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Chapter No. 6 Linear Motion Page 1
CHAPTER No. 6
KINEMATICS: LINEAR MOTION
6. Introduction:
6.1 Dynamics:
It is the branch of Applied Mechanics which deals with the analysis of the bodies in
motion. It is divided into two branches or parts:
a) Kinematics and
b) Kinetics
6.1.1 Kinematics:
It is the study of the motion of bodies without consideration of the causes of motion
such as mass of the body and forces acting on the body.
6.1.2 Kinetics:
It is the study of the motion of bodies with consideration of the causes of motion such
as mass of the body and forces acting on the body.
1. Introduction to various types of motions:
It covers the study of
1.1 Rectilinear Motion
1.2 Motion under Gravity
1.3 Relative Motion (without consideration of the forces producing the change in motion)
Before going to study the types of motion, it is very important to study some terminologies,
which are mentioned as below:
Chapter No. 6 Linear Motion Page 2
a) Force:
An external agency which causes change in the motion or in the state of the particle or body is
known as force.
Fig. a
The above figure shows the position of a ball due to application of a force F before and after
applies to it.
b) Motion:
The action of changing the position of a body is known as a motion.
c) Path:
The curve followed by a particle during its motion in space is known as the path. It can be
rectilinear (straight line) or curved.
d) Displacement (s):
If the body is moved from initial position A to final position B as shown in figure below then a
straight line distance AB is known as the displacement. So it is a movement of the particle from
initial point to final point measured along a straight line. Following figure shows that the body
may follow various paths to move from A to B but the shortest path or distance between A and B
is the displacement. Displacement is a vector quantity having magnitude and direction. Its S.I.
unit is metre (m).
Chapter No. 6 Linear Motion Page 3
Fig. 6.1
e) Velocity:
A velocity is defined as the rate of change of displacement with time.
V =
𝑑𝑠
𝑑𝑡
Also it is defined as the distance covered per unit time in the given direction.
V =
𝑠
𝑡
Its S.I. unit is metre/second (m/s); other units are km/hour or kmph. It is a vector quantity
having magnitude and direction.
f) Average Velocity:
It is defined as the ratio of the resultant displacement to the total time required to cover it.
Here resultant displacement is sum of velocities at different time.
Average Velocity =
𝑅𝑒𝑠𝑢𝑙𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡 𝐷𝑖𝑠𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑐𝑒𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡
𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑇𝑖𝑚𝑒 𝑇𝑎𝑘𝑒𝑛
g) Uniform Velocity:
If the velocity of a particle is constant in magnitude and direction with respect to time, then it is
known as uniform velocity i.e. equal distances are covered in equal time intervals.
Chapter No. 6 Linear Motion Page 4
h) Speed:
Speed is defined as the rate of covering the distance with respect to time irrespective of its
direction.
Speed =
Distance or lenght of path
Time Required
Speed is a scalar quantity. S.I. unit is m/s; other units are km/hour or kmph.
i) Acceleration:
Acceleration is defined as the rate of change of velocity with respective to time.
Acceleration =
Change in Velocity
Time
=
dv
dt
It is also a vector quantity having magnitude and direction. S.I. unit is m/sec2. Other unit is
cm/sec2
.
j) Retardation:
If velocity decreases with time, the acceleration becomes negative which is known as retardation
or deceleration.
k) Uniform Acceleration:
If the velocity of a body changes by equal magnitude in equal intervals continuously, the
acceleration is known as uniform acceleration or constant acceleration.
l) Variable Acceleration:
If the change in velocity per unite time is not constant in a continuous motion, then the
corresponding acceleration is known as variable acceleration.
Chapter No. 6 Linear Motion Page 5
2.1 Rectilinear Motion:
Motion of the particle along the straight line path is known as a rectilinear motion.
a) Uniformly Accelerated Rectilinear Motion
b) Motion Under Variable Acceleration ( as a function of time, velocity or displacement)
a) Motion with uniform acceleration:
Fig. 6.2
Following Figure 6.2 shows a particle in a straight line (rectilinear) motion, travelling a distance
‘s’ from A to B in time ‘t’.
S= displacement in m
u= initially velocity in m/s
v= final velocity in m/s
t= time required in sec.
The velocity is changes uniformly from ‘u’ to ‘v’ during time ‘t’. So the acceleration ‘a’ is
uniform or constant.
