SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 21
Keval K. Patil, M.E.-DESIGN, (kevalpatil@gmail.com)
1. Low hardenability.
2. Low corrosion and oxidation resistance.
3. Major loss of hardness on stress-relieving tempering treatment.
4. Poor high temperature properties.
Note- The limitations of carbon steels are overcome by the use of
alloy steels. The presence of alloying elements, not only enhances the
outstanding characteristics of plain carbon steels, but improves some
other properties, or even induces specific properties.
Keval K. Patil, M.E.-DESIGN, (kevalpatil@gmail.com) 2
 The alloying elements not only improve the hardenability, improve
corrosion and oxidation resistance, increase resistance to softening on
tempering, increase high temperature properties, but also increase
resistance to abrasion, and increase strength of the parts that cannot be
subjected to quenching due to physical limitation of parts or the
structure in which it is employed.
 Alloy steels are expensive and may require more elaborate processing,
handling and even heat treatment cycles.
 Every effort should thus, be made to use carbon steels.
 Care should be taken that many inherent properties of plain carbon
steels cannot be improved by adding alloying elements in it.
 Stiffness is one such property which is measured by relationship
between stress and strain within elastic range i.e. by modulus of
elasticity.
 Alloying elements enhance the elastic limit but the modulus of elasticity
is the same of both the plain carbon and the alloy steels.
 The design of the structure can change the stiffness. Judicious and
cautious use of expensive alloying elements has to be made.
Keval K. Patil, M.E.-DESIGN, (kevalpatil@gmail.com) 3
Carbon
 As I've already stated, the presence of carbon in iron is necessary to make
steel.
 Carbon is essential to the formation of cementite (as well as other carbides),
and to the formation of pearlite, spheroidite, bainite, and iron-carbon
martensite, with martensite being the hardest of the micro-structures, and the
structure sought after by knifemakers.
 The hardness of steel (or more accurately, the hardenability) is increased by
the addition of more carbon, up to about 0.65 percent.
 Wear resistance can be increased in amounts up to about 1.5 percent. Beyond
this amount, increases of carbon reduce toughness and increase brittleness.
 The steels of interest to knifemakers generally contain between 0.5 and 1.5
percent carbon. They are described as follows:
• Low Carbon: Under 0.4 percent
• Medium Carbon: 0.4 - 0.6 percent
• High Carbon: 0.7 - 1.5 percent
 Carbon is the single most important alloying element in steel.
Keval K. Patil, M.E.-DESIGN, (kevalpatil@gmail.com) 4
Manganese
 Manganese slightly increases the strength of ferrite,
and also increases the hardness penetration of steel in
the quench by decreasing the critical quenching speed.
 This also makes the steel more stable in the quench.
 Steels with manganese can be quenched in oil rather
than water, and therefore are less susceptible to
cracking because of a reduction in the shock of
quenching. Manganese is present in most
commercially made steels.
Keval K. Patil, M.E.-DESIGN, (kevalpatil@gmail.com) 5
Chromium
 As with manganese, chromium has a tendency to increase hardness
penetration.
 When 5 percent chromium or more is used in conjunction with
manganese, the critical quenching speed is reduced to the point that
the steel becomes air hardening.
 Chromium can also increase the toughness of steel, as well as the
wear resistance.
 Probably one of the most well known effects of chromium on steel is
the tendency to resist staining and corrosion.
 Steels with 14 percent or more chromium are referred to as stainless
steels. A more accurate term would be stain resistant.
 Stainless tool steels will in fact darken and rust, just not as readily as
the nonstainless varieties.
 Steels with chromium also have higher critical temperatures in heat
treatment.
Keval K. Patil, M.E.-DESIGN, (kevalpatil@gmail.com) 6
Silicon
 Silicon is used as a deoxidizer in the manufacture of steel.
 It slightly increases the strength of ferrite, and when used
in conjunction with other alloys can help increase the
toughness and hardness penetration of steel.
Nickel
 Nickel increases the strength of ferrite, therefore increasing
the strength of the steel.
 It is used in low alloy steels to increase toughness and
hardenability.
 Nickel also tends to help reduce distortion and cracking
during the quenching phase of heat treatment.
Keval K. Patil, M.E.-DESIGN, (kevalpatil@gmail.com) 7
Molybdenum
 Molybdenum increases the hardness penetration of
steel, slows the critical quenching speed, and increases
high temperature tensile strength.
Vanadium
 Vanadium helps control grain growth during heat
treatment.
 By inhibiting grain growth it helps increase the
toughness and strength of the steel.
Keval K. Patil, M.E.-DESIGN, (kevalpatil@gmail.com) 8
Tungsten
 Used in small amounts, tungsten combines with the
free carbides in steel during heat treatment, to produce
high wear resistance with little or no loss of toughness.
 High amounts combined with chromium gives steel a
property known as red hardness.
 This means that the steel will not lose its working
hardness at high temperatures.
 An example of this would be tools designed to cut hard
materials at high speeds, where the friction between
