.
  • 10. Cultural icons •  The goal of cultural branding is to build the brand into a cultural icon •  An icon is a symbol of an ideal that people hold in considerable esteem •  Other than brands, politicians, movies, books, photographs and even events can have iconic value
  • 11.
  • 12.
  • 13.
  • 14.
  • 15.
  • 16. The thinking behind it •  “Anthropologists have always known we live in an experience economy,” (Sherry) explains. “All consumption is about experience. And once you take that view, products are not simply tools or benefits or practical utilitarian John Sherry Jr.
 kinds of things, but they’re really more about meaning. They’re the way people create meaning and transform meaning and so forth.”
  • 17. Identity brands •  The cultural branding model is intended for branding mostly identity categories •  Identity brands = value of products as a means of self- expression •  Products such as clothing, home decor, beauty, leisure, entertainment, automotive, food, and beverage etc.  “ego-expressive products”
  • 18. Identity brands •  Identity goods are a subset of symbolic goods, significantly different from substantive products (Khalil 2000) •  Symbolic products enhance the sense of self-regard, substantive products relate to personal welfare •  Most products combine elements of both symbolic and substantive products (Hogg & Mitchell 1996)
  • 19. Identity brands •  Brands, products and styles provide a tangible method of meaning transference for consumers who seek to both fit in to peer groups and express individuality (Tuten 2007) •  Consumers feel their identity-building projects are intense “personal quests”, but in truth similar quests are shared by many in the population (Holt 2004, p. 6)
  • 20. Brand meaning •  Brands are historical artifacts moving through time and carriers of meaning (Holt 2004, p. 1-4, 38) •  Brand meaning is a result of collective interpretations by multiple stakeholders over numerous historical moments (Hatch & Rubin 2005) •  Many of the assumptions in the other branding models don’t take historical and cultural context into account
  • 21. The gist of Holt’s criticism •  “Timeless consistency" can be impossible to attain, same for controlling a brand identity •  The idea is to align the brand with the right identity myth in a credible and appealing way in its marketing communication ( Holt 2004, p. 11, 214-215) •  Brands respond to changes by “speaking again” in new contexts, and adapt old meanings to new circumstances
  • 22. Identity myths? “imaginative stories and images that selectively draw on history as source material, which function to continually re-imagine and vitalize the nation’s ideology”
  • 23.
  • 24.
  • 25. Joseph Campbell and myths •  Campbell states that myths have universal appeal •  Monomyth theory = important myths from around the world which have survived for thousands of years all share a fundamental structure •  Used a lot in storytelling, even Hollywood
  • 26. More on identity myths •  Myths define culture by expressing its shared emotions and ideals (Solomon et al. 1999, p. 447) •  People feel anxieties when their personal life experiences and realities are in conflict with what the national ideology expects of them (Holt 2004, p. 45, 57, 210-213) •  People’s identification with an identity myth is dependent on how well it soothes people’s anxieties in their personal identity building projects
  • 27. Common anxieties • people’s ambitions at work • gender roles and sexuality • their dreams for their children • their fears of technology • college graduation • retirement • mid-life crisis • “the construction, maintenance and dissolution of key life roles that significantly alters one’s concept of self” (Holt 2004, p. 212; Fournier 1998)
  • 28. Can you think of any anxieties that are specific to Finland? What about myths that soothe them?
  • 29.
  • 30. How brands soothe anxieties •  Carriers of identity myths offer relief through ritualistic consumption of the product/text/brand •  Brands are special, because even if they aren’t as affective as e.g. movies, they enable ritual and frequent consumption •  For example, by wearing a t-shirt of a certain myth, the myth is “transferred” to the person  in Finnish: “vaatteet on mun aatteet”
  • 31. Probably the most famous example: Star Wars as a soother of post-Vietnam anxiety in America
  • 32. Brands and identity myths •  A brand’s strength is dependent on how well a brand encapsulates an identity myth and how strongly people identify with that myth •  The brand manager’s role = to look back and understand the brand’s “genealogy” and match it fit the proper identity myth •  Note: Holt’s view is a tad US-centric, more on that in the last lecture
  • 33. Populist worlds •  The “place” where the identity myth resides and gives it its legitimacy and cultural appeal •  Usually in the fringes of society (punks, hippies, bikers, gays, extreme athletes etc.) •  People feel drawn to them when they notice that the populist world has an “answer” for an anxiety
  • 34. Populist worlds •  The brand must “earn” a place in the populist world if it wants to credibly portray the myth •  The insiders who live in the populist world determine the brand’s (and other people’s) worthiness to claim membership in the populist world
  • 35.