Equations of motion with uniform Acceleration:
1) Change in Velocity = (v-u) in time ‘t’
∴ Acceleration = a =
(v − u)
t
∴ at = v − u
Chapter No. 6 Linear Motion Page 6
∴ 𝐯 = 𝐮 + 𝐚𝐭 ------------- (1)
i.e. Final Velocity = Initial velocity + Change in Velocity
 ‘a’ is positive if velocity increases
 ‘a’ is negative if velocity decreases i.e. retardation acceleration
2) Average velocity =
(u+v)
2
∴ Distance Travelled = s = Average Velocity x time
∴ S =
(u+v)
2
x t
∴ S =
(u+(u+at))
2
x t
∴ S = 𝐮𝐭 +
𝟏
𝟐
𝐚𝐭 𝟐
---------- (2)
3) From equation v = u + at
Squaring both sides,
v2 = (u + at) 2
= u2 + 2uat + v2
= u2 + 2a (ut +
1
2
at2)
v2 = u2 + 2 as ------- (3)
Therefore the basic equations of rectilinear motion with uniform acceleration are
1) 𝐯 = 𝐮 + 𝐚𝐭
2) S = 𝐮𝐭 +
𝟏
𝟐
𝐚𝐭 𝟐
3) V2 = u2 + 2 as
2. MOTION UNDER GRAVITY
2.1 Gravitational Motion
1) Every body or a particle experiences a force of attraction of the earth. This force of
attraction is called as Gravitational force.
Chapter No. 6 Linear Motion Page 7
2) According to Newton’s second law of motion this force produces acceleration in the
body which is directed towards the center of the earth. This acceleration is known as
gravitational acceleration.
3) The distance travelled by the freely falling body is relatively very small on the surface of
the earth. So the gravitational acceleration .It is treated as constant which is denoted as
‘g’ and its value are assumed constant as 9.81 m/s2.
2.2 Freely Falling Body:
Following figure 6.3 shows a body or a particle P which falls freely down in the vertical
direction. It is under the action of a force of gravity only. Such a body is known as freely
falling body.
Fig. 6.3
The velocity of such a body increases uniformly from zero as it moves vertically downwards.
The change in the velocity is constant with respect to time. So the body is under constant
gravitational acceleration. Such rectilinear motion is known as motion under gravity with
constant gravitational acceleration.
Chapter No. 6 Linear Motion Page 8
2.3 Equations of Motion under Gravity:
The motion under gravity is a rectilinear motion with uniform acceleration. Therefore its
equation of motion can be obtained by substituting ‘g’ in place of ‘a’ in the three basic
equations of motion.
For freely falling body for vertically downward motion:
1) v = u + gt
2) S = ut +
1
2
gt2
3) V2 = u2 + 2 g s
For vertically upward motion:
1) v = u − gt
2) S = ut −
1
2
gt2
3) V2 = u2 - 2 g s
Sign Convention:
Acceleration due to gravity is considered as positive when body is moving downward and the
same is considered as negative when the body is moving upward.
3. MOTION UNDER VARIABLE ACCELERATION:
1) If the change in the velocity of the body is not constant w.r.t. time the motion has variable
acceleration.
2) For the study of such motion, the equation of motion should be given in terms of
displacement or velocity and acceleration and time.
3) Then the displacement, velocity and acceleration can be calculated by using two methods.
i) Differentiation Method
ii) Integration Method
i) Differentiation Method
The method is useful in finding velocity and acceleration if the equation of motion is
given in terms of displacement and time. First differentiation of this equation w.r.t
time gives the acceleration and second differentiation gives the acceleration.
Chapter No. 6 Linear Motion Page 9
e.g. if s= 4t3+ 3t2+ 2t+1 -------(1)
Then diff. eqn (1) w.r.t. time ‘t’
𝑑𝑠
𝑑𝑡
= v = 12 t2+ 6t+2 ------ (2)
Diff. eqn (2) w.r.t. time ‘t’
𝑑𝑣
𝑑𝑡
=
d
dt
(
ds
dt
) = a = 24 t + 6 ------ (3)
ii) Integration Method:
This method is useful when the equation of motion is given in terms of acceleration and time.