the tool and the material would generate high
temperatures.
Keval K. Patil, M.E.-DESIGN, (kevalpatil@gmail.com) 9
Copper
 The addition of copper in amounts of 0.2 to 0.5 percent
primarily improves steels resistance to atmospheric
corrosion.
 It should be noted that with respect to knife steels, copper
has a detrimental effect to surface quality and to hot-
working behavior due to migration into the grain
boundaries of the steel.
Boron
 Boron can significantly increase the hardenability of steel
without loss of ductility.
 Its effectiveness is most noticeable at lower carbon levels.
 The addition of boron is usually in very small amounts
ranging from 0.0005 to 0.003 percent.
Keval K. Patil, M.E.-DESIGN, (kevalpatil@gmail.com) 10
Titanium
 This element, when used in conjunction
with Boron, increases the effectiveness of
the Boron in the hardenability of steel.
Keval K. Patil, M.E.-DESIGN, (kevalpatil@gmail.com) 11
 As per name tool steels are used for
manufacturing different tools.
 For manufacturing different tools different
properties are required such as hardness,
resistance to abrasion, wear and deformation and
ability to hold a cutting edge at high temperatures.
 Tool steels include large number of alloy
elements.
 Some major alloying elements are tungsten,
chromium, vanadium molybdenum, etc.
Keval K. Patil, M.E.-DESIGN, (kevalpatil@gmail.com) 12
Water Hardening tool steel
 Water hardening tool steel is usually plane carbon steel but some
time alloy elements are used for achieving better properties.
 It is cheap as compare to other tool steel and hence largely used.
 It is goes from water quenched process for hardening.
Shock Resisting tool steel
 As per name, shock resistance tool steels are designed to resist shock
at low and high temperature.
 They contain chromium, tungsten, manganese, silicon, molybdenum
as alloy elements or as group of alloying like chromium-tungsten,
silicon-manganese, etc.
 It shows properties like abrasion resistance and hardenability.
Keval K. Patil, M.E.-DESIGN, (kevalpatil@gmail.com) 13
Cold work tool steel
 Cold work tool steels are use for cutting and forming
materials at low temperature.
 It possesses high hardenability and resistance to wear.
 They go from oil quenching and air hardening as per
requirement of properties.
 Cold work tool steels are again classified in three
types as follow
1. Oil Hardening tool steel
2. Medium alloy air hardening tool steel
3. High carbon, high chromium tool steel
Keval K. Patil, M.E.-DESIGN, (kevalpatil@gmail.com) 14
Hot Work tool steel
 Hot work tool steels are used for forming
materials at high temperature.
 They are again classified in three types and these
are as follow.
1. Chromium base tool steel
2. Tungsten base tool steel
3. Molybdenum base tool steel
Keval K. Patil, M.E.-DESIGN, (kevalpatil@gmail.com) 15
High speed tool steel
 High speed tool steel maintain their hardness at
high temperature and hence it is use in cutting
tools like drills, milling cutters, tool bits, gear
cutters, etc.
 This is again classified in two types according to
alloy elements and these are as follow.
1. Tungsten base tool steel
2. Molybdenum base tool steel
Keval K. Patil, M.E.-DESIGN, (kevalpatil@gmail.com) 16
Special purpose tool steel
 These types of steel are manufacture for achieve
some properties as per requirement.
 For some properties like increased in wear
resistance, high hardness, to hold sharp cutting
edge, etc.
 According to alloy elements they are further
divided in two types and these are as follow.
1. Low alloy tool steel
2. Carbon Tungsten tool steel
Keval K. Patil, M.E.-DESIGN, (kevalpatil@gmail.com) 17
 Stainless steel contains chromium, molybdenum, and
nickel alloying elements in steel, which make it highly
corrosion resistance.
 They do not corrode in most of the environmental
condition.
 Due to this, they are known as stainless steel.
 They are highly corrosion resistance due to this
stainless steel are largely used.
 Stainless steel identify by three numerical numbers
like 304, 310, 440, etc.
 Stainless steels are classified in four types and these
are as follow.
Keval K. Patil, M.E.-DESIGN, (kevalpatil@gmail.com) 18
Austenitic stainless steels
 Austenitic stainless steel contains chromium, nickel and
manganese.
 They are non magnetic.
 Austenitic stainless steel has high strength in high
temperature, resist to scaling and better corrosion
resistance than other types of stainless steel.
 Austenitic steels are not hardenable by heat treatment.
Ferritic stainless steels
 Ferritic stainless steel is straight chromium stainless steel.
 It consist 14 to 27 percent chromium approximately.
 This can be hot worked or cold worked and it is magnetic.
Keval K. Patil, M.E.-DESIGN, (kevalpatil@gmail.com) 19
Martensitic stainless steels
 Martensitic stainless steels found in high or low-carbon
steels, contain 11 to 18 percent chromium.
 Martensitic stainless steel usually tempered and hardened.
 Tempered steel shows good hardness and high toughness.
Duplex stainless steels or austenitic-ferritic stainless steels
 Duplex stainless steels consist two phases that are
austenite and ferrite in metallurgical structure and hence it
is also known as austenitic-ferritic stainless steels.
 It shows High resistance to stress corrosion cracking and
high yield stress than austenitics.
Keval K. Patil, M.E.-DESIGN, (kevalpatil@gmail.com) 20
Keval K. Patil, M.E.-DESIGN, (kevalpatil@gmail.com) 21

