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This document discusses linear motion and its related concepts. It defines kinematics as the study of motion without consideration of forces, and kinetics as the study of motion with consideration of forces. It then discusses various types of linear motion including rectilinear motion, motion under gravity, and motion under variable acceleration. Key concepts defined include displacement, velocity, acceleration, uniform motion, and graphical representation of motion using displacement-time and velocity-time curves. Equations of motion are provided for rectilinear motion and motion under gravity with uniform acceleration.

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8motion 140511012634-phpapp01

1) The document describes various concepts related to motion including distance, displacement, speed, velocity, uniform and non-uniform motion, acceleration, and graphical representations of motion using distance-time and velocity-time graphs.
2) Key equations of motion for uniformly accelerated motion are derived from velocity-time graphs: v = u + at, s = ut + 1/2at^2, and 2as = v^2 - u^2.
3) Circular motion is defined as motion in a circular path. Uniform circular motion involves moving at a constant speed while continuously changing direction, making it a type of accelerated motion.

motion

1. The document describes motion and kinematic concepts like displacement, distance, speed, velocity, uniform and non-uniform motion, acceleration, and equations of motion.
2. Graphs of distance-time and velocity-time are used to represent motion and determine quantities like speed and acceleration from the slope of the graphs.
3. Circular motion is also described, where uniform circular motion involves constant speed but accelerated motion due to continuous change in direction.

Chapter 8 motion

1. The document describes motion and kinematic equations derived from velocity-time and distance-time graphs. It defines concepts like displacement, distance, speed, velocity, uniform and non-uniform motion, and acceleration.
2. Equations of motion like v=u+at, s=ut+1/2at^2, and 2as=v^2-u^2 are derived graphically from velocity-time graphs for bodies undergoing uniform acceleration.
3. Circular motion is defined as motion along a circular path. Uniform circular motion occurs when an object moves at a constant speed but continuously changes direction, resulting in acceleration.

Motion ppt for class 9

This is a ppt on motion for class 9 studying students, hope you like it. If you have any questions message me on http;//sh.st/PVqfi
Regards
Mridul Verma
Innocent Hearts School

CBSE Class 9 Science Chapter 8- Motion

This document discusses motion and related concepts like reference frames, distance, displacement, speed, velocity, and acceleration. It defines these terms and provides examples to illustrate the differences between distance and displacement, uniform and non-uniform motion, speed and velocity. Graphs showing distance-time and velocity-time relationships are also explained. Key concepts covered include how displacement accounts for direction of motion unlike distance, and how acceleration is the rate of change of velocity with respect to time.

MOTION FOR CLASS 9

The document describes various concepts related to motion including:
1) It defines motion, distance, displacement, uniform motion, non-uniform motion, speed, average speed, velocity, and average velocity.
2) It discusses acceleration, uniform acceleration, non-uniform acceleration, and the equations relating change in velocity to acceleration.
3) It explains how the motion of objects can be represented graphically using distance-time graphs and velocity-time graphs and how these graphs can be used to derive the equations of motion.

Motion class 9

This ppt is on motion class 9 chapter 8 this is made by Rehet kaur it is made by a lot of patience and hard work so it is not to be copied

Motion

this project is basically based "motion", the way it's directly or indirectly linked to us. Viewing this power point presentation will enable you to study as a whole in descriptive way.In physics, motion is a change in position of an object with respect to time. Motion is typically described in terms of displacement, distance (scalar), velocity, acceleration, time and speed.Motion of a body is observed by attaching a frame of reference to an observer and measuring the change in position of the body relative to that frame n If the position of a body is not changing with the time with respect to a given frame of reference the body is said to be at rest, motionless, immobile, stationary, or to have constant (time-invariant) position. An object's motion cannot change unless it is acted upon by a force, as described by Newton's first law. Momentum is a quantity which is used for measuring motion of an object. An object's momentum is directly related to the object's mass and velocity, and the total momentum of all objects in an isolated system (one not affected by external forces) does not change with time, as described by the law of conservation of momentum.
Hope you will like it and feedbacks are welcomed.

8motion 140511012634-phpapp01

1) The document describes various concepts related to motion including distance, displacement, speed, velocity, uniform and non-uniform motion, acceleration, and graphical representations of motion using distance-time and velocity-time graphs.
2) Key equations of motion for uniformly accelerated motion are derived from velocity-time graphs: v = u + at, s = ut + 1/2at^2, and 2as = v^2 - u^2.
3) Circular motion is defined as motion in a circular path. Uniform circular motion involves moving at a constant speed while continuously changing direction, making it a type of accelerated motion.

motion

1. The document describes motion and kinematic concepts like displacement, distance, speed, velocity, uniform and non-uniform motion, acceleration, and equations of motion.
2. Graphs of distance-time and velocity-time are used to represent motion and determine quantities like speed and acceleration from the slope of the graphs.
3. Circular motion is also described, where uniform circular motion involves constant speed but accelerated motion due to continuous change in direction.

Chapter 8 motion

1. The document describes motion and kinematic equations derived from velocity-time and distance-time graphs. It defines concepts like displacement, distance, speed, velocity, uniform and non-uniform motion, and acceleration.
2. Equations of motion like v=u+at, s=ut+1/2at^2, and 2as=v^2-u^2 are derived graphically from velocity-time graphs for bodies undergoing uniform acceleration.
3. Circular motion is defined as motion along a circular path. Uniform circular motion occurs when an object moves at a constant speed but continuously changes direction, resulting in acceleration.

Motion ppt for class 9

This is a ppt on motion for class 9 studying students, hope you like it. If you have any questions message me on http;//sh.st/PVqfi
Regards
Mridul Verma
Innocent Hearts School

CBSE Class 9 Science Chapter 8- Motion

This document discusses motion and related concepts like reference frames, distance, displacement, speed, velocity, and acceleration. It defines these terms and provides examples to illustrate the differences between distance and displacement, uniform and non-uniform motion, speed and velocity. Graphs showing distance-time and velocity-time relationships are also explained. Key concepts covered include how displacement accounts for direction of motion unlike distance, and how acceleration is the rate of change of velocity with respect to time.

MOTION FOR CLASS 9

The document describes various concepts related to motion including:
1) It defines motion, distance, displacement, uniform motion, non-uniform motion, speed, average speed, velocity, and average velocity.
2) It discusses acceleration, uniform acceleration, non-uniform acceleration, and the equations relating change in velocity to acceleration.
3) It explains how the motion of objects can be represented graphically using distance-time graphs and velocity-time graphs and how these graphs can be used to derive the equations of motion.

Motion class 9

This ppt is on motion class 9 chapter 8 this is made by Rehet kaur it is made by a lot of patience and hard work so it is not to be copied

Motion

this project is basically based "motion", the way it's directly or indirectly linked to us. Viewing this power point presentation will enable you to study as a whole in descriptive way.In physics, motion is a change in position of an object with respect to time. Motion is typically described in terms of displacement, distance (scalar), velocity, acceleration, time and speed.Motion of a body is observed by attaching a frame of reference to an observer and measuring the change in position of the body relative to that frame n If the position of a body is not changing with the time with respect to a given frame of reference the body is said to be at rest, motionless, immobile, stationary, or to have constant (time-invariant) position. An object's motion cannot change unless it is acted upon by a force, as described by Newton's first law. Momentum is a quantity which is used for measuring motion of an object. An object's momentum is directly related to the object's mass and velocity, and the total momentum of all objects in an isolated system (one not affected by external forces) does not change with time, as described by the law of conservation of momentum.
Hope you will like it and feedbacks are welcomed.

Chapter 2-student

The document summarizes key concepts from Chapter 2 of a Physics textbook on kinematics of linear motion. It discusses the following in 3 sentences:
Linear motion can be one-dimensional or two-dimensional projectile motion. Equations of motion include relationships between displacement, velocity, acceleration, and time. Uniformly accelerated motion follows equations that relate the initial and final velocity, acceleration, and time to determine displacement and distance traveled.

Introduction to linear kinematics

This document provides an introduction to linear kinematics. It discusses key linear kinematic variables like distance, displacement, speed, velocity, and acceleration. It defines these variables and the units used to measure them. It also describes the difference between scalar and vector quantities as they relate to motion. Examples of single-point and multi-segment models for describing motion are provided. Equations for calculating speed, velocity, and acceleration from changes in distance, displacement, and time are shown. Projectile motion is also summarized, including the independent vertical and horizontal components of projectile motion.

Kinematics of Particles

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Motion ppt

The document discusses key concepts related to motion including rest, acceleration, uniform and non-uniform acceleration, circular motion, and graphical representations of motion. It defines rest as no change in position over time, and motion as a change in position over time. Acceleration is defined as the rate of change of velocity. Uniform circular motion occurs when an object travels at constant speed in a circular path, requiring a constant centripetal acceleration directed toward the center. Distance-time and velocity-time graphs can represent motion, with straight lines indicating uniform speed or acceleration.

Physics 504 Chapter 9 Uniform Rectilinear Motion

This document discusses uniform rectilinear motion. It defines different types of motion including rectilinear, curvilinear, and random motion. Distance is defined as a scalar quantity representing how far an object has moved, while displacement is a vector quantity that includes both distance and direction. Uniform motion refers to motion at a constant speed in a single direction. Graphs of distance-time and velocity-time relationships are used to analyze motion. The average velocity and speed can be calculated from these graphs by determining slope.

2.1 linear motion

Kinematics is the study of linear motion. Key terms include displacement, velocity, and acceleration. Displacement is the distance from a starting point, velocity is speed in a direction, and acceleration is the rate of change of velocity. Average values are calculated by total distance or displacement over total time. Instantaneous values give a clearer picture of motion at a moment in time and can be derived from graphs of displacement, velocity, and acceleration over time. When acceleration is constant, five equations can be used to describe motion with constant acceleration.

8motion [autosaved]

This document discusses key concepts related to motion including:
1) Distance moved is the actual length travelled while displacement is the shortest distance between initial and final positions.
2) Uniform motion means equal distances in equal times while non-uniform motion means unequal distances in unequal times.
3) Speed, average speed, velocity, and average velocity are defined and the differences between scalar and vector quantities are explained.
4) Acceleration is the rate of change of velocity and equations of motion relate displacement, time, initial velocity, final velocity, and acceleration.
5) Distance-time and velocity-time graphs can represent motion and be used to calculate speed, velocity, acceleration, and distance travelled.

Motion science ppt

1. The document describes motion and related concepts like displacement, distance, speed, velocity, uniform and non-uniform motion, acceleration, and circular motion.
2. Key equations of motion are derived from velocity-time graphs, including v = u + at, s = ut + 1/2at^2, and 2as = v^2 - u^2.
3. Circular motion is defined as the motion of a body in a circular path, with uniform circular motion having a body move with uniform speed around the path.