Successive integration of this equation w.r.t time gives the velocity and displacement in
terms of time.
e.g. if a = 24 t + 6 --------(1)
Integrating equation (1) w.r.t. time ‘t’
v = 12 t2+ 6t+2 +C1 -------- (2)
Again integrating equation (1) w.r.t. time ‘t’
s= 4t3+ 3t2+ 2t+1+C1t+ C2 ------- (6)
The constants of integration C1 and C2 can be calculated by applying initial conditions which
are given in the problem.
4. GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OF MOTION
A rectilinear motion can be studied graphically by plotting various curves of motion or
motion diagrams as listed below:
1) Displacement – Time Curve ( s-t curve)
2) Velocity – Time Curve ( v-t curve)
3) Acceleration– Time Curve ( a-t curve)
Chapter No. 6 Linear Motion Page 10
1) Displacement – Time Curve ( s-t curve):
i) Uniform Velocity:
Fig. 6.4.a
s-t curve for uniform velocity is a straight line giving constant slope as shown in Figure 6.4.a
Velocity = V = slope = tan θ = constant
ii) Variable Velocity:
Fig. 6.4.b
s-t curve for variable velocity is a curved line. The instantaneous velocity is given by slope of
the tangent to the curve as that instant as shown in Figure 6.4.b
𝑽 =
𝒅𝒔
𝒅𝒕
---------Where v = which varies from point to point
Chapter No. 6 Linear Motion Page 11
2) Velocity – Time Curve ( v-t curve)
i) Uniform Velocity:
Fig. 6.4.c
Area under v-t curve gives the distance travelled in the given time.
Distance travelled = s = v x t = Area under the curve (see hatched portion)
ii) Variable velocity (Uniform acceleration):
Fig. 6.4.d
Chapter No. 6 Linear Motion Page 12
For variable velocity, v-t curve is a straight line with constant slope if the acceleration is uniform
as shown in Figure 6.4.d above.
Acceleration = a = tan θ = slope
The area under the curve gives the distance covered. (See hatched portion)
Iii) Variable velocity (Variable acceleration):
Fig. 6.4.e
For variable acceleration, v-t curve is a curved line. So instantaneous acceleration is given by the
slope of curve at that instant as shown in Figure 6.4.e.
A =
𝒅𝒗
𝒅𝒕
= at instant t.
3) Acceleration– Time Curve ( a-t curve):
i) Uniform Acceleration:
A straight horizontal line on a-t curve shows uniform acceleration as shown in Figure
6.4.f. Area under this curve gives the change in velocity with respect to time.
Chapter No. 6 Linear Motion Page 13
Fig. 6.4.f
ii) Variable Acceleration:
Fig. 6.4.g
A curved line of a-t curve indicates the variable acceleration as shown in figure 6.4.g. Area under
this curve in a particular time interval gives the change in velocity in that interval of time.
Chapter No. 6 Linear Motion Page 14
5. CONCEPT OF RELATIVE MOTION:
6.1 Relative Velocity (Vr):
Definition:
When the distance between any two particles is changing either in magnitude or in direction
or in both, each particle is said to have motion or velocity relative to each other. Such velocity is
known as relative velocity (Vr) and the corresponding motion is known as relative motion.
i) If two particles A and B are in motion with the velocities Va and Vb respectively, then
the velocity of A as seen by observer placed on B is known as relative velocity of A
with respect to B.
ii) Similarly, the velocity of B as seen by observer on A is known as relative velocity of
B w.r.t. to A.
a) MOTION IN SAME DIRECTION:
If the two velocities are in the same direction such that Va > Vb as shown in figure 6.6.a then
the relative velocity Vr of A w.r.t. B is given by Vr= Va – Vb in the same direction.
Fig 6.6.a Fig 6.6.b
b) MOTION IN SAME DIRECTION:
If the two velocities are in the opposite direction as shown in figure 6.6.b then the relative
velocity is given by Vr= Va + Vb along the same line of motion.
Chapter No. 6 Linear Motion Page 15
DETERMINTION OF LEAST DISTANCE BETWEEN MOVING BODIES:
Velocities 𝑉𝑎 and 𝑉𝑏 of the two moving bodies A and B respectively are given at any instant.
The positions A and B are also known at the given instant so that distance 𝐴𝐵 is known.
The relative velocity of B w.r.t. A i.e.
Draw a perpendicular AC from A on
Knowing and angles and in ABC can be calculated.