More Related Content

What's hot (20)

Trip steel
Trip steelTrip steel
Trip steel
 
Alloy Steel
Alloy SteelAlloy Steel
Alloy Steel
 
Types of steels in use
Types of steels in useTypes of steels in use
Types of steels in use
 
LD process
LD processLD process
LD process
 
Ferrous alloys
Ferrous alloysFerrous alloys
Ferrous alloys
 
04 copper and copper alloys
04 copper and copper alloys04 copper and copper alloys
04 copper and copper alloys
 
Steel making
Steel makingSteel making
Steel making
 
Heat Treatments
Heat TreatmentsHeat Treatments
Heat Treatments
 
Mg alloys
Mg alloysMg alloys
Mg alloys
 
Steel Making: Ingot casting defects
Steel Making: Ingot casting defectsSteel Making: Ingot casting defects
Steel Making: Ingot casting defects
 
TOOL STEELS & THEIR HEAT TREATMENT
TOOL STEELS & THEIR HEAT TREATMENTTOOL STEELS & THEIR HEAT TREATMENT
TOOL STEELS & THEIR HEAT TREATMENT
 
03 magnesium and magnesium alloys
03 magnesium and magnesium alloys03 magnesium and magnesium alloys
03 magnesium and magnesium alloys
 
Hsla steels
Hsla steelsHsla steels
Hsla steels
 
Maraging steel
Maraging steelMaraging steel
Maraging steel
 
Alloy steels
Alloy steelsAlloy steels
Alloy steels
 
Study of Plain Carbon Steel
Study of Plain Carbon Steel Study of Plain Carbon Steel
Study of Plain Carbon Steel
 
High Speed Steel (HSS)
High Speed Steel (HSS)High Speed Steel (HSS)
High Speed Steel (HSS)
 
Aluminium Alloys
Aluminium AlloysAluminium Alloys
Aluminium Alloys
 
Heat treatment of stainless steel
Heat treatment of stainless steelHeat treatment of stainless steel
Heat treatment of stainless steel
 
Thermo Mechanical Treatment
Thermo Mechanical TreatmentThermo Mechanical Treatment
Thermo Mechanical Treatment
 

Similar to Alloying elements

Ferrous and Non Ferrous metals.pptx
Ferrous and Non Ferrous metals.pptxFerrous and Non Ferrous metals.pptx
Ferrous and Non Ferrous metals.pptxravikumark42
 
Engineering materials and metallurgy -Ferrous and Non Ferrous metals 1.pptx
Engineering materials and metallurgy -Ferrous and Non Ferrous metals 1.pptxEngineering materials and metallurgy -Ferrous and Non Ferrous metals 1.pptx
Engineering materials and metallurgy -Ferrous and Non Ferrous metals 1.pptxravikumark42
 
Heat treatment course material
Heat treatment course materialHeat treatment course material
Heat treatment course materialNeeraj Dhakar
 
Steel-is-an-alloy.pdf
Steel-is-an-alloy.pdfSteel-is-an-alloy.pdf
Steel-is-an-alloy.pdfrahul kishore
 
Steel-is-an-alloy.ppt
Steel-is-an-alloy.pptSteel-is-an-alloy.ppt
Steel-is-an-alloy.pptrahul kishore
 
Types of steels used in API & Chemical Manufacturing Industries
Types of steels used in API & Chemical Manufacturing IndustriesTypes of steels used in API & Chemical Manufacturing Industries
Types of steels used in API & Chemical Manufacturing Industriesharish pandey
 
Steels as building material
Steels as building materialSteels as building material
Steels as building materialsuzain ali
 
The alloying elements(final)
The alloying elements(final)The alloying elements(final)
The alloying elements(final)Bilal Ashar
 
13. engg materials
13. engg materials13. engg materials
13. engg materialsrajajha17
 
MSM-5 Ferrous & Non Ferrous Alloy .s.pptx
MSM-5 Ferrous & Non Ferrous Alloy .s.pptxMSM-5 Ferrous & Non Ferrous Alloy .s.pptx
MSM-5 Ferrous & Non Ferrous Alloy .s.pptxhappycocoman
 
aLLOY STEEL 15 for name 205.pptx
aLLOY STEEL 15 for name 205.pptxaLLOY STEEL 15 for name 205.pptx
aLLOY STEEL 15 for name 205.pptxTasmiaHShoily
 

Similar to Alloying elements (20)

ferrous alloys
ferrous alloysferrous alloys
ferrous alloys
 
Steel and steel alloys
Steel and steel alloysSteel and steel alloys
Steel and steel alloys
 
AMM - UNIT 1.pdf
AMM - UNIT 1.pdfAMM - UNIT 1.pdf
AMM - UNIT 1.pdf
 
Ferrous and Non Ferrous metals.pptx
Ferrous and Non Ferrous metals.pptxFerrous and Non Ferrous metals.pptx
Ferrous and Non Ferrous metals.pptx
 