Motion

This document discusses key concepts related to motion including:
- Distance moved is the actual path length traveled, while displacement is the straight line distance between start and end points.
- Uniform motion means equal distances are covered in equal times, while non-uniform motion means unequal distances in equal times.
- Speed, velocity, average speed, and average velocity are defined and distinguished.
- Acceleration is the rate of change of velocity with time.
- Distance-time and velocity-time graphs can represent motion and are used to determine values like speed and acceleration.
- Equations of motion relate displacement, time, initial velocity, final velocity, and acceleration for uniformly accelerated motion.
- Circular motion involves continuously

Topic 5 kinematics of particle

This document discusses kinematics, which is the geometry of motion without considering forces. It defines key concepts like displacement, velocity, acceleration, and their relationships. It presents four kinematic equations and provides examples of using these equations and graphs of position-time and velocity-time to solve kinematics problems for objects undergoing uniform and non-uniform acceleration.

Chapter 12 kinematics_of_a_particle

This document discusses the kinematics of particles in rectilinear and curvilinear motion. It defines key concepts like position, displacement, velocity, and acceleration for both continuous and erratic rectilinear motion. Examples are provided to demonstrate how to construct velocity-time and acceleration-time graphs from a given position-time graph, and vice versa. The chapter then discusses general curvilinear motion, defining position, displacement, velocity, and acceleration using vector analysis since the curved path is three-dimensional. Fundamental problems and practice problems are also included.

Kinematics of Linear Motion

This chapter discusses kinematics of linear motion, including:
1) It defines kinematics as the study of motion without considering forces, and describes linear and projectile motion.
2) It introduces key concepts such as displacement, speed, velocity, acceleration and their relationships. Equations for these quantities under constant and uniformly accelerated motion are provided.
3) It describes motion under constant acceleration due to gravity, known as freely falling bodies, and provides the relevant equations.

Motion

This document describes motion and kinematics concepts for class 9 students. It defines key terms like distance, displacement, speed, velocity, uniform and non-uniform motion, acceleration, and equations of motion. Distance is the total path travelled while displacement is the shortest path between initial and final positions. Speed is defined as distance/time while velocity includes both magnitude and direction of motion. Uniform motion has equal distances travelled in equal time intervals while non-uniform motion does not. Acceleration is the rate of change of velocity with time. Motion can be represented graphically using distance-time and velocity-time graphs. Equations of motion relate the relationships between displacement, velocity, acceleration, and time. Circular motion describes motion along a circular

8motion

1. The document describes motion and key concepts related to motion including: distance, displacement, speed, velocity, uniform and non-uniform motion, acceleration, and equations of motion.
2. Graphs are used to represent motion including distance-time graphs and velocity-time graphs which can show uniform and non-uniform motion.
3. Equations of motion relating velocity, displacement, time, initial velocity, final velocity, and acceleration are derived using the area under velocity-time graphs.
4. Circular motion is described as motion along a circular path which is an accelerated motion due to continuous change in direction.

Important notes - Engg. Diploma FY - Physics - Rectilinear Motion

This document discusses key terms and equations related to rectilinear motion. Rectilinear motion refers to motion along a straight line. Kinematics deals with the motion of bodies without considering forces. Important concepts discussed include displacement, average and instantaneous velocity, acceleration, distance traveled, and equations of motion. Graphical representations of motion using velocity-time graphs are also presented for different scenarios including uniform velocity, variable velocity from rest to a final velocity, and variable velocity between two points.

Motion in a straight line

This document discusses key concepts in kinematics including:
- Kinematics is the study of motion without considering causes. It focuses on rectilinear or straight-line motion.
- Displacement is a vector quantity that describes the shortest distance between initial and final positions, while distance is a scalar quantity describing the actual path traveled.
- Uniform motion occurs when equal displacements happen in equal time intervals, resulting in a straight line on a position-time graph. Non-uniform motion has acceleration.

Rectilinear motion

The document discusses particle kinematics and concepts such as displacement, velocity, acceleration, and their relationships for rectilinear and curvilinear motion. Key concepts covered include definitions of displacement, average and instantaneous velocity, acceleration, graphical representations of position, velocity, and acceleration over time, and analytical methods for solving kinematic equations involving constant or variable acceleration. Several sample problems are provided to illustrate applying these kinematic concepts and relationships to solve for variables like time, velocity, acceleration, and displacement given relevant conditions.

3 equation of motion

The document discusses three equations of motion:
1) The first equation is v=u + at, which gives the velocity acquired by an object with initial velocity u that experiences a uniform acceleration a over time t.
2) The second equation is s=ut + 1/2at^2, which gives the distance traveled by an object with initial velocity u and uniform acceleration a over time t.
3) The third equation is v=u + 2as, which can be derived by eliminating time t from the first two equations and gives the final velocity of an object that travels a distance s with initial velocity u and uniform acceleration a.

9. kinematics of particles

Learn Online Courses of Subject Engineering Mechanics of First Year Engineering. Clear the Concepts of Engineering Mechanics Through Video Lectures and PDF Notes. Visit us: https://ekeeda.com/streamdetails/subject/Engineering-Mechanics

Tips to study IX - Science - Moving Objects

This document provides information about motion, distance, displacement, speed, velocity, uniform and non-uniform motion, acceleration, and equations of motion. It defines key terms, provides examples to distinguish between distance and displacement and speed and velocity. Graphs are presented to show uniform and accelerated motion. The three kinematic equations relating position, velocity, and acceleration are derived and example problems are solved applying these equations.

Force & pressure (4)

1) Force is a push or pull that can change the motion, speed, or shape of an object. It is an interaction between two objects.
2) The effects of force include temporarily or permanently changing an object's shape, changing the direction or speed of motion, and stopping or starting motion.
3) Friction occurs when two surfaces contact each other and can slow motion, cause wear, and improve traction. It is influenced by factors like surface condition and weight.

Physics

1) Maxwell showed that a changing electric field generates a magnetic field, not just electric currents. This led to the concept of displacement current.
2) Maxwell formulated his equations which showed that changing electric and magnetic fields propagate as electromagnetic waves.
3) The speed of electromagnetic waves predicted by Maxwell's equations matched the measured speed of light, showing that light is an electromagnetic wave. This unified electricity, magnetism, and light.

Chapter 2-student

The document summarizes key concepts from Chapter 2 of a Physics textbook on kinematics of linear motion. It discusses the following in 3 sentences:
Linear motion can be one-dimensional or two-dimensional projectile motion. Equations of motion include relationships between displacement, velocity, acceleration, and time. Uniformly accelerated motion follows equations that relate the initial and final velocity, acceleration, and time to determine displacement and distance traveled.

Introduction to linear kinematics

This document provides an introduction to linear kinematics. It discusses key linear kinematic variables like distance, displacement, speed, velocity, and acceleration. It defines these variables and the units used to measure them. It also describes the difference between scalar and vector quantities as they relate to motion. Examples of single-point and multi-segment models for describing motion are provided. Equations for calculating speed, velocity, and acceleration from changes in distance, displacement, and time are shown. Projectile motion is also summarized, including the independent vertical and horizontal components of projectile motion.

Kinematics of Particles

Ekeeda Provides Online Civil Engineering Degree Subjects Courses, Video Lectures for All Engineering Universities. Video Tutorials Covers Subjects of Mechanical Engineering Degree.

Motion ppt

The document discusses key concepts related to motion including rest, acceleration, uniform and non-uniform acceleration, circular motion, and graphical representations of motion. It defines rest as no change in position over time, and motion as a change in position over time. Acceleration is defined as the rate of change of velocity. Uniform circular motion occurs when an object travels at constant speed in a circular path, requiring a constant centripetal acceleration directed toward the center. Distance-time and velocity-time graphs can represent motion, with straight lines indicating uniform speed or acceleration.

Physics 504 Chapter 9 Uniform Rectilinear Motion

This document discusses uniform rectilinear motion. It defines different types of motion including rectilinear, curvilinear, and random motion. Distance is defined as a scalar quantity representing how far an object has moved, while displacement is a vector quantity that includes both distance and direction. Uniform motion refers to motion at a constant speed in a single direction. Graphs of distance-time and velocity-time relationships are used to analyze motion. The average velocity and speed can be calculated from these graphs by determining slope.

2.1 linear motion

Kinematics is the study of linear motion. Key terms include displacement, velocity, and acceleration. Displacement is the distance from a starting point, velocity is speed in a direction, and acceleration is the rate of change of velocity. Average values are calculated by total distance or displacement over total time. Instantaneous values give a clearer picture of motion at a moment in time and can be derived from graphs of displacement, velocity, and acceleration over time. When acceleration is constant, five equations can be used to describe motion with constant acceleration.

8motion [autosaved]

This document discusses key concepts related to motion including:
1) Distance moved is the actual length travelled while displacement is the shortest distance between initial and final positions.
2) Uniform motion means equal distances in equal times while non-uniform motion means unequal distances in unequal times.
3) Speed, average speed, velocity, and average velocity are defined and the differences between scalar and vector quantities are explained.
4) Acceleration is the rate of change of velocity and equations of motion relate displacement, time, initial velocity, final velocity, and acceleration.
5) Distance-time and velocity-time graphs can represent motion and be used to calculate speed, velocity, acceleration, and distance travelled.

Motion science ppt

1. The document describes motion and related concepts like displacement, distance, speed, velocity, uniform and non-uniform motion, acceleration, and circular motion.
2. Key equations of motion are derived from velocity-time graphs, including v = u + at, s = ut + 1/2at^2, and 2as = v^2 - u^2.
3. Circular motion is defined as the motion of a body in a circular path, with uniform circular motion having a body move with uniform speed around the path.

Motion

This document discusses key concepts related to motion including:
- Distance moved is the actual path length traveled, while displacement is the straight line distance between start and end points.
- Uniform motion means equal distances are covered in equal times, while non-uniform motion means unequal distances in equal times.
- Speed, velocity, average speed, and average velocity are defined and distinguished.
- Acceleration is the rate of change of velocity with time.
- Distance-time and velocity-time graphs can represent motion and are used to determine values like speed and acceleration.
- Equations of motion relate displacement, time, initial velocity, final velocity, and acceleration for uniformly accelerated motion.
- Circular motion involves continuously

Topic 5 kinematics of particle

This document discusses kinematics, which is the geometry of motion without considering forces. It defines key concepts like displacement, velocity, acceleration, and their relationships. It presents four kinematic equations and provides examples of using these equations and graphs of position-time and velocity-time to solve kinematics problems for objects undergoing uniform and non-uniform acceleration.

Chapter 12 kinematics_of_a_particle

This document discusses the kinematics of particles in rectilinear and curvilinear motion. It defines key concepts like position, displacement, velocity, and acceleration for both continuous and erratic rectilinear motion. Examples are provided to demonstrate how to construct velocity-time and acceleration-time graphs from a given position-time graph, and vice versa. The chapter then discusses general curvilinear motion, defining position, displacement, velocity, and acceleration using vector analysis since the curved path is three-dimensional. Fundamental problems and practice problems are also included.