Form right angled the least distance or the shortest distance between the two moving bodies
A and B is given by length AC = AB cos
= AB sin
Chapter No. 6 Linear Motion Page 16

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Chapter no. 6 linear mo

  • 1. Chapter No. 6 Linear Motion Page 1 CHAPTER No. 6 KINEMATICS: LINEAR MOTION 6. Introduction: 6.1 Dynamics: It is the branch of Applied Mechanics which deals with the analysis of the bodies in motion. It is divided into two branches or parts: a) Kinematics and b) Kinetics 6.1.1 Kinematics: It is the study of the motion of bodies without consideration of the causes of motion such as mass of the body and forces acting on the body. 6.1.2 Kinetics: It is the study of the motion of bodies with consideration of the causes of motion such as mass of the body and forces acting on the body. 1. Introduction to various types of motions: It covers the study of 1.1 Rectilinear Motion 1.2 Motion under Gravity 1.3 Relative Motion (without consideration of the forces producing the change in motion) Before going to study the types of motion, it is very important to study some terminologies, which are mentioned as below:
  • 2. Chapter No. 6 Linear Motion Page 2 a) Force: An external agency which causes change in the motion or in the state of the particle or body is known as force. Fig. a The above figure shows the position of a ball due to application of a force F before and after applies to it. b) Motion: The action of changing the position of a body is known as a motion. c) Path: The curve followed by a particle during its motion in space is known as the path. It can be rectilinear (straight line) or curved. d) Displacement (s): If the body is moved from initial position A to final position B as shown in figure below then a straight line distance AB is known as the displacement. So it is a movement of the particle from initial point to final point measured along a straight line. Following figure shows that the body may follow various paths to move from A to B but the shortest path or distance between A and B is the displacement. Displacement is a vector quantity having magnitude and direction. Its S.I. unit is metre (m).
  • 3. Chapter No. 6 Linear Motion Page 3 Fig. 6.1 e) Velocity: A velocity is defined as the rate of change of displacement with time. V = 𝑑𝑠 𝑑𝑡 Also it is defined as the distance covered per unit time in the given direction. V = 𝑠 𝑡 Its S.I. unit is metre/second (m/s); other units are km/hour or kmph. It is a vector quantity having magnitude and direction. f) Average Velocity: It is defined as the ratio of the resultant displacement to the total time required to cover it. Here resultant displacement is sum of velocities at different time. Average Velocity = 𝑅𝑒𝑠𝑢𝑙𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡 𝐷𝑖𝑠𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑐𝑒𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑇𝑖𝑚𝑒 𝑇𝑎𝑘𝑒𝑛 g) Uniform Velocity: If the velocity of a particle is constant in magnitude and direction with respect to time, then it is known as uniform velocity i.e. equal distances are covered in equal time intervals.
  • 4. Chapter No. 6 Linear Motion Page 4 h) Speed: Speed is defined as the rate of covering the distance with respect to time irrespective of its direction. Speed = Distance or lenght of path Time Required Speed is a scalar quantity. S.I. unit is m/s; other units are km/hour or kmph. i) Acceleration: Acceleration is defined as the rate of change of velocity with respective to time. Acceleration = Change in Velocity Time = dv dt It is also a vector quantity having magnitude and direction. S.I. unit is m/sec2. Other unit is cm/sec2 . j) Retardation: If velocity decreases with time, the acceleration becomes negative which is known as retardation or deceleration. k) Uniform Acceleration: If the velocity of a body changes by equal magnitude in equal intervals continuously, the acceleration is known as uniform acceleration or constant acceleration. l) Variable Acceleration: If the change in velocity per unite time is not constant in a continuous motion, then the corresponding acceleration is known as variable acceleration.