Engineering materials and metallurgy -Ferrous and Non Ferrous metals 1.pptx
Engineering materials and metallurgy -Ferrous and Non Ferrous metals 1.pptxEngineering materials and metallurgy -Ferrous and Non Ferrous metals 1.pptx
Engineering materials and metallurgy -Ferrous and Non Ferrous metals 1.pptx
 
Heat treatment course material
Heat treatment course materialHeat treatment course material
Heat treatment course material
 
Iron
IronIron
Iron
 
Steel-is-an-alloy.pdf
Steel-is-an-alloy.pdfSteel-is-an-alloy.pdf
Steel-is-an-alloy.pdf
 
Steel-is-an-alloy.ppt
Steel-is-an-alloy.pptSteel-is-an-alloy.ppt
Steel-is-an-alloy.ppt
 
Types of steels used in API & Chemical Manufacturing Industries
Types of steels used in API & Chemical Manufacturing IndustriesTypes of steels used in API & Chemical Manufacturing Industries
Types of steels used in API & Chemical Manufacturing Industries
 
Manufacturing
ManufacturingManufacturing
Manufacturing
 
Steels as building material
Steels as building materialSteels as building material
Steels as building material
 
Module 4.ppt
Module 4.pptModule 4.ppt
Module 4.ppt
 
Ece 121 (Steel)
Ece 121 (Steel)Ece 121 (Steel)
Ece 121 (Steel)
 
Alloy steel
Alloy steelAlloy steel
Alloy steel
 
The alloying elements(final)
The alloying elements(final)The alloying elements(final)
The alloying elements(final)
 
13. engg materials
13. engg materials13. engg materials
13. engg materials
 
MSM-5 Ferrous & Non Ferrous Alloy .s.pptx
MSM-5 Ferrous & Non Ferrous Alloy .s.pptxMSM-5 Ferrous & Non Ferrous Alloy .s.pptx
MSM-5 Ferrous & Non Ferrous Alloy .s.pptx
 
Steel Material
Steel MaterialSteel Material
Steel Material
 
aLLOY STEEL 15 for name 205.pptx
aLLOY STEEL 15 for name 205.pptxaLLOY STEEL 15 for name 205.pptx
aLLOY STEEL 15 for name 205.pptx
 

More from Keval Patil

Dynamics of Machinery formulas
Dynamics of Machinery formulasDynamics of Machinery formulas
Dynamics of Machinery formulasKeval Patil
 
Introduction to new materials
Introduction to new materialsIntroduction to new materials
Introduction to new materialsKeval Patil
 
Heat treatment Process
Heat treatment ProcessHeat treatment Process
Heat treatment ProcessKeval Patil
 
Iron iron carbon dia
Iron iron carbon diaIron iron carbon dia
Iron iron carbon diaKeval Patil
 
Failure mechanics: Fatigue Failure
Failure mechanics: Fatigue FailureFailure mechanics: Fatigue Failure
Failure mechanics: Fatigue FailureKeval Patil
 
Failure mechanism part: Fracture
Failure mechanism part: FractureFailure mechanism part: Fracture
Failure mechanism part: FractureKeval Patil
 
Failure mechanism: CREEP
Failure mechanism: CREEPFailure mechanism: CREEP
Failure mechanism: CREEPKeval Patil
 
Strain hardening.
Strain hardening.Strain hardening.
Strain hardening.Keval Patil
 
Lattice imperfection
Lattice imperfectionLattice imperfection
Lattice imperfectionKeval Patil
 
Failure of cutting tools and tool life
Failure of cutting tools and tool lifeFailure of cutting tools and tool life
Failure of cutting tools and tool lifeKeval Patil
 

More from Keval Patil (12)

Dynamics of Machinery formulas
Dynamics of Machinery formulasDynamics of Machinery formulas
Dynamics of Machinery formulas
 
Introduction to new materials
Introduction to new materialsIntroduction to new materials
Introduction to new materials
 
Heat treatment Process
Heat treatment ProcessHeat treatment Process
Heat treatment Process
 
Iron iron carbon dia
Iron iron carbon diaIron iron carbon dia
Iron iron carbon dia
 
TTT & CCT dia
TTT & CCT diaTTT & CCT dia
TTT & CCT dia
 
Failure mechanics: Fatigue Failure
Failure mechanics: Fatigue FailureFailure mechanics: Fatigue Failure
Failure mechanics: Fatigue Failure
 
Failure mechanism part: Fracture
Failure mechanism part: FractureFailure mechanism part: Fracture
Failure mechanism part: Fracture
 
Failure mechanism: CREEP
Failure mechanism: CREEPFailure mechanism: CREEP
Failure mechanism: CREEP
 
Deformation
DeformationDeformation
Deformation
 
Strain hardening.
Strain hardening.Strain hardening.
Strain hardening.
 
