Harappa and Mohenjo- Indus River ValleyDaro were two of thefirst cities of the IndusRiver Valley. - intricately planned - houses equal in size - no palaces - no monuments
Diffusion to Greece• Knossos emerged as the leading city of the Minoan Civilization about 3,500 yrs. ago.• Greece emerged as one of the most highly urbanized areas on earth with over 500 cities and towns by 500 BC• Athens was the largest city in the world with 250,000.
• Each Greek city had an acropolis (high city) for defense.• The most famous is the acropolis of Athens (447BC)• Below the acropolis was the agora or market place• Theaters, shops and stores of all kinds were available.• Despite the modern features-sanitation was still primitive
Athens, Greece below-the agoraabove the acropolis
Roman Urban System• The Romans created the largest urban system with an excellent transportation system• The Romans were masters of engineering efficiency creating aqueducts, sewers, roads, bridges and great public buildings like arenas and baths.
• Roman cities had great contrast-great villas & spacious avenues, aqueducts, baths and sewers, yet also –• Wretchedly poor housing in 4-5 story over-crowded tenements, dirty, noisy, crime-ridden streets and a population composed of ½ slaves.• With the collapse of the empire the city of 1 ½ m. shrunk to less than 50,000
Urban Growth Elsewhere• China-rapid growth in the Han Dynasty period-Xian became the Rome of East Asia.• Timbuktu developed in West Africa in the 14th cent. While Meroe on the upper Nile developed advanced metallurgy.• Tenochtitlan, the Aztec capital was the most advanced city in the world with 100,000 by the 16th cent.
Huang He and Wei River ValleysThe Chinese purposefully planned their cities. - centered on a vertical structure - inner wall built around center - temples and palaces for the leadership classTerracotta Warriors guarding the tomb ofthe Chinese Emperor Qin Xi Huang