  • 5. Chapter No. 6 Linear Motion Page 5 2.1 Rectilinear Motion: Motion of the particle along the straight line path is known as a rectilinear motion. a) Uniformly Accelerated Rectilinear Motion b) Motion Under Variable Acceleration ( as a function of time, velocity or displacement) a) Motion with uniform acceleration: Fig. 6.2 Following Figure 6.2 shows a particle in a straight line (rectilinear) motion, travelling a distance ‘s’ from A to B in time ‘t’. S= displacement in m u= initially velocity in m/s v= final velocity in m/s t= time required in sec. The velocity is changes uniformly from ‘u’ to ‘v’ during time ‘t’. So the acceleration ‘a’ is uniform or constant. Equations of motion with uniform Acceleration: 1) Change in Velocity = (v-u) in time ‘t’ ∴ Acceleration = a = (v − u) t ∴ at = v − u
  • 6. Chapter No. 6 Linear Motion Page 6 ∴ 𝐯 = 𝐮 + 𝐚𝐭 ------------- (1) i.e. Final Velocity = Initial velocity + Change in Velocity  ‘a’ is positive if velocity increases  ‘a’ is negative if velocity decreases i.e. retardation acceleration 2) Average velocity = (u+v) 2 ∴ Distance Travelled = s = Average Velocity x time ∴ S = (u+v) 2 x t ∴ S = (u+(u+at)) 2 x t ∴ S = 𝐮𝐭 + 𝟏 𝟐 𝐚𝐭 𝟐 ---------- (2) 3) From equation v = u + at Squaring both sides, v2 = (u + at) 2 = u2 + 2uat + v2 = u2 + 2a (ut + 1 2 at2) v2 = u2 + 2 as ------- (3) Therefore the basic equations of rectilinear motion with uniform acceleration are 1) 𝐯 = 𝐮 + 𝐚𝐭 2) S = 𝐮𝐭 + 𝟏 𝟐 𝐚𝐭 𝟐 3) V2 = u2 + 2 as 2. MOTION UNDER GRAVITY 2.1 Gravitational Motion 1) Every body or a particle experiences a force of attraction of the earth. This force of attraction is called as Gravitational force.
  • 7. Chapter No. 6 Linear Motion Page 7 2) According to Newton’s second law of motion this force produces acceleration in the body which is directed towards the center of the earth. This acceleration is known as gravitational acceleration. 3) The distance travelled by the freely falling body is relatively very small on the surface of the earth. So the gravitational acceleration .It is treated as constant which is denoted as ‘g’ and its value are assumed constant as 9.81 m/s2. 2.2 Freely Falling Body: Following figure 6.3 shows a body or a particle P which falls freely down in the vertical direction. It is under the action of a force of gravity only. Such a body is known as freely falling body. Fig. 6.3 The velocity of such a body increases uniformly from zero as it moves vertically downwards. The change in the velocity is constant with respect to time. So the body is under constant gravitational acceleration. Such rectilinear motion is known as motion under gravity with constant gravitational acceleration.
  • 8. Chapter No. 6 Linear Motion Page 8 2.3 Equations of Motion under Gravity: The motion under gravity is a rectilinear motion with uniform acceleration. Therefore its equation of motion can be obtained by substituting ‘g’ in place of ‘a’ in the three basic equations of motion. For freely falling body for vertically downward motion: 1) v = u + gt 2) S = ut + 1 2 gt2 3) V2 = u2 + 2 g s For vertically upward motion: 1) v = u − gt 2) S = ut − 1 2 gt2 3) V2 = u2 - 2 g s Sign Convention: Acceleration due to gravity is considered as positive when body is moving downward and the same is considered as negative when the body is moving upward. 3. MOTION UNDER VARIABLE ACCELERATION: 1) If the change in the velocity of the body is not constant w.r.t. time the motion has variable acceleration. 2) For the study of such motion, the equation of motion should be given in terms of displacement or velocity and acceleration and time. 3) Then the displacement, velocity and acceleration can be calculated by using two methods. i) Differentiation Method ii) Integration Method i) Differentiation Method The method is useful in finding velocity and acceleration if the equation of motion is given in terms of displacement and time. First differentiation of this equation w.r.t time gives the acceleration and second differentiation gives the acceleration.