Lattice imperfection
Lattice imperfectionLattice imperfection
Lattice imperfection
 
Failure of cutting tools and tool life
Failure of cutting tools and tool lifeFailure of cutting tools and tool life
Failure of cutting tools and tool life
 

Recently uploaded

Earthing details of Electrical Substation
Earthing details of Electrical SubstationEarthing details of Electrical Substation
Earthing details of Electrical Substationstephanwindworld
 
Instrumentation, measurement and control of bio process parameters ( Temperat...
Instrumentation, measurement and control of bio process parameters ( Temperat...Instrumentation, measurement and control of bio process parameters ( Temperat...
Instrumentation, measurement and control of bio process parameters ( Temperat...121011101441
 
CCS355 Neural Networks & Deep Learning Unit 1 PDF notes with Question bank .pdf
CCS355 Neural Networks & Deep Learning Unit 1 PDF notes with Question bank .pdfCCS355 Neural Networks & Deep Learning Unit 1 PDF notes with Question bank .pdf
CCS355 Neural Networks & Deep Learning Unit 1 PDF notes with Question bank .pdfAsst.prof M.Gokilavani
 
Energy Awareness training ppt for manufacturing process.pptx
Energy Awareness training ppt for manufacturing process.pptxEnergy Awareness training ppt for manufacturing process.pptx
Energy Awareness training ppt for manufacturing process.pptxsiddharthjain2303
 
TechTAC® CFD Report Summary: A Comparison of Two Types of Tubing Anchor Catchers
TechTAC® CFD Report Summary: A Comparison of Two Types of Tubing Anchor CatchersTechTAC® CFD Report Summary: A Comparison of Two Types of Tubing Anchor Catchers
TechTAC® CFD Report Summary: A Comparison of Two Types of Tubing Anchor Catcherssdickerson1
 
National Level Hackathon Participation Certificate.pdf
National Level Hackathon Participation Certificate.pdfNational Level Hackathon Participation Certificate.pdf
National Level Hackathon Participation Certificate.pdfRajuKanojiya4
 
Ch10-Global Supply Chain - Cadena de Suministro.pdf
Ch10-Global Supply Chain - Cadena de Suministro.pdfCh10-Global Supply Chain - Cadena de Suministro.pdf
Ch10-Global Supply Chain - Cadena de Suministro.pdfChristianCDAM
 
chpater16.pptxMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
chpater16.pptxMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMchpater16.pptxMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
chpater16.pptxMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMNanaAgyeman13
 
Unit7-DC_Motors nkkjnsdkfnfcdfknfdgfggfg
Unit7-DC_Motors nkkjnsdkfnfcdfknfdgfggfgUnit7-DC_Motors nkkjnsdkfnfcdfknfdgfggfg
Unit7-DC_Motors nkkjnsdkfnfcdfknfdgfggfgsaravananr517913
 
home automation using Arduino by Aditya Prasad
home automation using Arduino by Aditya Prasadhome automation using Arduino by Aditya Prasad
home automation using Arduino by Aditya Prasadaditya806802
 
Mine Environment II Lab_MI10448MI__________.pptx
Mine Environment II Lab_MI10448MI__________.pptxMine Environment II Lab_MI10448MI__________.pptx
Mine Environment II Lab_MI10448MI__________.pptxRomil Mishra
 
THE SENDAI FRAMEWORK FOR DISASTER RISK REDUCTION
THE SENDAI FRAMEWORK FOR DISASTER RISK REDUCTIONTHE SENDAI FRAMEWORK FOR DISASTER RISK REDUCTION
THE SENDAI FRAMEWORK FOR DISASTER RISK REDUCTIONjhunlian
 
Software and Systems Engineering Standards: Verification and Validation of Sy...
Software and Systems Engineering Standards: Verification and Validation of Sy...Software and Systems Engineering Standards: Verification and Validation of Sy...
Software and Systems Engineering Standards: Verification and Validation of Sy...VICTOR MAESTRE RAMIREZ
 
Robotics-Asimov's Laws, Mechanical Subsystems, Robot Kinematics, Robot Dynami...
Robotics-Asimov's Laws, Mechanical Subsystems, Robot Kinematics, Robot Dynami...Robotics-Asimov's Laws, Mechanical Subsystems, Robot Kinematics, Robot Dynami...
Robotics-Asimov's Laws, Mechanical Subsystems, Robot Kinematics, Robot Dynami...Sumanth A
 
Gravity concentration_MI20612MI_________
Gravity concentration_MI20612MI_________Gravity concentration_MI20612MI_________
Gravity concentration_MI20612MI_________Romil Mishra
 
Engineering Drawing section of solid
Engineering Drawing     section of solidEngineering Drawing     section of solid
Engineering Drawing section of solidnamansinghjarodiya
 
Cooling Tower SERD pH drop issue (11 April 2024) .pptx
Cooling Tower SERD pH drop issue (11 April 2024) .pptxCooling Tower SERD pH drop issue (11 April 2024) .pptx
Cooling Tower SERD pH drop issue (11 April 2024) .pptxmamansuratman0253
 
US Department of Education FAFSA Week of Action
US Department of Education FAFSA Week of ActionUS Department of Education FAFSA Week of Action
US Department of Education FAFSA Week of ActionMebane Rash
 
System Simulation and Modelling with types and Event Scheduling
System Simulation and Modelling with types and Event SchedulingSystem Simulation and Modelling with types and Event Scheduling
System Simulation and Modelling with types and Event SchedulingBootNeck1
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Earthing details of Electrical Substation
Earthing details of Electrical SubstationEarthing details of Electrical Substation
Earthing details of Electrical Substation
 
Instrumentation, measurement and control of bio process parameters ( Temperat...
Instrumentation, measurement and control of bio process parameters ( Temperat...Instrumentation, measurement and control of bio process parameters ( Temperat...
Instrumentation, measurement and control of bio process parameters ( Temperat...
 