Kinematics of Linear Motion

This chapter discusses kinematics of linear motion, including:
1) It defines kinematics as the study of motion without considering forces, and describes linear and projectile motion.
2) It introduces key concepts such as displacement, speed, velocity, acceleration and their relationships. Equations for these quantities under constant and uniformly accelerated motion are provided.
3) It describes motion under constant acceleration due to gravity, known as freely falling bodies, and provides the relevant equations.

Motion

This document describes motion and kinematics concepts for class 9 students. It defines key terms like distance, displacement, speed, velocity, uniform and non-uniform motion, acceleration, and equations of motion. Distance is the total path travelled while displacement is the shortest path between initial and final positions. Speed is defined as distance/time while velocity includes both magnitude and direction of motion. Uniform motion has equal distances travelled in equal time intervals while non-uniform motion does not. Acceleration is the rate of change of velocity with time. Motion can be represented graphically using distance-time and velocity-time graphs. Equations of motion relate the relationships between displacement, velocity, acceleration, and time. Circular motion describes motion along a circular

8motion

1. The document describes motion and key concepts related to motion including: distance, displacement, speed, velocity, uniform and non-uniform motion, acceleration, and equations of motion.
2. Graphs are used to represent motion including distance-time graphs and velocity-time graphs which can show uniform and non-uniform motion.
3. Equations of motion relating velocity, displacement, time, initial velocity, final velocity, and acceleration are derived using the area under velocity-time graphs.
4. Circular motion is described as motion along a circular path which is an accelerated motion due to continuous change in direction.

Important notes - Engg. Diploma FY - Physics - Rectilinear Motion

This document discusses key terms and equations related to rectilinear motion. Rectilinear motion refers to motion along a straight line. Kinematics deals with the motion of bodies without considering forces. Important concepts discussed include displacement, average and instantaneous velocity, acceleration, distance traveled, and equations of motion. Graphical representations of motion using velocity-time graphs are also presented for different scenarios including uniform velocity, variable velocity from rest to a final velocity, and variable velocity between two points.

Motion in a straight line

This document discusses key concepts in kinematics including:
- Kinematics is the study of motion without considering causes. It focuses on rectilinear or straight-line motion.
- Displacement is a vector quantity that describes the shortest distance between initial and final positions, while distance is a scalar quantity describing the actual path traveled.
- Uniform motion occurs when equal displacements happen in equal time intervals, resulting in a straight line on a position-time graph. Non-uniform motion has acceleration.

Rectilinear motion

The document discusses particle kinematics and concepts such as displacement, velocity, acceleration, and their relationships for rectilinear and curvilinear motion. Key concepts covered include definitions of displacement, average and instantaneous velocity, acceleration, graphical representations of position, velocity, and acceleration over time, and analytical methods for solving kinematic equations involving constant or variable acceleration. Several sample problems are provided to illustrate applying these kinematic concepts and relationships to solve for variables like time, velocity, acceleration, and displacement given relevant conditions.

3 equation of motion

The document discusses three equations of motion:
1) The first equation is v=u + at, which gives the velocity acquired by an object with initial velocity u that experiences a uniform acceleration a over time t.
2) The second equation is s=ut + 1/2at^2, which gives the distance traveled by an object with initial velocity u and uniform acceleration a over time t.
3) The third equation is v=u + 2as, which can be derived by eliminating time t from the first two equations and gives the final velocity of an object that travels a distance s with initial velocity u and uniform acceleration a.

9. kinematics of particles

Learn Online Courses of Subject Engineering Mechanics of First Year Engineering. Clear the Concepts of Engineering Mechanics Through Video Lectures and PDF Notes. Visit us: https://ekeeda.com/streamdetails/subject/Engineering-Mechanics

Tips to study IX - Science - Moving Objects

This document provides information about motion, distance, displacement, speed, velocity, uniform and non-uniform motion, acceleration, and equations of motion. It defines key terms, provides examples to distinguish between distance and displacement and speed and velocity. Graphs are presented to show uniform and accelerated motion. The three kinematic equations relating position, velocity, and acceleration are derived and example problems are solved applying these equations.

Chapter 2-student

Chapter 2-student

Introduction to linear kinematics

Introduction to linear kinematics

Kinematics of Particles

Kinematics of Particles

Motion ppt

Motion ppt

Physics 504 Chapter 9 Uniform Rectilinear Motion

Physics 504 Chapter 9 Uniform Rectilinear Motion

2.1 linear motion

2.1 linear motion

8motion [autosaved]

8motion [autosaved]

Motion science ppt

Motion science ppt

Motion

Motion

Topic 5 kinematics of particle

Topic 5 kinematics of particle

Chapter 12 kinematics_of_a_particle

Chapter 12 kinematics_of_a_particle

Kinematics of Linear Motion

Kinematics of Linear Motion

Motion

Motion

8motion

8motion

Important notes - Engg. Diploma FY - Physics - Rectilinear Motion

Important notes - Engg. Diploma FY - Physics - Rectilinear Motion

Motion in a straight line

Motion in a straight line

Rectilinear motion

Rectilinear motion

3 equation of motion

3 equation of motion

9. kinematics of particles

9. kinematics of particles

Tips to study IX - Science - Moving Objects

Tips to study IX - Science - Moving Objects

Force & pressure (4)

1) Force is a push or pull that can change the motion, speed, or shape of an object. It is an interaction between two objects.
2) The effects of force include temporarily or permanently changing an object's shape, changing the direction or speed of motion, and stopping or starting motion.
3) Friction occurs when two surfaces contact each other and can slow motion, cause wear, and improve traction. It is influenced by factors like surface condition and weight.

Physics

1) Maxwell showed that a changing electric field generates a magnetic field, not just electric currents. This led to the concept of displacement current.
2) Maxwell formulated his equations which showed that changing electric and magnetic fields propagate as electromagnetic waves.
3) The speed of electromagnetic waves predicted by Maxwell's equations matched the measured speed of light, showing that light is an electromagnetic wave. This unified electricity, magnetism, and light.

Assignment no.2

This document contains 18 problems related to the equilibrium of rigid bodies and friction. It begins with definitions of key terms like equilibrium and equilibrant. It then discusses principles of equilibrium like Lami's theorem. The remaining problems involve calculating reactions and forces in systems with objects resting on surfaces or supported by other objects. They include spheres, cylinders, rollers and blocks on inclined planes and interacting with forces of friction. The document covers assessing and establishing equilibrium as well as determining coefficients of friction.

Questions linear mo

This document contains a chapter on linear motion that provides sample problems and questions. It covers the following topics:
1) Type I problems involving calculating acceleration, retardation, distance and time from given velocity changes.
2) Type II problems on free fall motion and calculating heights and velocities of falling objects.
3) Type III problems involving calculating acceleration, velocities and distances using the motion of a car passing three poles.
4) Type IV problems calculating distance and acceleration from given time and distance relationships.
5) Type V problems involving motion with variable acceleration and calculating quantities from equations of motion.
6) Type VI problems involving drawing graphs of acceleration, velocity and displacement vs time for free fall motion

Dissertation report

This document presents the layout and introduction for a dissertation report on analyzing multi-storey partially braced frames subjected to seismic and gravity loads using V-braces. The layout includes sections on introduction, literature review, structural analysis methods, earthquake analysis methods, theoretical formulation, results and discussion, conclusion, and references. The introduction discusses the importance of tall structures and braced frames, noting advantages of braced frames include increased strength, stiffness, and reduced member sizes.

Projectile Motion

The document discusses projectile motion and circular motion. It defines key terms related to projectile motion such as trajectory, angle of projection, horizontal range, time of flight, and velocity of projection. It then derives equations for the trajectory, time of flight, horizontal range, maximum height, and velocity at impact of a projectile. Examples and problems are provided to demonstrate the application of these equations.

ABC Of Project Management

This document provides an overview of project management. It discusses that projects are needed to generate profits for businesses, as profits come from operations which give birth to projects. However, only 34% of projects succeed currently. The document then outlines the basic project life cycle of initiation, planning, execution, controlling, and closing phases. It provides some ABCs of project management, emphasizing always properly defining the project, ensuring stakeholder identification, being aware of constraints and knowledge areas, and cultivating good project management habits and processes within an organization to improve success rates. The overall message is that projects can only succeed by being properly managed to meet defined objectives and baselines.

Assignment no. 5

This document provides instructions for 5 problems calculating the center of gravity for different cross-sectional shapes, and 3 problems calculating the moment of inertia for various lamina. The shapes include a T-section, symmetrical I-section, I-section, L-section, and a rectangular lamina with a hole cut out. Axes of calculation are specified as passing through the center of gravity or being parallel to bases.

Chaper wise qpapers_bce

1. The document contains a question bank for the Basic Civil Engineering section covering topics like introduction to civil engineering, surveying, linear measurements, bearing, and leveling.
2. It includes 36 questions on surveying topics like chain surveying, compass surveying, and leveling with multiple parts and variations. Calculations and sketches are required to solve some questions.
3. The leveling questions provide staff readings and require entering data in a standard leveling table, calculating reduced levels using different methods, and applying arithmetic checks.

Equilibrium

This document discusses the topic of equilibrium of rigid bodies. It covers:
- Analytical and graphical conditions for equilibrium of co-planar forces.
- Different types of beam supports like simple, pinned, roller, and fixed supports.
- Free body diagrams and their application in analyzing equilibrium and determining reactions.
- Lami's theorem which states that for three forces in equilibrium, each force is proportional to the sine of the angle between the other two forces.
- Examples of problems involving cylinders, pulleys, beams, and friction on inclined planes.

Work power energy

1) This document discusses work, power, and energy. It defines work as the product of force and displacement, and defines the units of work as newton-meters (Nm) or joules (J).
2) Power is defined as the rate of doing work, or the ratio of work to time. The units of power are watts (W).
3) Energy exists in various forms including mechanical, thermal, chemical, light, sound, nuclear, and electrical. Mechanical energy includes potential energy, which depends on position or height, and kinetic energy, which depends on motion or velocity.
4) The work-energy principle states that the work done on an object equals its change in

2. linear kinematics i

1. Linear kinematics describes motion using position, velocity, and acceleration without regard to forces. It includes linear (straight line) and curvilinear (bent line) motion.
2. Angular kinematics describes rotational motion like elbow flexion or spinning.
3. General motion combines translation and rotation, describing most human and sports motions.
4. Key descriptors include position, distance/displacement, speed/velocity, and acceleration. Displacement is the straight-line distance between start and end points while distance is the total path length. Velocity describes speed with direction and acceleration is the rate of change of velocity.

Chapter 2 beam

This chapter discusses beams and support reactions. It defines statically determinate beams and describes the following topics: types of beam supports including simple, pin/hinged, roller, and fixed supports; types of beams such as simply supported, cantilever, overhang, and continuous beams; types of loading including concentrated/point loads and distributed loads such as uniform, uniformly varying, and non-uniform loads; and the procedure to find support reactions of statically determinate beams using equilibrium conditions. It also discusses compound beams and the concept of virtual work.