  • 9. Chapter No. 6 Linear Motion Page 9 e.g. if s= 4t3+ 3t2+ 2t+1 -------(1) Then diff. eqn (1) w.r.t. time ‘t’ 𝑑𝑠 𝑑𝑡 = v = 12 t2+ 6t+2 ------ (2) Diff. eqn (2) w.r.t. time ‘t’ 𝑑𝑣 𝑑𝑡 = d dt ( ds dt ) = a = 24 t + 6 ------ (3) ii) Integration Method: This method is useful when the equation of motion is given in terms of acceleration and time. Successive integration of this equation w.r.t time gives the velocity and displacement in terms of time. e.g. if a = 24 t + 6 --------(1) Integrating equation (1) w.r.t. time ‘t’ v = 12 t2+ 6t+2 +C1 -------- (2) Again integrating equation (1) w.r.t. time ‘t’ s= 4t3+ 3t2+ 2t+1+C1t+ C2 ------- (6) The constants of integration C1 and C2 can be calculated by applying initial conditions which are given in the problem. 4. GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OF MOTION A rectilinear motion can be studied graphically by plotting various curves of motion or motion diagrams as listed below: 1) Displacement – Time Curve ( s-t curve) 2) Velocity – Time Curve ( v-t curve) 3) Acceleration– Time Curve ( a-t curve)
  • 10. Chapter No. 6 Linear Motion Page 10 1) Displacement – Time Curve ( s-t curve): i) Uniform Velocity: Fig. 6.4.a s-t curve for uniform velocity is a straight line giving constant slope as shown in Figure 6.4.a Velocity = V = slope = tan θ = constant ii) Variable Velocity: Fig. 6.4.b s-t curve for variable velocity is a curved line. The instantaneous velocity is given by slope of the tangent to the curve as that instant as shown in Figure 6.4.b 𝑽 = 𝒅𝒔 𝒅𝒕 ---------Where v = which varies from point to point
  • 11. Chapter No. 6 Linear Motion Page 11 2) Velocity – Time Curve ( v-t curve) i) Uniform Velocity: Fig. 6.4.c Area under v-t curve gives the distance travelled in the given time. Distance travelled = s = v x t = Area under the curve (see hatched portion) ii) Variable velocity (Uniform acceleration): Fig. 6.4.d
  • 12. Chapter No. 6 Linear Motion Page 12 For variable velocity, v-t curve is a straight line with constant slope if the acceleration is uniform as shown in Figure 6.4.d above. Acceleration = a = tan θ = slope The area under the curve gives the distance covered. (See hatched portion) Iii) Variable velocity (Variable acceleration): Fig. 6.4.e For variable acceleration, v-t curve is a curved line. So instantaneous acceleration is given by the slope of curve at that instant as shown in Figure 6.4.e. A = 𝒅𝒗 𝒅𝒕 = at instant t. 3) Acceleration– Time Curve ( a-t curve): i) Uniform Acceleration: A straight horizontal line on a-t curve shows uniform acceleration as shown in Figure 6.4.f. Area under this curve gives the change in velocity with respect to time.
  • 13. Chapter No. 6 Linear Motion Page 13 Fig. 6.4.f ii) Variable Acceleration: Fig. 6.4.g A curved line of a-t curve indicates the variable acceleration as shown in figure 6.4.g. Area under this curve in a particular time interval gives the change in velocity in that interval of time.
  • 14. Chapter No. 6 Linear Motion Page 14 5. CONCEPT OF RELATIVE MOTION: 6.1 Relative Velocity (Vr): Definition: When the distance between any two particles is changing either in magnitude or in direction or in both, each particle is said to have motion or velocity relative to each other. Such velocity is known as relative velocity (Vr) and the corresponding motion is known as relative motion. i) If two particles A and B are in motion with the velocities Va and Vb respectively, then the velocity of A as seen by observer placed on B is known as relative velocity of A with respect to B. ii) Similarly, the velocity of B as seen by observer on A is known as relative velocity of B w.r.t. to A. a) MOTION IN SAME DIRECTION: If the two velocities are in the same direction such that Va > Vb as shown in figure 6.6.a then the relative velocity Vr of A w.r.t. B is given by Vr= Va – Vb in the same direction. Fig 6.6.a Fig 6.6.b b) MOTION IN SAME DIRECTION: If the two velocities are in the opposite direction as shown in figure 6.6.b then the relative velocity is given by Vr= Va + Vb along the same line of motion.
  • 15. Chapter No. 6 Linear Motion Page 15 DETERMINTION OF LEAST DISTANCE BETWEEN MOVING BODIES: Velocities 𝑉𝑎 and 𝑉𝑏 of the two moving bodies A and B respectively are given at any instant. The positions A and B are also known at the given instant so that distance 𝐴𝐵 is known. The relative velocity of B w.r.t. A i.e. Draw a perpendicular AC from A on Knowing and angles and in ABC can be calculated. Form right angled the least distance or the shortest distance between the two moving bodies A and B is given by length AC = AB cos = AB sin
  • 16. Chapter No. 6 Linear Motion Page 16