CCS355 Neural Networks & Deep Learning Unit 1 PDF notes with Question bank .pdf
CCS355 Neural Networks & Deep Learning Unit 1 PDF notes with Question bank .pdfCCS355 Neural Networks & Deep Learning Unit 1 PDF notes with Question bank .pdf
CCS355 Neural Networks & Deep Learning Unit 1 PDF notes with Question bank .pdf
 
Energy Awareness training ppt for manufacturing process.pptx
Energy Awareness training ppt for manufacturing process.pptxEnergy Awareness training ppt for manufacturing process.pptx
Energy Awareness training ppt for manufacturing process.pptx
 
TechTAC® CFD Report Summary: A Comparison of Two Types of Tubing Anchor Catchers
TechTAC® CFD Report Summary: A Comparison of Two Types of Tubing Anchor CatchersTechTAC® CFD Report Summary: A Comparison of Two Types of Tubing Anchor Catchers
TechTAC® CFD Report Summary: A Comparison of Two Types of Tubing Anchor Catchers
 
Design and analysis of solar grass cutter.pdf
Design and analysis of solar grass cutter.pdfDesign and analysis of solar grass cutter.pdf
Design and analysis of solar grass cutter.pdf
 
National Level Hackathon Participation Certificate.pdf
National Level Hackathon Participation Certificate.pdfNational Level Hackathon Participation Certificate.pdf
National Level Hackathon Participation Certificate.pdf
 
Ch10-Global Supply Chain - Cadena de Suministro.pdf
Ch10-Global Supply Chain - Cadena de Suministro.pdfCh10-Global Supply Chain - Cadena de Suministro.pdf
Ch10-Global Supply Chain - Cadena de Suministro.pdf
 
chpater16.pptxMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
chpater16.pptxMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMchpater16.pptxMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
chpater16.pptxMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
 
Unit7-DC_Motors nkkjnsdkfnfcdfknfdgfggfg
Unit7-DC_Motors nkkjnsdkfnfcdfknfdgfggfgUnit7-DC_Motors nkkjnsdkfnfcdfknfdgfggfg
Unit7-DC_Motors nkkjnsdkfnfcdfknfdgfggfg
 
home automation using Arduino by Aditya Prasad
home automation using Arduino by Aditya Prasadhome automation using Arduino by Aditya Prasad
home automation using Arduino by Aditya Prasad
 
Mine Environment II Lab_MI10448MI__________.pptx
Mine Environment II Lab_MI10448MI__________.pptxMine Environment II Lab_MI10448MI__________.pptx
Mine Environment II Lab_MI10448MI__________.pptx
 
THE SENDAI FRAMEWORK FOR DISASTER RISK REDUCTION
THE SENDAI FRAMEWORK FOR DISASTER RISK REDUCTIONTHE SENDAI FRAMEWORK FOR DISASTER RISK REDUCTION
THE SENDAI FRAMEWORK FOR DISASTER RISK REDUCTION
 
Software and Systems Engineering Standards: Verification and Validation of Sy...
Software and Systems Engineering Standards: Verification and Validation of Sy...Software and Systems Engineering Standards: Verification and Validation of Sy...
Software and Systems Engineering Standards: Verification and Validation of Sy...
 
Robotics-Asimov's Laws, Mechanical Subsystems, Robot Kinematics, Robot Dynami...
Robotics-Asimov's Laws, Mechanical Subsystems, Robot Kinematics, Robot Dynami...Robotics-Asimov's Laws, Mechanical Subsystems, Robot Kinematics, Robot Dynami...
Robotics-Asimov's Laws, Mechanical Subsystems, Robot Kinematics, Robot Dynami...
 
Gravity concentration_MI20612MI_________
Gravity concentration_MI20612MI_________Gravity concentration_MI20612MI_________
Gravity concentration_MI20612MI_________
 
Engineering Drawing section of solid
Engineering Drawing     section of solidEngineering Drawing     section of solid
Engineering Drawing section of solid
 
Cooling Tower SERD pH drop issue (11 April 2024) .pptx
Cooling Tower SERD pH drop issue (11 April 2024) .pptxCooling Tower SERD pH drop issue (11 April 2024) .pptx
Cooling Tower SERD pH drop issue (11 April 2024) .pptx
 
US Department of Education FAFSA Week of Action
US Department of Education FAFSA Week of ActionUS Department of Education FAFSA Week of Action
US Department of Education FAFSA Week of Action
 
System Simulation and Modelling with types and Event Scheduling
System Simulation and Modelling with types and Event SchedulingSystem Simulation and Modelling with types and Event Scheduling
System Simulation and Modelling with types and Event Scheduling
 