Centre of Gravity

1) The document discusses concepts related to centroid and moment of inertia including: the centroid is the point where the total area of a plane figure is assumed to be concentrated; formulas are provided for finding the centroid of basic shapes; the difference between centroid and center of gravity is explained; properties and methods for finding the centroid are described such as using moments.
2) Formulas are given for moment of inertia including how it is calculated about different axes and the parallel axis theorem.
3) Example problems are provided to demonstrate calculating the centroid and moment of inertia for various shapes.

Water Management

This document provides information about water management topics including sources of water, dams, canals, and irrigation methods. It discusses surface and underground water sources like ponds, lakes, rivers, wells, and tube wells. It describes different types of dams such as earth dams, rock-fill dams, gravity dams, and arch dams. Canals are described as the trenches that distribute water from reservoirs for irrigation. Various irrigation methods are outlined including flow irrigation, flood irrigation, storage irrigation, drip irrigation, and spray irrigation. Rainwater harvesting is introduced as a way to conserve water by collecting and filtering rainwater runoff and roof runoff to recharge underground water sources.

Lahaja za kiswahili kwa ujumla

Lahaja za Kiswahili zimekuwa zikichanganya watumiaji wengi na watu wengi wanaojifunza lugha ya Kiswahili, hivyo matini hii imekusudia kuondoa mkanganyiko huo.

Chapter 2 friction

This document discusses friction, including the limiting force of friction, coefficient of friction, angle of friction, and angle of repose. It defines static and dynamic friction, with dynamic friction further divided into sliding and rolling friction. The laws of static and kinetic friction are also outlined. Several example problems are provided to calculate values like the coefficient of friction given information about the applied forces and weights of objects on horizontal or inclined planes.

Assignment no 3

This document contains 18 problems related to calculating beam support reactions using concepts like types of beam supports, virtual work, simply supported beams, overhanging beams, cantilever beams, beam bents, and compound beams. The problems include calculating support reactions for various beams under different loading conditions like point loads, uniformly distributed loads, and concentrated moments. Solutions are provided for some of the problems.

D alemberts principle

D'Alembert's Principle states that the resultant of all external forces and inertia forces acting on a body is zero for the body to be in dynamic equilibrium. Inertia forces are represented as minus mass times acceleration. The principle allows equations of static equilibrium to be applied to bodies undergoing translational motion by considering an imaginary inertia force equal and opposite to actual inertia. Several example problems are provided applying the principle to analyze motion of connected bodies over pulleys, motion on inclined planes, and motion within elevators.

Force & pressure (4)

Force & pressure (4)

Physics

Physics

Assignment no.2

Assignment no.2

Questions linear mo

Questions linear mo

Dissertation report

Dissertation report

Projectile Motion

Projectile Motion

ABC Of Project Management

ABC Of Project Management

Assignment no. 5

Assignment no. 5

Chaper wise qpapers_bce

Chaper wise qpapers_bce

Equilibrium

Equilibrium

Work power energy

Work power energy

2. linear kinematics i

2. linear kinematics i

Chapter 2 beam

Chapter 2 beam

Centre of Gravity

Centre of Gravity

Water Management

Water Management

Lahaja za kiswahili kwa ujumla

Lahaja za kiswahili kwa ujumla

Chapter 2 friction

Chapter 2 friction

Assignment no 3

Assignment no 3

Mofolojia ya kiswahili

Mofolojia ya kiswahili

D alemberts principle

D alemberts principle

IX-8-Motion.ppt

This document describes motion and kinematics concepts for class 9 science. It defines key terms like displacement, distance, speed, velocity, uniform and non-uniform motion. It discusses representing motion graphically using distance-time and velocity-time graphs. The three equations of motion relating displacement, velocity, acceleration and time are derived from these graphs. Circular motion is also introduced.

presentation_equation_of_motion_1663608809_139366.pptx

1. Motion is defined as a change in position of an object over time. Distance moved is the total path travelled, while displacement is the shortest distance between the starting and ending points.
2. Uniform motion means equal distances are travelled in equal times, while non-uniform motion means unequal distances are travelled in equal times. Velocity is the rate of change of an object's displacement and includes both speed and direction.
3. Acceleration is the rate of change of velocity with time. Uniform acceleration means equal changes in velocity over equal times, while non-uniform acceleration means unequal changes in velocity over equal times.

presentation_equation_of_motion_1663608809_139366.pptx

1. Motion is defined as a change in position of an object over time. Distance moved is the total path travelled, while displacement is the shortest distance between the starting and ending points.
2. Uniform motion means equal distances are travelled in equal times, while non-uniform motion means unequal distances are travelled in equal times. Velocity is the rate of change of an object's displacement and includes both speed and direction.
3. Acceleration is the rate of change of velocity with time. Uniform acceleration means equal changes in velocity over equal times, while non-uniform acceleration means unequal changes in velocity over equal times.

presentation_equation_of_motion_1663608809_139366.pptx

1. Motion is defined as a change in position of an object over time. Distance moved is the total path travelled, while displacement is the shortest distance between the starting and ending points.
2. Uniform motion means equal distances are travelled in equal times, while non-uniform motion means unequal distances are travelled in equal times. Velocity is the rate of change of an object's displacement and includes both speed and direction.
3. Acceleration is the rate of change of velocity with time. Uniform acceleration means equal changes in velocity over equal times, while non-uniform acceleration means unequal changes in velocity over equal times.

Chapter2powerpoint 090816163937-phpapp02

This document provides an overview of kinematics concepts including displacement, speed, velocity, acceleration, and equations of motion. Key points covered include:
- Kinematics deals with describing motion without considering causes of motion like forces.
- Displacement, speed, velocity, and acceleration are defined. Equations of motion that relate these variables for constant acceleration are presented.
- Position-time and velocity-time graphs are introduced as ways to represent motion. The slope and area under graphs relate to velocity and displacement.
- Free fall near the Earth's surface provides a specific example where acceleration due to gravity is constant.
- Graphical analysis techniques are described for determining acceleration from velocity-time graphs.

NCERT class 9th science chapter 8

Motion refers to the change in position of an object over time. Mechanics is the branch of physics that deals with motion. There are different types of motion such as linear, circular, and oscillatory. Key concepts in the study of motion include scalars, vectors, distance, displacement, speed, velocity, and acceleration. Equations of motion relate these quantities, such as the relationship between velocity and acceleration given by the equation v = u + at, where v is the final velocity, u is the initial velocity, a is the acceleration, and t is the time. Graphs can also represent motion, such as velocity-time graphs that show changes in velocity and can indicate if motion is uniform or accelerated. Circular motion involves

Karthikeyan ppt on motion class 9 (1)

motion lesson into simple teIn physics, motion is the phenomenon in which an object changes its position over time. Motion is mathematically described in terms of displacement, distance, velocity, acceleration, speed, and time. ... As there is no absolute frame of reference, absolute motion cannot be determined.rms and equation sums

chapter2powerpoint-090816163937-phpapp02.ppt

Kinematics deals with concepts of motion like displacement, velocity, and acceleration. Dynamics deals with forces that cause motion. Together they form the branch of mechanics. Displacement is defined as the difference between the final and initial positions. Speed is the distance traveled divided by time. Velocity is displacement divided by time. Acceleration is the rate of change of velocity with respect to time. Equations relate the kinematic variables of displacement, velocity, acceleration, time, and initial velocity. Position-time and velocity-time graphs provide a visual representation of motion and can be analyzed to determine properties like speed, direction of motion, and periods of acceleration.

AP Physics - Chapter 2 Powerpoint

This document provides an overview of key concepts in kinematics including:
1) Kinematics deals with concepts of motion without considering forces, while dynamics considers the effects of forces on motion.
2) Displacement, speed, velocity, acceleration, and equations of motion for constant acceleration are introduced.
3) Applications include analyzing the motion of falling bodies and interpreting position-time and velocity-time graphs.

Motion in a straight line

The document discusses motion in one dimension. It defines motion, rest, and different types of motion such as translational, rotational, and vibrational. It focuses on one-dimensional motion along a straight line. Key terms discussed include displacement, distance, average speed, average velocity, uniform and non-uniform motion, acceleration, and kinematic equations. Graphs of displacement-time, velocity-time and acceleration-time are presented. Motion under gravity and upward vertical motion are also summarized using kinematic equations.

Kinematics in One-dimension.ppt

The document summarizes concepts related to motion in one dimension, including:
1) Key concepts such as displacement, velocity, acceleration, and the kinematic equations are introduced and defined.
2) Freely falling objects experience a constant acceleration due to gravity, and the kinematic equations can model their motion.
3) Galileo helped establish that all objects in free fall experience the same acceleration due to gravity, regardless of mass or initial velocity.

Speed+velocity+acceleration

The document provides learning objectives and concepts related to kinematics including displacement, speed, velocity, acceleration, and equations of motion. The key points are:
1. It defines important kinematics terms like displacement, speed, velocity, acceleration and describes how to represent motion using words, diagrams, graphs and equations.
2. Graphs of distance-time and velocity-time are introduced and it is explained that their slopes provide speed and acceleration respectively.
3. Equations of motion that apply to objects with constant acceleration in a straight line are given along with examples of how to use them to solve problems.
4. Free fall and projectile motion are described and representations using velocity-time graphs are shown

Ch 8 Motion 2.pptx.pdf

1) Motion can be uniform or non-uniform, depending on whether the body travels equal or unequal distances in equal time intervals. Speed, velocity, and acceleration are defined in terms of distance, displacement, and time.
2) The area under a speed-time graph provides the distance traveled, while the slope of the line in such a graph gives the acceleration. The three equations of motion relate the variables of displacement, velocity, acceleration, and time.
3) Circular motion occurs when a body moves along a circular path, changing direction continuously. Uniform circular motion refers to constant speed around the path.

CH-3Motion in a St Line.pdf

This document discusses motion in a straight line, including definitions of key terms like distance, displacement, speed, velocity, uniform motion, non-uniform motion, acceleration, and equations of motion. It defines distance as the total path length traveled, displacement as the shortest distance between initial and final positions, and distinguishes between scalar and vector quantities. Graphs of distance-time and velocity-time are presented for different motion types. Equations relating velocity, displacement, time, initial velocity, acceleration, and final velocity are derived for uniformly accelerated motion.

Motion 2

1. A velocity-time graph represents the variation of an object's velocity over time as it moves in a straight line, with time on the x-axis and velocity on the y-axis.
2. For uniform motion, the graph is a straight line parallel to the x-axis, while for uniform acceleration the graph is a straight line. Non-uniform acceleration can produce graphs of varying shapes.
3. The three laws of motion relate displacement, velocity, acceleration, and time: v = u + at, s = ut + 1/2at2, and 2as = v2 - u2. These equations can be derived and used to analyze motion graphsically.

Acceleration

Acceleration describes how an object's velocity changes over time. An object accelerates when its speed changes, its direction changes, or both its speed and direction change. Acceleration is calculated by taking the change in velocity and dividing by the time elapsed. Common examples of acceleration include objects falling due to gravity, objects moving in circles due to centripetal force, and vehicles changing speed.

