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Thomas Kuhn & Paradigms (By Kris Haamer)

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Thomas Kuhn & Paradigms (By Kris Haamer)

  1. 1. By Kris Haamer “Paradigms & Thomas Kuhn” How is Science Done?
  2. 2. “Paradigms & Thomas Kuhn” How is Science Done?
  3. 3. “Paradigms & Thomas Kuhn” How is Science Done?Thomas Kuhn (1922 – 1996)• Physicist and Philosopher• Harvard Ph.D in Physics• Guggenheim Fellow• Professor at • Berkeley, Princeton, MIT
  4. 4. “Paradigms & Thomas Kuhn” How is Science Done?Kuhn’s Legacy• The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (1962)• Devised the ideas of Normal Science, Paradigms and Paradigm Shifts• Influenced virtually all of philosophy of science after him
  5. 5. “Paradigms & Thomas Kuhn” How is Science Done?Kuhn: Paradigms are “Universallyrecognized scientific achievementsthat for a time provide modelproblems and solutions to acommunity of practitioners.”
  6. 6. “Paradigms & Thomas Kuhn” How is Science Done?Paradigm: Facts seen in a particular way
  7. 7. “Paradigms & Thomas Kuhn” How is Science Done?Paradigm Shifts1. Facts are discovered2. Different theories try to explain facts, compete for leading position3. One generally accepted theory becomes the paradigm, normal science follows4. Crisis – new facts and / or theories create the need for a new paradigm
  8. 8. “Paradigms & Thomas Kuhn” How is Science Done?Discovery: Scientists are always on the lookout for some new facts
  9. 9. “Paradigms & Thomas Kuhn” How is Science Done?Theory: One group of scientists creates a theory that explains some of the facts
  10. 10. “Paradigms & Thomas Kuhn” How is Science Done?Acceptance: It seems to many scientists the theory works – it becomes a paradigm
  11. 11. “Paradigms & Thomas Kuhn” How is Science Done?Scientists become stuck in the paradigm – Normal Science
  12. 12. “Paradigms & Thomas Kuhn” How is Science Done?Crisis: Someone recognizes the paradigm no longer explains experimental data
  13. 13. “Paradigms & Thomas Kuhn” How is Science Done?New Paradigm: One group with a convincing theory starts building a new paradigm
  14. 14. “Paradigms & Thomas Kuhn” How is Science Done?Confrontation: Proponents of the previous paradigm try to maintain and polish it
  15. 15. “Paradigms & Thomas Kuhn” How is Science Done?Confrontation: Someone tries to join the new and the old paradigm together
  16. 16. “Paradigms & Thomas Kuhn” How is Science Done?Better Paradigm: But eventually the better (or more accurate) paradigm wins out
  17. 17. “Paradigms & Thomas Kuhn” How is Science Done?Conclusions• Paradigms are a particular way of looking at facts and theories• More accurate consideration of facts and theories brings about paradigmatic shifts which enable scientists to see reality in a new light
  18. 18. Thank You!

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