Alloying elements

  • 1. Keval K. Patil, M.E.-DESIGN, (kevalpatil@gmail.com)
  • 2. 1. Low hardenability. 2. Low corrosion and oxidation resistance. 3. Major loss of hardness on stress-relieving tempering treatment. 4. Poor high temperature properties. Note- The limitations of carbon steels are overcome by the use of alloy steels. The presence of alloying elements, not only enhances the outstanding characteristics of plain carbon steels, but improves some other properties, or even induces specific properties. Keval K. Patil, M.E.-DESIGN, (kevalpatil@gmail.com) 2
  • 3.  The alloying elements not only improve the hardenability, improve corrosion and oxidation resistance, increase resistance to softening on tempering, increase high temperature properties, but also increase resistance to abrasion, and increase strength of the parts that cannot be subjected to quenching due to physical limitation of parts or the structure in which it is employed.  Alloy steels are expensive and may require more elaborate processing, handling and even heat treatment cycles.  Every effort should thus, be made to use carbon steels.  Care should be taken that many inherent properties of plain carbon steels cannot be improved by adding alloying elements in it.  Stiffness is one such property which is measured by relationship between stress and strain within elastic range i.e. by modulus of elasticity.  Alloying elements enhance the elastic limit but the modulus of elasticity is the same of both the plain carbon and the alloy steels.  The design of the structure can change the stiffness. Judicious and cautious use of expensive alloying elements has to be made. Keval K. Patil, M.E.-DESIGN, (kevalpatil@gmail.com) 3
  • 4. Carbon  As I've already stated, the presence of carbon in iron is necessary to make steel.  Carbon is essential to the formation of cementite (as well as other carbides), and to the formation of pearlite, spheroidite, bainite, and iron-carbon martensite, with martensite being the hardest of the micro-structures, and the structure sought after by knifemakers.  The hardness of steel (or more accurately, the hardenability) is increased by the addition of more carbon, up to about 0.65 percent.  Wear resistance can be increased in amounts up to about 1.5 percent. Beyond this amount, increases of carbon reduce toughness and increase brittleness.  The steels of interest to knifemakers generally contain between 0.5 and 1.5 percent carbon. They are described as follows: • Low Carbon: Under 0.4 percent • Medium Carbon: 0.4 - 0.6 percent • High Carbon: 0.7 - 1.5 percent  Carbon is the single most important alloying element in steel. Keval K. Patil, M.E.-DESIGN, (kevalpatil@gmail.com) 4
  • 5. Manganese  Manganese slightly increases the strength of ferrite, and also increases the hardness penetration of steel in the quench by decreasing the critical quenching speed.  This also makes the steel more stable in the quench.  Steels with manganese can be quenched in oil rather than water, and therefore are less susceptible to cracking because of a reduction in the shock of quenching. Manganese is present in most commercially made steels. Keval K. Patil, M.E.-DESIGN, (kevalpatil@gmail.com) 5
  • 6. Chromium  As with manganese, chromium has a tendency to increase hardness penetration.  When 5 percent chromium or more is used in conjunction with manganese, the critical quenching speed is reduced to the point that the steel becomes air hardening.  Chromium can also increase the toughness of steel, as well as the wear resistance.  Probably one of the most well known effects of chromium on steel is the tendency to resist staining and corrosion.  Steels with 14 percent or more chromium are referred to as stainless steels. A more accurate term would be stain resistant.  Stainless tool steels will in fact darken and rust, just not as readily as the nonstainless varieties.  Steels with chromium also have higher critical temperatures in heat treatment. Keval K. Patil, M.E.-DESIGN, (kevalpatil@gmail.com) 6
  • 7. Silicon  Silicon is used as a deoxidizer in the manufacture of steel.  It slightly increases the strength of ferrite, and when used in conjunction with other alloys can help increase the toughness and hardness penetration of steel. Nickel  Nickel increases the strength of ferrite, therefore increasing the strength of the steel.  It is used in low alloy steels to increase toughness and hardenability.  Nickel also tends to help reduce distortion and cracking during the quenching phase of heat treatment. Keval K. Patil, M.E.-DESIGN, (kevalpatil@gmail.com) 7
  • 8. Molybdenum  Molybdenum increases the hardness penetration of steel, slows the critical quenching speed, and increases high temperature tensile strength. Vanadium  Vanadium helps control grain growth during heat treatment.  By inhibiting grain growth it helps increase the toughness and strength of the steel. Keval K. Patil, M.E.-DESIGN, (kevalpatil@gmail.com) 8
  • 9. Tungsten  Used in small amounts, tungsten combines with the free carbides in steel during heat treatment, to produce high wear resistance with little or no loss of toughness.  High amounts combined with chromium gives steel a property known as red hardness.  This means that the steel will not lose its working hardness at high temperatures.  An example of this would be tools designed to cut hard materials at high speeds, where the friction between the tool and the material would generate high temperatures. Keval K. Patil, M.E.-DESIGN, (kevalpatil@gmail.com) 9