Bishmay class 9

The document discusses various concepts related to motion including:
1) Motion is defined as a change in position of an object over time relative to a reference point.
2) Examples of motion include swings, merry-go-rounds, pendulums, and watch hands.
3) Distance traveled refers to the actual path length, while displacement is the straight line distance between start and end points.
4) Speed, velocity, acceleration, and other concepts are introduced along with relevant equations. Uniform and non-uniform variations of each concept are also discussed.

Kinematics

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13. kinematics of rigid bodies

This document discusses kinematics of rigid bodies, including:
- Types of rigid body motion such as translation, rotation about a fixed axis, and general plane motion.
- Translation motion is further divided into rectilinear and curvilinear types.
- Key terms related to rotation about a fixed axis like angular position, displacement, velocity, and acceleration.
- Relations between linear and angular velocity and acceleration.
- Two special cases involving rotation of pulleys - a pulley connected to a rotating block, and two coupled pulleys rotating without slip.
- Five sample problems calculating values like angular velocity and acceleration, revolutions, linear velocity and acceleration for rotating bodies.

Kinematics of rigid bodies

Learn Online Courses of Subject Introduction to Civil Engineering and Engineering Mechanics. Clear the Concepts of Introduction to Civil Engineering and Engineering Mechanics Through Video Lectures and PDF Notes. Visit us: https://ekeeda.com/streamdetails/subject/introduction-to-civil-engineering-and-engineering-mechanics

IX-8-Motion.ppt

IX-8-Motion.ppt

presentation_equation_of_motion_1663608809_139366.pptx

presentation_equation_of_motion_1663608809_139366.pptx

presentation_equation_of_motion_1663608809_139366.pptx

presentation_equation_of_motion_1663608809_139366.pptx

presentation_equation_of_motion_1663608809_139366.pptx

presentation_equation_of_motion_1663608809_139366.pptx

Chapter2powerpoint 090816163937-phpapp02

Chapter2powerpoint 090816163937-phpapp02

NCERT class 9th science chapter 8

NCERT class 9th science chapter 8

Karthikeyan ppt on motion class 9 (1)

Karthikeyan ppt on motion class 9 (1)

chapter2powerpoint-090816163937-phpapp02.ppt

chapter2powerpoint-090816163937-phpapp02.ppt

AP Physics - Chapter 2 Powerpoint

AP Physics - Chapter 2 Powerpoint

Motion in a straight line

Motion in a straight line

Kinematics in One-dimension.ppt

Kinematics in One-dimension.ppt

Speed+velocity+acceleration

Speed+velocity+acceleration

Ch 8 Motion 2.pptx.pdf

Ch 8 Motion 2.pptx.pdf

CH-3Motion in a St Line.pdf

CH-3Motion in a St Line.pdf

Motion 2

Motion 2

Acceleration

Acceleration

Bishmay class 9

Bishmay class 9

Kinematics

Kinematics

13. kinematics of rigid bodies

13. kinematics of rigid bodies

Kinematics of rigid bodies

Kinematics of rigid bodies

Transportation engineering

This document provides an overview of transportation engineering and related topics through a presentation. It begins with an introduction to various modes of transportation including roads, bridges, railways, airports, docks and harbors. It then provides a question bank with sample questions on these topics from previous years. The document concludes by providing detailed answers to some of the sample questions, covering areas like classifications of roads and transportation, structures of roads, and short notes on specific road types.

Chapter wise question papers_bce

This document contains a question bank for the Basic Civil Engineering subject divided into 9 units. Each unit contains 6 questions related to topics within that unit. The questions range from 3-10 marks and cover topics such as sub-branches of civil engineering, surveying, remote sensing, dams, roads, building construction principles, materials, and steel structures. This question bank can be used to prepare for exams on basic civil engineering concepts and their applications.

Design of staircase_practical_example

The document provides design details for staircases on three floors of a building, including dimensions, load calculations, and reinforcement details. Load calculations are performed to determine bending moments and shear forces. Reinforcement area, bar diameter, and spacing are calculated for the waist slabs of each staircase to resist the determined bending moment and satisfy code requirements for minimum steel and shear capacity.

Presentation "Use of coupler Splices for Reinforcement"

This document presents a summary of a presentation on the use of coupler splices for reinforcement. The presentation includes an introduction to coupler splices, a literature review on the topic, details on the experimental procedure used to test coupler splices, a cost analysis comparing coupler splices to lap splices, and conclusions. The experimental results show that coupler splices performed better than lap splices and welded splices in tensile loading tests. A cost analysis also determined that coupler splices provide significant cost savings over lap splices by reducing the amount of reinforcement required. The conclusion is that coupler splices are an effective and economic replacement for lap splices in reinforcement.

Guidelines_for_building_design

This document provides guidelines for the design of reinforced concrete structures in buildings according to the limit state method. It outlines the general process for building design which includes studying architectural drawings and field data, preparing reinforced concrete layouts, analyzing structural frames, and designing columns, beams, slabs, and footings. Computer programs like STAAD and in-house software are used to aid in analysis and design. Designers are advised to be familiar with relevant Indian code provisions and follow the guidelines to independently complete reinforced concrete designs for buildings.

Strength of materials_I

This document provides an introduction to strength of materials, including concepts of stress, strain, Hooke's law, stress-strain relationships, elastic constants, and factors of safety. It defines key terms like stress, strain, elastic limit, modulus of elasticity, and ductile and brittle material behavior. Examples of stress and strain calculations are provided for basic structural elements like rods, bars, and composite structures. The document also covers compound bars, principle of superposition, and effects of temperature changes.

Presentation_on_Cellwise_Braced_frames

This presentation discusses the seismic response of cellwise concentrically braced frames. It introduces cellwise braced frames as a structural system that provides lateral stability through bracing elements arranged in cells within each bay. The document describes a study that analyzed 5 bay, 12 story reinforced concrete frames with different bracing configurations, including single-cell, two-cell, and three-cell arrangements. The study found that single-cell A-braced frames provided the highest material cost savings of up to 9.59% compared to bare frames. Two-cell and three-cell configurations further improved cost savings but required additional bracing. Overall, the study shows that optimally arranged cellwise braced frames produce a stiff, strong and econom

Study of MORT_&_H

The document provides an overview of the Ministry of Road Transport and Highways (MoRTH) in India. It discusses the ministry's role in formulating policies and regulations related to road transport. It outlines the ministry's history and organizational structure. It also summarizes some of the key specifications issued by MoRTH related to road and bridge construction, including specifications for earthworks, pavement layers, drainage, and other aspects of road projects. The document thus provides a high-level introduction to MoRTH and the specifications it issues for road development and transport in India.

List of various_IRCs_&_sps

The Indian Road Congress (IRC) was established in 1934 on the recommendations of the Jayakar Committee to oversee road development in India. It is the apex body for highway engineers and professionals. IRC has over 16,700 members from both public and private sector organizations involved in roads. It aims to promote standard specifications and best practices for road and bridge construction through various technical committees. It has published over 100 codes of practice and guidelines and oversees research activities through its Highway Research Board.

Analysis of multi storey building frames subjected to gravity and seismic loa...

This document summarizes a study on the seismic response of reinforced concrete frames with varying numbers of bays and storeys. Three frame configurations - 3 bay, 5 bay, and 7 bay with 9 stories each - were modeled and analyzed under gravity and seismic loads. Both prismatic frames and frames with non-prismatic elements like stepped beams and haunches at beam-column joints were considered. The effects of variables like haunch size, beam inertia, and live load patterns on internal forces and storey drift were examined. Key results showed that non-prismatic elements can reduce bending moments and axial forces compared to conventional prismatic frames.

Seismic response of _reinforced_concrete_concentrically_a_braced_frames

This document discusses the seismic response of reinforced concrete concentrically braced frames. It analyzes numerically various bracing patterns for a 5-bay 12-story building, including bare frames, fully braced frames, and partially braced frames with bracing applied at the bay-level or level-wise. Optimum bracing patterns are identified that reduce internal forces in columns and provide economic savings compared to bare frames or fully braced frames. Graphs show variations in axial, shear and bending forces for different bracing patterns, identifying patterns that fall within acceptable ranges. Savings of up to 7.87% are achieved with the optimum bracing patterns.

Use of mechanical_splices_for_reinforcing_steel

The document discusses the use of mechanical splices (couplers) as an alternative to traditional lap splicing for reinforcing steel. It provides details on different types of couplers, including threaded couplers. Experimental testing showed that couplers achieved similar or higher yield and ultimate stresses as compared to normal and welded reinforcing bars. While ductility was slightly reduced, factors like epoxy injection and staggered splicing can improve ductility. A cost analysis found that couplers provide significant cost savings over lap splices due to reduced steel requirements. Therefore, the study concludes that mechanical splices are an effective and economic replacement for lap splices.

Guide lines bridge_design

This document provides guidelines for bridge design in the Public Works Department. It introduces the contents and chapters, which cover aspects of bridge design, components, innovative structures, preparation of bridge projects, and other topics. The guidelines are intended to help engineers understand the department's practices for bridge design. The second edition was revised with new chapters and information to aid both new and experienced engineers.

Seismic response of cellwise braced reinforced concrete frames

The document analyzes the seismic response of reinforced concrete frames with different patterns of reinforced concrete bracing. Numerical models of 5-bay, 12-story reinforced concrete frames were analyzed with different bracing configurations including bare frames, fully braced, partially braced, outrigger braced, and cellwise braced. The responses, including internal forces, displacements, and member sizes, were compared for each configuration. Optimal baywise and levelwise locations for bracing were identified based on producing smaller internal forces within acceptable ranges. Cellwise bracing was explored as a configuration that combines advantages of other patterns while allowing for clear openings.

Basic Loads Cases

The document defines various types of loads that should be considered in structural analysis, including dead loads, live loads, wind loads, and earthquake loads. It provides details on how to apply these loads in both positive and negative directions of the X and Z axes. It also lists load combinations that should be analyzed according to Indian standards, including combinations for limit states of collapse and serviceability. The load combinations include factors for dead, live, wind, and earthquake loads.

Earthquake analysis by Response Spectrum Method

This document provides steps for performing an earthquake analysis using the response spectrum method in STAAD v8i. Key steps include:
1. Generating primary load cases for the X and Z directions using the specified code spectrum
2. Modeling dead and live loads
3. Obtaining support reactions for a load combination of dead + 0.25 live loads
4. Exporting the support reaction values to Excel tables
5. Importing the Excel tables back into STAAD as joint loads to apply the earthquake loads
6. Analyzing the structure with fixed supports instead of pin supports
The overall process applies earthquake loads to the structure using the response spectrum method and obtains the response of the structure under seismic loading

Earthquake analysis by psudeo static method

This document provides instructions for performing an earthquake analysis on a structure using the pseudo-static method in STAAD v8i. The steps include:
1. Defining the seismic parameters by adding a seismic definition and inputting values for the zone, response factor, importance factor, etc. based on IS 1893:2002.
2. Creating earthquake load cases in the X and Z directions and combining them with dead and live loads.
3. Assigning pin supports and obtaining support reactions for analysis.
4. Importing the support reaction values into Excel to create weight tables that are then input back into STAAD.
5. Removing the pin supports and assigning fixed supports at the foundation before running the full analysis

Basic Civil Engineering MCQ

The document contains a 58 question multiple choice test on basic civil engineering. The test covers topics such as surveying, building construction materials and techniques, structures, and other basic civil engineering concepts. The questions assess knowledge of concepts like types of surveying, building components, properties of materials like concrete and masonry, earthquake resistance techniques, and more.

