AT H E N S• The geography of ancient Greece was divided into three regions: the coast, the lowlands,and the mountains. The rocky and uneven soil on the peninsula of Greece allowed for lessthan 20 percent of the land to be farmed, so the Greeks relied heavily on imports of grainsand other foods from other regions around the Mediterranean.• Athens grew from its focal point, the Acropolis, which became the ceremonial center of the city-state, decked with temples including the Parthenon.• It has organic plan.• Propylea, is the main entrance gate at Athens.• Agora was the center of Athenian life. Laid out in the 6th century B.C., northwest of the Acropolis, it was a square lined by public buildings, which served Athens needs for commerce and politics.• The streets of Athens as narrow and tortuous, unpaved, unlighted, and more like a chaos of mud and sewage than even the usual Greek road.
ACROPOLISThe Acropolis hill, so called the "Sacred originated from thethe most important The entire development of Athens has Rock" of Athens, is acropolis. It is thesite ofpoint of Athens. focal the city.
Neolithic Era - 6000BC-1600BC Early settlements chose to stay on top of the hill SEA the people kept in close contact with the coasts Gradually they descended down the slope towards the northern and southern sides
The early Bronze Age (3200–2000 BC)InDuring this age feudalthe northern parts also the later bronze age system existed. The settlements started expanding over wider area . Theystarted developing and expanding. started moving towards the sea. SLAVES FREEMEN KING FARMERS
DARK AGES (1.150 BC/1.100 BC – 900 BC) Invasion of Peloponnesse which came as a blow and the Athenians took time to stand up again. The attack resulted in the reduction of population.
GEOMETRIC PERIOD(900 BC – 800/750 BC)Athens suffered a heavy blow, perhaps on account of adrought followed by famine and epidemic diseases.
ARCHAIC ATHENS (800 BC/750 BC -494 BC) No concrete town built the Peisistratos planning appears Forhavefirst timethe first wall around thean to the existed; streets of the city were in city. This wall was underground aqueduct their majority narrow and almost constructed to was circular and had irregularbring water fromthe eight gates. Many mount in shape, while inhabitants built their houses monuments were built Hymettus. arbitrarily Acropolis on theThe city was again attacked destroyed, this time by Persians
Classical Athens(494 BC -478 BC) • City rebuilt according to plan devised by Hippodamus • Themistocles wall was built around the city. Athens soon prospered again.
• Hippodamos devised an ideal Peiraeus grew in importance. Ship sheds and dry The port of the harbour-town city to be inhabited by 50,000 people docks were constructed for the warships. He planned the arrangement Peiraeus• HeAthens in the middle ofproblemscentury BC. linked them to the state at studied the functional the fifth of cities and administration system.• As a result he divided the citizens into three classes (soldiers, artisans and husbandmen), with the land also divided into three (sacred, public and private). Broad, straight streets Right angles Open space for development of agora
• The placement of buildings were decided on natural factors such as the morphology of the land• For eg. The theatres were generally built around a slope to provide natural seating.• The Agora was built over a flat surface.• The houses were generally placed along the southern slope and part of Acropolis facing the sea.
Hellenistic Athens (339 BC - 168 BC)• Demand for regularity.• Acropolis was the initial core. Some main streets started at its entrance, as well as from the road immediately surrounding it, proceeded radially throughout the city and came to an end at the city wall gates. In doing so, they left some free areas, the most important of which was Agora.
Roman Athens(183 BC-BC 31) ACROPOLIS NEW ROMAN CLOSED AGORA- HOUSES AND BUILDINGS HERE NEW WERE DEMOLISHED. ATHENIAN AGORA- NEW BUILDINGS BUILT HERE
The Last Roman Century and Medieval Athens 330 - 1000 & The first period of the Byzantine/GreekEmpire & The Athenian renaissance(1000-1205) & and Ottoman Empire (1456-1689)The Athenian empire was limited to the post roman fortification withdevelopment of smaller towns around it. These merged later to form Athens as wesee today.
The road network was elaborated in part as spokes with hubs at circular • The New City was as horizontals and verticals in thetriangle,and not peak•• plazas, and in part maintainedwouldasthe Old one, while extendingits as a The Old City included about half ofbe an isosceles direction of the main The shape of the main axes only a geographical space, with from ATHENS IN THE 19th CENTURY •Kleanthes and Schaubert and the East. capitalby Piraeus city of Akropolis,• axes, the West,zone, Square, was anticipatedotheritsfor ofandthe35,000 to at to always orientation was aimed at Piraeus and primarily Old City, Its entire itat today’s OmoniaNorth it its sides definedthat half a the Stadiou construction the since developed a The plan largest section would with absolute regularity. 40,000 be expropriatedroads andbase. embrace. wasdivided up by new for in its open whoseand Ermou Street archaeological excavation. streets, feet it spread out as an in 1833 Athens had only 4,000 citizens. be to inhabitants even though standard rectangular building lots. PIRAEUS HORIZONTAL & VERTICAL SPOKES AT CIRCULAR PLAZAS ACROPOLIS
FORMATION OFSQUARE BY FOURBOULEVARDSAND TO HOUSETHE ROYALPALACE
• Strict planning and grid patterns are less necessary to the southern city.Leo von Klenze’s plan (1834)• They are more organic inconceptandthe the south in his plan.Expansion was directed the development.This planner believed in to the west of to southern city.• Streets and squares are smaller in size. Thus he left the existing city, especially its residential parts, untouched.
WE SEE THE GROWTH IN THE CITY OF ATHENS (1870) IN THE KAUPERT PLAN
ATHENS IN THE 20th CENTURY• In 1960-64 the first Athens Regional Plan was created to remedy problems stemming from the vast population increase of 4,000 in 1833 to 1,490,000 in 1959.• There was a lot of revising of such plans, under the fascist government, but not much implementation. In 1982 the socialist government set up local and national planning boards but they were ineffective
SOURCES• INTERNET:• http://www.athens-today.com/• http://www.eie.gr/archaeologia/En/chapter_more_9.aspx• http://athang1504.blogspot.com/2011/01/ancient-athens.html• http://www.skyscrapercity.com/showthread.php?p=23182822• http://ancientathens3d.com/ottomanathensEn.htm• BOOKS:• HISTORY OF HUMAN SETTLEMENT• TOWN PLANNING REPORTS FROM SPA LIBRARY