  • 36. Three constituencies •  Insiders - legitimize the brand as an icon for the populist world •  Followers – enthusiastic fans of the brand, not members of the populist world •  Feeders – opportunistic bandwagoners of the brand’s identity value, the vast majority of consumers and were attracted by followers •  The brand must keep the insiders happy, or at least tolerant of the brand’s presence in the world  the insiders are the real target audience •  If the brand manages this, the followers and feeders will follow
  • 37. ... (2) which will 1. Keep these guys attract a following for happy, or at least the brand… tolerant of the brand by defending the populist world and its ethos ... (3) and the rest will follow
  • 38. How do you keep the insiders happy? •  The brand must show two things: –  literacy – a understanding of the populist world’s rules, idioms, and codes (Holt 2004, p. 65). –  fidelity - to the populist world it draws from, and sacrifice short term financial gains to gain authenticity (Holt 2004, p. 89) •  “Harmony between good and world” (McCracken 1986) •  Without legitimacy, a brand’s marketing strategy will not resonate with the target audience (Tuten 2007)
  • 39. Case: Harley Davidson •  Probably the most analyzed case in all of branding  has been featured as a case of all branding models •  The most comprehensive case in Holt’s book
  • 40.
  • 41.
  • 42.
  • 43.
  • 44.
  • 45.
  • 46.
  • 47.
  • 48. So to recap… •  Brands are carriers of meaning •  Some brands become iconic by encapsulating a powerful ideal •  The most successful brands have been rooted into very relevant populist worlds •  The key is to manage this link to the populist world by showing respect to the people living “in” the populist world
  • 49. How the branding models fit together
  • 50. The branding models are connected •  Each model represents and evolutionary step in the marketplace, consumers, brand & marketing thinking and overall progress in management •  Tougher competition has driven the models in different product categories •  That doesn’t mean they can’t or shouldn’t be used together, because they’re intended for different purposes •  “Hybrid branding strategies”
  • 51. Conceptual differences •  Branding and brand management as disciplines are changing really fast •  It’s important to stop every now and then and do sort of a status check •  Talking about different things with the same concepts can’t be good for strategic planning •  “When you say ‘brand’ you mean…”
  • 52.
  • 53. Key concepts in branding •  Brand: a distinguishable entity that provides value for both companies and consumers •  Branding: the pursuit to differentiate one producer’s products from another •  Brand management: the choices related to an organization’s attempts to influence brands it controls •  Consumer: single actor who can be considered to be in the sphere of influence of a brand •  Competitive environment: any other instances outside the company’s control •  Note: branding != brand management!
  • 54. Brand •  The common ground for all models: 1.  something that provides value for both the company and consumers 2.  a brand helps a company differentiate its products from other products •  The biggest differences come from what kind of “value” brands provide to consumers •  Note: I did NOT evaluate product categories with brands, I took Holt’s definition as given
  • 55. Brand (cont.) •  Mind-share: value is consumers' awareness and the presence in their minds •  For companies, the value is the so-called "product+" notion of brand equity •  “How much can we charge on top of a similar generic product?” •  Emotional: mind-share notion of equity + the "story" of the brand and its emotiveness •  The “emotional brand” is not tied to (abstract) associations, but more complex emotions and desires
  • 56. Brand (cont.) •  Viral branding: brand equity = the discussion around the brand + the devotion of its consumers •  Consumers are, in essence, the brand’s equity! •  EXAMPLE: consumers rejecting Snapple or Airwalk? •  Cultural branding: brand equity = the brand's cultural heritage + the brand's current cultural position + the populist world’s cultural value +/- the other cultural products fighting for space in the same cultural market
  • 57. Brand (conclusions) •  Mind-share: The equity of a brand is its associations and their strength! •  Emotional: Yes, but instead of associations, let’s say emotions, because emotions are deeper! •  Viral: Emotions result in actions, so equity is really about how people act on the brand’s behalf •  Cultural: Yes, but it’s culture that shapes our social interactions, so it’s really the brand’s and its consumers’ cultural standing that define equity (and emotions, and actions)!