PROBLEMS ON BEARINGS

1. The document provides examples of problems involving bearings observed in closed traverse surveys. It discusses calculating included angles, checking for angular errors, and correcting bearings based on lines assumed to be free from local attraction effects.
2. The first example shows calculations for a traverse with station positions, observed fore and back bearings, differences between bearings, included angles, and corrected bearings and stations free from attraction.
3. Several multi-part problems are presented involving calculating included angles from observed bearings, checking for errors, correcting bearings, and identifying stations free from local attraction for closed traverses. Step-by-step working is demonstrated for one example.

SURVEYING

This document contains 21 multi-part surveying problems involving calculating true distances and areas from measurements taken using chains of various lengths that may have been inaccurate. The problems require applying formulas to account for errors in the chains and scaling of maps in order to determine the true values sought, such as distances between points or areas of land parcels.

Transportation engineering

Transportation engineering

Chapter wise question papers_bce

Chapter wise question papers_bce

Design of staircase_practical_example

Design of staircase_practical_example

Presentation "Use of coupler Splices for Reinforcement"

Presentation "Use of coupler Splices for Reinforcement"

Guidelines_for_building_design

Guidelines_for_building_design

Strength of materials_I

Strength of materials_I

Presentation_on_Cellwise_Braced_frames

Presentation_on_Cellwise_Braced_frames

Study of MORT_&_H

Study of MORT_&_H

List of various_IRCs_&_sps

List of various_IRCs_&_sps

Analysis of multi storey building frames subjected to gravity and seismic loa...

Analysis of multi storey building frames subjected to gravity and seismic loa...

Seismic response of _reinforced_concrete_concentrically_a_braced_frames

Seismic response of _reinforced_concrete_concentrically_a_braced_frames

Use of mechanical_splices_for_reinforcing_steel

Use of mechanical_splices_for_reinforcing_steel

Guide lines bridge_design

Guide lines bridge_design

Seismic response of cellwise braced reinforced concrete frames

Seismic response of cellwise braced reinforced concrete frames

Basic Loads Cases

Basic Loads Cases

Earthquake analysis by Response Spectrum Method

Earthquake analysis by Response Spectrum Method

Earthquake analysis by psudeo static method

Earthquake analysis by psudeo static method

Basic Civil Engineering MCQ

Basic Civil Engineering MCQ

PROBLEMS ON BEARINGS

PROBLEMS ON BEARINGS

SURVEYING

SURVEYING

This study Examines the Effectiveness of Talent Procurement through the Imple...

In the world with high technology and fast
forward mindset recruiters are walking/showing interest
towards E-Recruitment. Present most of the HRs of
many companies are choosing E-Recruitment as the best
choice for recruitment. E-Recruitment is being done
through many online platforms like Linkedin, Naukri,
Instagram , Facebook etc. Now with high technology E-
Recruitment has gone through next level by using
Artificial Intelligence too.
Key Words : Talent Management, Talent Acquisition , E-
Recruitment , Artificial Intelligence Introduction
Effectiveness of Talent Acquisition through E-
Recruitment in this topic we will discuss about 4important
and interlinked topics which are

ITSM Integration with MuleSoft.pptx

ITSM Integration with mulesoft

Zener Diode and its V-I Characteristics and Applications

Zener Diode and its V-I Characteristics

一比一原版(osu毕业证书)美国俄勒冈州立大学毕业证如何办理

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如果您处于以下几种情况：
◇在校期间，因各种原因未能顺利毕业……拿不到官方毕业证【q/微741003700】
◇面对父母的压力，希望尽快拿到；
◇不清楚认证流程以及材料该如何准备；
◇回国时间很长，忘记办理；
◇回国马上就要找工作，办给用人单位看；
◇企事业单位必须要求办理的
◇需要报考公务员、购买免税车、落转户口
◇申请留学生创业基金
留信网认证的作用:
1:该专业认证可证明留学生真实身份
2:同时对留学生所学专业登记给予评定
3:国家专业人才认证中心颁发入库证书
4:这个认证书并且可以归档倒地方
5:凡事获得留信网入网的信息将会逐步更新到个人身份内，将在公安局网内查询个人身份证信息后，同步读取人才网入库信息
6:个人职称评审加20分
7:个人信誉贷款加10分
8:在国家人才网主办的国家网络招聘大会中纳入资料，供国家高端企业选择人才
办理(osu毕业证书)美国俄勒冈州立大学毕业证【微信：741003700 】外观非常简单，由纸质材料制成，上面印有校徽、校名、毕业生姓名、专业等信息。
办理(osu毕业证书)美国俄勒冈州立大学毕业证【微信：741003700 】格式相对统一，各专业都有相应的模板。通常包括以下部分：
校徽：象征着学校的荣誉和传承。
校名:学校英文全称
授予学位：本部分将注明获得的具体学位名称。
毕业生姓名：这是最重要的信息之一，标志着该证书是由特定人员获得的。
颁发日期：这是毕业正式生效的时间，也代表着毕业生学业的结束。
其他信息：根据不同的专业和学位，可能会有一些特定的信息或章节。
办理(osu毕业证书)美国俄勒冈州立大学毕业证【微信：741003700 】价值很高，需要妥善保管。一般来说，应放置在安全、干燥、防潮的地方，避免长时间暴露在阳光下。如需使用，最好使用复印件而不是原件，以免丢失。
综上所述，办理(osu毕业证书)美国俄勒冈州立大学毕业证【微信：741003700 】是证明身份和学历的高价值文件。外观简单庄重，格式统一，包括重要的个人信息和发布日期。对持有人来说，妥善保管是非常重要的。

OOPS_Lab_Manual - programs using C++ programming language

This manual contains programs on object oriented programming concepts using C++ language.

smart pill dispenser is designed to improve medication adherence and safety f...

Smart Pill Dispenser that boosts medication adherence, empowers patients, enables remote monitoring, enhances safety, reduces healthcare costs, and contributes to data-driven healthcare improvements

DESIGN AND MANUFACTURE OF CEILING BOARD USING SAWDUST AND WASTE CARTON MATERI...

The need for ecofriendly materials as building materials in this century cannot be overemphasized

Assistant Engineer (Chemical) Interview Questions.pdf

These are interview questions for the post of Assistant Engineer (Chemical)

Unit -II Spectroscopy - EC I B.Tech.pdf

Chemical engineering and electronics engineering and chemical development of the day of the almighty paw paw paw

Determination of Equivalent Circuit parameters and performance characteristic...

Includes the testing of induction motor to draw the circle diagram of induction motor with step wise procedure and calculation for the same. Also explains the working and application of Induction generator

Blood finder application project report (1).pdf

Blood Finder is an emergency time app where a user can search for the blood banks as
well as the registered blood donors around Mumbai. This application also provide an
opportunity for the user of this application to become a registered donor for this user have
to enroll for the donor request from the application itself. If the admin wish to make user
a registered donor, with some of the formalities with the organization it can be done.
Specialization of this application is that the user will not have to register on sign-in for
searching the blood banks and blood donors it can be just done by installing the
application to the mobile.
The purpose of making this application is to save the user’s time for searching blood of
needed blood group during the time of the emergency.
This is an android application developed in Java and XML with the connectivity of
SQLite database. This application will provide most of basic functionality required for an
emergency time application. All the details of Blood banks and Blood donors are stored
in the database i.e. SQLite.
This application allowed the user to get all the information regarding blood banks and
blood donors such as Name, Number, Address, Blood Group, rather than searching it on
the different websites and wasting the precious time. This application is effective and
user friendly.

Bituminous road construction project based learning report

Road construction is not as easy as it seems to be, it includes various steps and it starts with its designing and
structure including the traffic volume consideration. Then base layer is done by bulldozers and levelers and after
base surface coating has to be done. For giving road a smooth surface with flexibility, Asphalt concrete is used.
Asphalt requires an aggregate sub base material layer, and then a base layer to be put into first place. Asphalt road
construction is formulated to support the heavy traffic load and climatic conditions. It is 100% recyclable and
saving non renewable natural resources.
With the advancement of technology, Asphalt technology gives assurance about the good drainage system and with
skid resistance it can be used where safety is necessary such as outsidethe schools.
The largest use of Asphalt is for making asphalt concrete for road surfaces. It is widely used in airports around the
world due to the sturdiness and ability to be repaired quickly, it is widely used for runways dedicated to aircraft
landing and taking off. Asphalt is normally stored and transported at 150’C or 300’F temperature

一比一原版(uofo毕业证书)美国俄勒冈大学毕业证如何办理

原版一模一样【微信：741003700 】【(uofo毕业证书)美国俄勒冈大学毕业证成绩单】【微信：741003700 】学位证，留信认证（真实可查，永久存档）原件一模一样纸张工艺/offer、雅思、外壳等材料/诚信可靠,可直接看成品样本，帮您解决无法毕业带来的各种难题！外壳，原版制作，诚信可靠，可直接看成品样本。行业标杆！精益求精，诚心合作，真诚制作！多年品质 ,按需精细制作，24小时接单,全套进口原装设备。十五年致力于帮助留学生解决难题，包您满意。
本公司拥有海外各大学样板无数，能完美还原。
1:1完美还原海外各大学毕业材料上的工艺：水印，阴影底纹，钢印LOGO烫金烫银，LOGO烫金烫银复合重叠。文字图案浮雕、激光镭射、紫外荧光、温感、复印防伪等防伪工艺。材料咨询办理、认证咨询办理请加学历顾问Q/微741003700
【主营项目】
一.毕业证【q微741003700】成绩单、使馆认证、教育部认证、雅思托福成绩单、学生卡等！
二.真实使馆公证(即留学回国人员证明,不成功不收费)
三.真实教育部学历学位认证（教育部存档！教育部留服网站永久可查）
四.办理各国各大学文凭(一对一专业服务,可全程监控跟踪进度)
如果您处于以下几种情况：
◇在校期间，因各种原因未能顺利毕业……拿不到官方毕业证【q/微741003700】
◇面对父母的压力，希望尽快拿到；
◇不清楚认证流程以及材料该如何准备；
◇回国时间很长，忘记办理；
◇回国马上就要找工作，办给用人单位看；
◇企事业单位必须要求办理的
◇需要报考公务员、购买免税车、落转户口
◇申请留学生创业基金
留信网认证的作用:
1:该专业认证可证明留学生真实身份
2:同时对留学生所学专业登记给予评定
3:国家专业人才认证中心颁发入库证书
4:这个认证书并且可以归档倒地方
5:凡事获得留信网入网的信息将会逐步更新到个人身份内，将在公安局网内查询个人身份证信息后，同步读取人才网入库信息
6:个人职称评审加20分
7:个人信誉贷款加10分
8:在国家人才网主办的国家网络招聘大会中纳入资料，供国家高端企业选择人才
办理(uofo毕业证书)美国俄勒冈大学毕业证【微信：741003700 】外观非常简单，由纸质材料制成，上面印有校徽、校名、毕业生姓名、专业等信息。
办理(uofo毕业证书)美国俄勒冈大学毕业证【微信：741003700 】格式相对统一，各专业都有相应的模板。通常包括以下部分：
校徽：象征着学校的荣誉和传承。
校名:学校英文全称
授予学位：本部分将注明获得的具体学位名称。
毕业生姓名：这是最重要的信息之一，标志着该证书是由特定人员获得的。
颁发日期：这是毕业正式生效的时间，也代表着毕业生学业的结束。
其他信息：根据不同的专业和学位，可能会有一些特定的信息或章节。
办理(uofo毕业证书)美国俄勒冈大学毕业证【微信：741003700 】价值很高，需要妥善保管。一般来说，应放置在安全、干燥、防潮的地方，避免长时间暴露在阳光下。如需使用，最好使用复印件而不是原件，以免丢失。
综上所述，办理(uofo毕业证书)美国俄勒冈大学毕业证【微信：741003700 】是证明身份和学历的高价值文件。外观简单庄重，格式统一，包括重要的个人信息和发布日期。对持有人来说，妥善保管是非常重要的。