  • 10. Copper  The addition of copper in amounts of 0.2 to 0.5 percent primarily improves steels resistance to atmospheric corrosion.  It should be noted that with respect to knife steels, copper has a detrimental effect to surface quality and to hot- working behavior due to migration into the grain boundaries of the steel. Boron  Boron can significantly increase the hardenability of steel without loss of ductility.  Its effectiveness is most noticeable at lower carbon levels.  The addition of boron is usually in very small amounts ranging from 0.0005 to 0.003 percent. Keval K. Patil, M.E.-DESIGN, (kevalpatil@gmail.com) 10
  • 11. Titanium  This element, when used in conjunction with Boron, increases the effectiveness of the Boron in the hardenability of steel. Keval K. Patil, M.E.-DESIGN, (kevalpatil@gmail.com) 11
  • 12.  As per name tool steels are used for manufacturing different tools.  For manufacturing different tools different properties are required such as hardness, resistance to abrasion, wear and deformation and ability to hold a cutting edge at high temperatures.  Tool steels include large number of alloy elements.  Some major alloying elements are tungsten, chromium, vanadium molybdenum, etc. Keval K. Patil, M.E.-DESIGN, (kevalpatil@gmail.com) 12
  • 13. Water Hardening tool steel  Water hardening tool steel is usually plane carbon steel but some time alloy elements are used for achieving better properties.  It is cheap as compare to other tool steel and hence largely used.  It is goes from water quenched process for hardening. Shock Resisting tool steel  As per name, shock resistance tool steels are designed to resist shock at low and high temperature.  They contain chromium, tungsten, manganese, silicon, molybdenum as alloy elements or as group of alloying like chromium-tungsten, silicon-manganese, etc.  It shows properties like abrasion resistance and hardenability. Keval K. Patil, M.E.-DESIGN, (kevalpatil@gmail.com) 13
  • 14. Cold work tool steel  Cold work tool steels are use for cutting and forming materials at low temperature.  It possesses high hardenability and resistance to wear.  They go from oil quenching and air hardening as per requirement of properties.  Cold work tool steels are again classified in three types as follow 1. Oil Hardening tool steel 2. Medium alloy air hardening tool steel 3. High carbon, high chromium tool steel Keval K. Patil, M.E.-DESIGN, (kevalpatil@gmail.com) 14
  • 15. Hot Work tool steel  Hot work tool steels are used for forming materials at high temperature.  They are again classified in three types and these are as follow. 1. Chromium base tool steel 2. Tungsten base tool steel 3. Molybdenum base tool steel Keval K. Patil, M.E.-DESIGN, (kevalpatil@gmail.com) 15
  • 16. High speed tool steel  High speed tool steel maintain their hardness at high temperature and hence it is use in cutting tools like drills, milling cutters, tool bits, gear cutters, etc.  This is again classified in two types according to alloy elements and these are as follow. 1. Tungsten base tool steel 2. Molybdenum base tool steel Keval K. Patil, M.E.-DESIGN, (kevalpatil@gmail.com) 16
  • 17. Special purpose tool steel  These types of steel are manufacture for achieve some properties as per requirement.  For some properties like increased in wear resistance, high hardness, to hold sharp cutting edge, etc.  According to alloy elements they are further divided in two types and these are as follow. 1. Low alloy tool steel 2. Carbon Tungsten tool steel Keval K. Patil, M.E.-DESIGN, (kevalpatil@gmail.com) 17
  • 18.  Stainless steel contains chromium, molybdenum, and nickel alloying elements in steel, which make it highly corrosion resistance.  They do not corrode in most of the environmental condition.  Due to this, they are known as stainless steel.  They are highly corrosion resistance due to this stainless steel are largely used.  Stainless steel identify by three numerical numbers like 304, 310, 440, etc.  Stainless steels are classified in four types and these are as follow. Keval K. Patil, M.E.-DESIGN, (kevalpatil@gmail.com) 18
  • 19. Austenitic stainless steels  Austenitic stainless steel contains chromium, nickel and manganese.  They are non magnetic.  Austenitic stainless steel has high strength in high temperature, resist to scaling and better corrosion resistance than other types of stainless steel.  Austenitic steels are not hardenable by heat treatment. Ferritic stainless steels  Ferritic stainless steel is straight chromium stainless steel.  It consist 14 to 27 percent chromium approximately.  This can be hot worked or cold worked and it is magnetic. Keval K. Patil, M.E.-DESIGN, (kevalpatil@gmail.com) 19
  • 20. Martensitic stainless steels  Martensitic stainless steels found in high or low-carbon steels, contain 11 to 18 percent chromium.  Martensitic stainless steel usually tempered and hardened.  Tempered steel shows good hardness and high toughness. Duplex stainless steels or austenitic-ferritic stainless steels  Duplex stainless steels consist two phases that are austenite and ferrite in metallurgical structure and hence it is also known as austenitic-ferritic stainless steels.  It shows High resistance to stress corrosion cracking and high yield stress than austenitics. Keval K. Patil, M.E.-DESIGN, (kevalpatil@gmail.com) 20
  • 21. Keval K. Patil, M.E.-DESIGN, (kevalpatil@gmail.com) 21