  • 58. Branding •  The biggest differences relate to the notion of control •  Mind-share sees branding as a very controllable function, and managers should never "let go" of the reins (to retailers, subsidiaries etc.) •  Just make sure the visuals, tone of voice etc. are consistent, and you’re OK! •  Emotional is mind-share + slight acknowledgement that consumers have power (+ how to work around it) •  Pepper everything with the brand’s story! And I do mean everything.
  • 59. Branding (cont.) •  Viral: brands are out of control, so let’s embrace it! •  Viral is about making sure that consumers have something to talk about + have the channels to do so •  Cultural: control is based on initiative and understanding "what” the brand is •  The brand's cultural heritage and its constituencies give you little room to operate, but if you have shown literacy and fidelity towards what the brand stands for, the consumers will let you lead (for now)
  • 60. Branding (cont.) •  Viral & emotional both stress small details and consumer touch points where they can experience the brand •  For viral, it’s about creating topics of discussion (don’t be afraid to be original, even weird!) •  For emotional, it’s about having more entry points to feature the brand •  Storytelling: emotional tells you how a story should be told at different touch points (design), cultural tells you what kind of story should be told and to whom, viral tells you how the story spreads (channels)
  • 61. Brand management •  My focus was on how strategic brand management (and branding) were seen and how it relates to the organization •  Is it just tactics or strategic thinking? •  Mind-share: brand management is a top level function, heavily coordinated •  Emotional: brand management is managing the details, the whole organization must embody the "story"
  • 62. Brand management (cont.) •  Viral: "viral is an addition to the toolbox” •  But then again the model calls for building products that will create buzz, so which is it? •  Also, viral calls for transparency and an overhaul in employee training and rewarding •  Viral branding's problem: it hasn't been collected into a single discipline yet, it's very scattered at the moment. Lack of academic writing hurts. •  Cultural: brand management is a consumer management and communications issue •  Faarquah (1994) “Branding is more than communication!)
  • 63. Brand management (concl.) •  Holt (2004): Iconic brands are strong brands if you measure them with mind-share, emotional and viral standards  “ante to the market” •  So if the basis for all models is mind-share, and mind- share is strategic, aren’t they all strategic? •  Not necessarily. E.g. proponents of Total Marketing call for all sections of the company to be considered marketing. “Strategic” is thus a question of degree. •  Emotional, viral & cultural all call for making the brand seem scarce and limiting short term sales to not hurt the long term. That’s strategic!
  • 64. Competitive Environment •  Competitive advantages are quickly copied •  “Only branding can provide competitive advantage anymore” (take this with a grain of salt, though) •  Emotional: (visual) branding is now even more important because of globalization  images and experiences work better in different markets •  Emotional: quality and logistics have been commoditized (Pine & Gilmore 1999) •  Emotional & viral: Market information is nearing perfect, people can sniff out the best deals
  • 65. Competitive Environment •  Christopher (1996): "Consumer sophistication and advertising's declining impact are two of the biggest changes that have impacted the marketplace” •  Arms race advertising: once one medium has been saturated and clogged, advertisers look for the next, e.g. Holt (2002) "Why do brands cause trouble?” •  Viral was born as a result of traditional advertising losing its efficiency. Much of this is overstated, though •  Cultural: your competitors are not only in the same product category, but also different fields altogether! (movies, books, films, politicians)
  • 66. Brand building process (1/3) 1. Mind-share: put in place the brand organization, the thinking, the initial core promise, and the tangible brand elements. Emphasis strategic nature of brand building in organization. 2. Emotional: add more layers to the brand and take a heavy emphasis in sensorial elements of the brand and the brand’s experiential elements especially in retail environments. Make the brand “smashable”, so that the brand can be identified even from the tiniest bit (Lindstrom 2003)
  • 67. Brand building process (2/3) 3. Viral: consumers should be able to pick up the brand they’ve just smashed and give new meaning to it. Crucial in online environments, where all brand elements need to be interactive and shareable. The brand’s communications need to become two-way channels for dialogue. 4. Cultural: work hard to get the right kind of consumers to give the brand meaning and be proactive in shaping the brand to become culturally relevant in the hands of storytellers as well. Monitor changes in brand meaning and try to guide this evolution to the right direction.
  • 73. What about that “other” culture? •  excellence of taste in the fine arts and humanities, also known as high culture •  an integrated pattern of human knowledge, belief, and behavior that depends upon the capacity for symbolic thought and social learning •  the set of shared attitudes, values, goals, and practices that characterizes an institution, organization or group