Transformers design and coooling methods

Transformer Design

一比一原版(USF毕业证)旧金山大学毕业证如何办理

原件一模一样【微信：95270640】【旧金山大学毕业证USF学位证成绩单】【微信：95270640】（留信学历认证永久存档查询）采用学校原版纸张、特殊工艺完全按照原版一比一制作（包括：隐形水印，阴影底纹，钢印LOGO烫金烫银，LOGO烫金烫银复合重叠，文字图案浮雕，激光镭射，紫外荧光，温感，复印防伪）行业标杆！精益求精，诚心合作，真诚制作！多年品质 ,按需精细制作，24小时接单,全套进口原装设备，十五年致力于帮助留学生解决难题，业务范围有加拿大、英国、澳洲、韩国、美国、新加坡，新西兰等学历材料，包您满意。
【业务选择办理准则】
一、工作未确定，回国需先给父母、亲戚朋友看下文凭的情况，办理一份就读学校的毕业证【微信：95270640】文凭即可
二、回国进私企、外企、自己做生意的情况，这些单位是不查询毕业证真伪的，而且国内没有渠道去查询国外文凭的真假，也不需要提供真实教育部认证。鉴于此，办理一份毕业证【微信：95270640】即可
三、进国企，银行，事业单位，考公务员等等，这些单位是必需要提供真实教育部认证的，办理教育部认证所需资料众多且烦琐，所有材料您都必须提供原件，我们凭借丰富的经验，快捷的绿色通道帮您快速整合材料，让您少走弯路。
留信网认证的作用:
1:该专业认证可证明留学生真实身份【微信：95270640】
2:同时对留学生所学专业登记给予评定
3:国家专业人才认证中心颁发入库证书
4:这个认证书并且可以归档倒地方
5:凡事获得留信网入网的信息将会逐步更新到个人身份内，将在公安局网内查询个人身份证信息后，同步读取人才网入库信息
6:个人职称评审加20分
7:个人信誉贷款加10分
8:在国家人才网主办的国家网络招聘大会中纳入资料，供国家高端企业选择人才
→ 【关于价格问题（保证一手价格）
我们所定的价格是非常合理的，而且我们现在做得单子大多数都是代理和回头客户介绍的所以一般现在有新的单子 我给客户的都是第一手的代理价格，因为我想坦诚对待大家 不想跟大家在价格方面浪费时间
对于老客户或者被老客户介绍过来的朋友，我们都会适当给一些优惠。
选择实体注册公司办理，更放心，更安全！我们的承诺：可来公司面谈，可签订合同，会陪同客户一起到教育部认证窗口递交认证材料，客户在教育部官方认证查询网站查询到认证通过结果后付款，不成功不收费！
办理旧金山大学毕业证毕业证学位证USF学位证【微信：95270640 】外观非常精致，由特殊纸质材料制成，上面印有校徽、校名、毕业生姓名、专业等信息。
办理旧金山大学毕业证USF学位证毕业证学位证【微信：95270640 】格式相对统一，各专业都有相应的模板。通常包括以下部分：
校徽：象征着学校的荣誉和传承。
校名:学校英文全称
授予学位：本部分将注明获得的具体学位名称。
毕业生姓名：这是最重要的信息之一，标志着该证书是由特定人员获得的。
颁发日期：这是毕业正式生效的时间，也代表着毕业生学业的结束。
其他信息：根据不同的专业和学位，可能会有一些特定的信息或章节。
办理旧金山大学毕业证毕业证学位证USF学位证【微信：95270640 】价值很高，需要妥善保管。一般来说，应放置在安全、干燥、防潮的地方，避免长时间暴露在阳光下。如需使用，最好使用复印件而不是原件，以免丢失。
综上所述，办理旧金山大学毕业证毕业证学位证USF学位证【微信：95270640 】是证明身份和学历的高价值文件。外观简单庄重，格式统一，包括重要的个人信息和发布日期。对持有人来说，妥善保管是非常重要的。

P5 Working Drawings.pdf floor plan, civil

Various architectural drawings presentation

Introduction to Computer Networks & OSI MODEL.ppt

Introduction to Computer Networks

AI + Data Community Tour - Build the Next Generation of Apps with the Einstei...

AI + Data Community Tour - Build the Next Generation of Apps with the Einstei...Paris Salesforce Developer Group

Build the Next Generation of Apps with the Einstein 1 Platform.
Rejoignez Philippe Ozil pour une session de workshops qui vous guidera à travers les détails de la plateforme Einstein 1, l'importance des données pour la création d'applications d'intelligence artificielle et les différents outils et technologies que Salesforce propose pour vous apporter tous les bénéfices de l'IA.Accident detection system project report.pdf

The Rapid growth of technology and infrastructure has made our lives easier. The
advent of technology has also increased the traffic hazards and the road accidents take place
frequently which causes huge loss of life and property because of the poor emergency facilities.
Many lives could have been saved if emergency service could get accident information and
reach in time. Our project will provide an optimum solution to this draw back. A piezo electric
sensor can be used as a crash or rollover detector of the vehicle during and after a crash. With
signals from a piezo electric sensor, a severe accident can be recognized. According to this
project when a vehicle meets with an accident immediately piezo electric sensor will detect the
signal or if a car rolls over. Then with the help of GSM module and GPS module, the location
will be sent to the emergency contact. Then after conforming the location necessary action will
be taken. If the person meets with a small accident or if there is no serious threat to anyone’s
life, then the alert message can be terminated by the driver by a switch provided in order to
avoid wasting the valuable time of the medical rescue team.

This study Examines the Effectiveness of Talent Procurement through the Imple...

This study Examines the Effectiveness of Talent Procurement through the Imple...

ITSM Integration with MuleSoft.pptx

ITSM Integration with MuleSoft.pptx

Zener Diode and its V-I Characteristics and Applications

Zener Diode and its V-I Characteristics and Applications

一比一原版(osu毕业证书)美国俄勒冈州立大学毕业证如何办理

一比一原版(osu毕业证书)美国俄勒冈州立大学毕业证如何办理

OOPS_Lab_Manual - programs using C++ programming language

OOPS_Lab_Manual - programs using C++ programming language

smart pill dispenser is designed to improve medication adherence and safety f...

smart pill dispenser is designed to improve medication adherence and safety f...

DESIGN AND MANUFACTURE OF CEILING BOARD USING SAWDUST AND WASTE CARTON MATERI...

DESIGN AND MANUFACTURE OF CEILING BOARD USING SAWDUST AND WASTE CARTON MATERI...

Assistant Engineer (Chemical) Interview Questions.pdf

Assistant Engineer (Chemical) Interview Questions.pdf

Unit -II Spectroscopy - EC I B.Tech.pdf

Unit -II Spectroscopy - EC I B.Tech.pdf

1FIDIC-CONSTRUCTION-CONTRACT-2ND-ED-2017-RED-BOOK.pdf

1FIDIC-CONSTRUCTION-CONTRACT-2ND-ED-2017-RED-BOOK.pdf

Determination of Equivalent Circuit parameters and performance characteristic...

Determination of Equivalent Circuit parameters and performance characteristic...

Blood finder application project report (1).pdf

Blood finder application project report (1).pdf

Bituminous road construction project based learning report

Bituminous road construction project based learning report

一比一原版(uofo毕业证书)美国俄勒冈大学毕业证如何办理

一比一原版(uofo毕业证书)美国俄勒冈大学毕业证如何办理

Transformers design and coooling methods

Transformers design and coooling methods

一比一原版(USF毕业证)旧金山大学毕业证如何办理

一比一原版(USF毕业证)旧金山大学毕业证如何办理

P5 Working Drawings.pdf floor plan, civil

P5 Working Drawings.pdf floor plan, civil

Introduction to Computer Networks & OSI MODEL.ppt

Introduction to Computer Networks & OSI MODEL.ppt

AI + Data Community Tour - Build the Next Generation of Apps with the Einstei...

AI + Data Community Tour - Build the Next Generation of Apps with the Einstei...

Accident detection system project report.pdf

Accident detection system project report.pdf

- 1. Chapter No. 6 Linear Motion Page 1 CHAPTER No. 6 KINEMATICS: LINEAR MOTION 6. Introduction: 6.1 Dynamics: It is the branch of Applied Mechanics which deals with the analysis of the bodies in motion. It is divided into two branches or parts: a) Kinematics and b) Kinetics 6.1.1 Kinematics: It is the study of the motion of bodies without consideration of the causes of motion such as mass of the body and forces acting on the body. 6.1.2 Kinetics: It is the study of the motion of bodies with consideration of the causes of motion such as mass of the body and forces acting on the body. 1. Introduction to various types of motions: It covers the study of 1.1 Rectilinear Motion 1.2 Motion under Gravity 1.3 Relative Motion (without consideration of the forces producing the change in motion) Before going to study the types of motion, it is very important to study some terminologies, which are mentioned as below:
- 2. Chapter No. 6 Linear Motion Page 2 a) Force: An external agency which causes change in the motion or in the state of the particle or body is known as force. Fig. a The above figure shows the position of a ball due to application of a force F before and after applies to it. b) Motion: The action of changing the position of a body is known as a motion. c) Path: The curve followed by a particle during its motion in space is known as the path. It can be rectilinear (straight line) or curved. d) Displacement (s): If the body is moved from initial position A to final position B as shown in figure below then a straight line distance AB is known as the displacement. So it is a movement of the particle from initial point to final point measured along a straight line. Following figure shows that the body may follow various paths to move from A to B but the shortest path or distance between A and B is the displacement. Displacement is a vector quantity having magnitude and direction. Its S.I. unit is metre (m).
- 3. Chapter No. 6 Linear Motion Page 3 Fig. 6.1 e) Velocity: A velocity is defined as the rate of change of displacement with time. V = 𝑑𝑠 𝑑𝑡 Also it is defined as the distance covered per unit time in the given direction. V = 𝑠 𝑡 Its S.I. unit is metre/second (m/s); other units are km/hour or kmph. It is a vector quantity having magnitude and direction. f) Average Velocity: It is defined as the ratio of the resultant displacement to the total time required to cover it. Here resultant displacement is sum of velocities at different time. Average Velocity = 𝑅𝑒𝑠𝑢𝑙𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡 𝐷𝑖𝑠𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑐𝑒𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑇𝑖𝑚𝑒 𝑇𝑎𝑘𝑒𝑛 g) Uniform Velocity: If the velocity of a particle is constant in magnitude and direction with respect to time, then it is known as uniform velocity i.e. equal distances are covered in equal time intervals.
- 4. Chapter No. 6 Linear Motion Page 4 h) Speed: Speed is defined as the rate of covering the distance with respect to time irrespective of its direction. Speed = Distance or lenght of path Time Required Speed is a scalar quantity. S.I. unit is m/s; other units are km/hour or kmph. i) Acceleration: Acceleration is defined as the rate of change of velocity with respective to time. Acceleration = Change in Velocity Time = dv dt It is also a vector quantity having magnitude and direction. S.I. unit is m/sec2. Other unit is cm/sec2 . j) Retardation: If velocity decreases with time, the acceleration becomes negative which is known as retardation or deceleration. k) Uniform Acceleration: If the velocity of a body changes by equal magnitude in equal intervals continuously, the acceleration is known as uniform acceleration or constant acceleration. l) Variable Acceleration: If the change in velocity per unite time is not constant in a continuous motion, then the corresponding acceleration is known as variable acceleration.
- 5. Chapter No. 6 Linear Motion Page 5 2.1 Rectilinear Motion: Motion of the particle along the straight line path is known as a rectilinear motion. a) Uniformly Accelerated Rectilinear Motion b) Motion Under Variable Acceleration ( as a function of time, velocity or displacement) a) Motion with uniform acceleration: Fig. 6.2 Following Figure 6.2 shows a particle in a straight line (rectilinear) motion, travelling a distance ‘s’ from A to B in time ‘t’. S= displacement in m u= initially velocity in m/s v= final velocity in m/s t= time required in sec. The velocity is changes uniformly from ‘u’ to ‘v’ during time ‘t’. So the acceleration ‘a’ is uniform or constant. Equations of motion with uniform Acceleration: 1) Change in Velocity = (v-u) in time ‘t’ ∴ Acceleration = a = (v − u) t ∴ at = v − u
- 6. Chapter No. 6 Linear Motion Page 6 ∴ 𝐯 = 𝐮 + 𝐚𝐭 ------------- (1) i.e. Final Velocity = Initial velocity + Change in Velocity ‘a’ is positive if velocity increases ‘a’ is negative if velocity decreases i.e. retardation acceleration 2) Average velocity = (u+v) 2 ∴ Distance Travelled = s = Average Velocity x time ∴ S = (u+v) 2 x t ∴ S = (u+(u+at)) 2 x t ∴ S = 𝐮𝐭 + 𝟏 𝟐 𝐚𝐭 𝟐 ---------- (2) 3) From equation v = u + at Squaring both sides, v2 = (u + at) 2 = u2 + 2uat + v2 = u2 + 2a (ut + 1 2 at2) v2 = u2 + 2 as ------- (3) Therefore the basic equations of rectilinear motion with uniform acceleration are 1) 𝐯 = 𝐮 + 𝐚𝐭 2) S = 𝐮𝐭 + 𝟏 𝟐 𝐚𝐭 𝟐 3) V2 = u2 + 2 as 2. MOTION UNDER GRAVITY 2.1 Gravitational Motion 1) Every body or a particle experiences a force of attraction of the earth. This force of attraction is called as Gravitational force.
- 7. Chapter No. 6 Linear Motion Page 7 2) According to Newton’s second law of motion this force produces acceleration in the body which is directed towards the center of the earth. This acceleration is known as gravitational acceleration. 3) The distance travelled by the freely falling body is relatively very small on the surface of the earth. So the gravitational acceleration .It is treated as constant which is denoted as ‘g’ and its value are assumed constant as 9.81 m/s2. 2.2 Freely Falling Body: Following figure 6.3 shows a body or a particle P which falls freely down in the vertical direction. It is under the action of a force of gravity only. Such a body is known as freely falling body. Fig. 6.3 The velocity of such a body increases uniformly from zero as it moves vertically downwards. The change in the velocity is constant with respect to time. So the body is under constant gravitational acceleration. Such rectilinear motion is known as motion under gravity with constant gravitational acceleration.
- 8. Chapter No. 6 Linear Motion Page 8 2.3 Equations of Motion under Gravity: The motion under gravity is a rectilinear motion with uniform acceleration. Therefore its equation of motion can be obtained by substituting ‘g’ in place of ‘a’ in the three basic equations of motion. For freely falling body for vertically downward motion: 1) v = u + gt 2) S = ut + 1 2 gt2 3) V2 = u2 + 2 g s For vertically upward motion: 1) v = u − gt 2) S = ut − 1 2 gt2 3) V2 = u2 - 2 g s Sign Convention: Acceleration due to gravity is considered as positive when body is moving downward and the same is considered as negative when the body is moving upward. 3. MOTION UNDER VARIABLE ACCELERATION: 1) If the change in the velocity of the body is not constant w.r.t. time the motion has variable acceleration. 2) For the study of such motion, the equation of motion should be given in terms of displacement or velocity and acceleration and time. 3) Then the displacement, velocity and acceleration can be calculated by using two methods. i) Differentiation Method ii) Integration Method i) Differentiation Method The method is useful in finding velocity and acceleration if the equation of motion is given in terms of displacement and time. First differentiation of this equation w.r.t time gives the acceleration and second differentiation gives the acceleration.
- 9. Chapter No. 6 Linear Motion Page 9 e.g. if s= 4t3+ 3t2+ 2t+1 -------(1) Then diff. eqn (1) w.r.t. time ‘t’ 𝑑𝑠 𝑑𝑡 = v = 12 t2+ 6t+2 ------ (2) Diff. eqn (2) w.r.t. time ‘t’ 𝑑𝑣 𝑑𝑡 = d dt ( ds dt ) = a = 24 t + 6 ------ (3) ii) Integration Method: This method is useful when the equation of motion is given in terms of acceleration and time. Successive integration of this equation w.r.t time gives the velocity and displacement in terms of time. e.g. if a = 24 t + 6 --------(1) Integrating equation (1) w.r.t. time ‘t’ v = 12 t2+ 6t+2 +C1 -------- (2) Again integrating equation (1) w.r.t. time ‘t’ s= 4t3+ 3t2+ 2t+1+C1t+ C2 ------- (6) The constants of integration C1 and C2 can be calculated by applying initial conditions which are given in the problem. 4. GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OF MOTION A rectilinear motion can be studied graphically by plotting various curves of motion or motion diagrams as listed below: 1) Displacement – Time Curve ( s-t curve) 2) Velocity – Time Curve ( v-t curve) 3) Acceleration– Time Curve ( a-t curve)
- 10. Chapter No. 6 Linear Motion Page 10 1) Displacement – Time Curve ( s-t curve): i) Uniform Velocity: Fig. 6.4.a s-t curve for uniform velocity is a straight line giving constant slope as shown in Figure 6.4.a Velocity = V = slope = tan θ = constant ii) Variable Velocity: Fig. 6.4.b s-t curve for variable velocity is a curved line. The instantaneous velocity is given by slope of the tangent to the curve as that instant as shown in Figure 6.4.b 𝑽 = 𝒅𝒔 𝒅𝒕 ---------Where v = which varies from point to point
- 11. Chapter No. 6 Linear Motion Page 11 2) Velocity – Time Curve ( v-t curve) i) Uniform Velocity: Fig. 6.4.c Area under v-t curve gives the distance travelled in the given time. Distance travelled = s = v x t = Area under the curve (see hatched portion) ii) Variable velocity (Uniform acceleration): Fig. 6.4.d
- 12. Chapter No. 6 Linear Motion Page 12 For variable velocity, v-t curve is a straight line with constant slope if the acceleration is uniform as shown in Figure 6.4.d above. Acceleration = a = tan θ = slope The area under the curve gives the distance covered. (See hatched portion) Iii) Variable velocity (Variable acceleration): Fig. 6.4.e For variable acceleration, v-t curve is a curved line. So instantaneous acceleration is given by the slope of curve at that instant as shown in Figure 6.4.e. A = 𝒅𝒗 𝒅𝒕 = at instant t. 3) Acceleration– Time Curve ( a-t curve): i) Uniform Acceleration: A straight horizontal line on a-t curve shows uniform acceleration as shown in Figure 6.4.f. Area under this curve gives the change in velocity with respect to time.
- 13. Chapter No. 6 Linear Motion Page 13 Fig. 6.4.f ii) Variable Acceleration: Fig. 6.4.g A curved line of a-t curve indicates the variable acceleration as shown in figure 6.4.g. Area under this curve in a particular time interval gives the change in velocity in that interval of time.
- 14. Chapter No. 6 Linear Motion Page 14 5. CONCEPT OF RELATIVE MOTION: 6.1 Relative Velocity (Vr): Definition: When the distance between any two particles is changing either in magnitude or in direction or in both, each particle is said to have motion or velocity relative to each other. Such velocity is known as relative velocity (Vr) and the corresponding motion is known as relative motion. i) If two particles A and B are in motion with the velocities Va and Vb respectively, then the velocity of A as seen by observer placed on B is known as relative velocity of A with respect to B. ii) Similarly, the velocity of B as seen by observer on A is known as relative velocity of B w.r.t. to A. a) MOTION IN SAME DIRECTION: If the two velocities are in the same direction such that Va > Vb as shown in figure 6.6.a then the relative velocity Vr of A w.r.t. B is given by Vr= Va – Vb in the same direction. Fig 6.6.a Fig 6.6.b b) MOTION IN SAME DIRECTION: If the two velocities are in the opposite direction as shown in figure 6.6.b then the relative velocity is given by Vr= Va + Vb along the same line of motion.
- 15. Chapter No. 6 Linear Motion Page 15 DETERMINTION OF LEAST DISTANCE BETWEEN MOVING BODIES: Velocities 𝑉𝑎 and 𝑉𝑏 of the two moving bodies A and B respectively are given at any instant. The positions A and B are also known at the given instant so that distance 𝐴𝐵 is known. The relative velocity of B w.r.t. A i.e. Draw a perpendicular AC from A on Knowing and angles and in ABC can be calculated. Form right angled the least distance or the shortest distance between the two moving bodies A and B is given by length AC = AB cos = AB sin
- 16. Chapter No. 6 Linear Motion Page 16