Thermo Mechanical Treatment


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This presentation is an introduction to the Thermo-mechanical treatment of steel bars.

  • assalamualaikum sir i work in steel company i am trainee now i need you mail so that i can get some answers to my questions
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  • thank u sir good presentation
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  • This is useful presentation for me,please explain the ratio b/w the bar dia and the pipe dia and also three stage setting of TMT for example 16 mm dia bar.
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  • thank you very much sir,,,, really your all presentation very useful for all rolling mill employees,,, thanks again and keep it up.........
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  • This is a very useful presentation. Please explain what is the difference between seismic quality TMT bar and earth quake quality TMT bar. What is the role of UTS/ys ratio play in this?
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  • Impact transition temperature is defined The temperature at which a transition from ductile to brittle fracture takes place in steel. It is usually determined by making a series of Charpy impact tests at various temperatures, the transition temperature is usually taken as the point where 50% of the fracture is brittle.
  • Thermo Mechanical Treatment

    1. 1. <ul><li>Purpose of TMT </li></ul><ul><li>Definition of steel </li></ul><ul><li>Terminology of Physical Metallurgy </li></ul><ul><li>Phase diagram </li></ul>Presented by Ansar Hussain Rizvi
    2. 2. <ul><li>There are 14 different types of crystal unit cell structures or lattices are found in nature. However most metals and many other solids have unit cell structures described as body center cubic (bcc), face centered cubic (fcc) or Hexagonal Close Packed (hcp). </li></ul>Presented by Ansar Hussain Rizvi
    3. 3. <ul><li>Higher yield strength </li></ul><ul><li>Improved toughness </li></ul><ul><li>Improved weldability </li></ul><ul><li>Higher resistance to brittle cleavage </li></ul><ul><li>Higher resistance to low-energy ductile fractures </li></ul><ul><li>Good cold forming, particularly by bending </li></ul><ul><li>Lower costs which are possible by using hot-rolled rather than heat treated sections. </li></ul><ul><li>Achieving desired properties with fewer amounts of alloying elements thereby reducing the production cost. </li></ul>Presented by Ansar Hussain Rizvi
    4. 4. Presented by Ansar Hussain Rizvi
    5. 5. Presented by Ansar Hussain Rizvi
    6. 6. <ul><li>When a metal undergoes a transformation from one crystalline pattern to another, it is known as an allotropic change. Iron exists in three crystal (atomic) allotropes, namely: alpha (  ) iron, delta (  ) iron, and gamma (  ) iron. The a-iron form exists below 1625 o F (885 o C) while  -iron is stable above 2540 o F ( 1395 o C).   Gamma iron exists at the temperatures between these two ranges.   It is the allotropy of iron that allows for these crystal structures to change with temperature. </li></ul>Presented by Ansar Hussain Rizvi
    7. 7. Presented by Ansar Hussain Rizvi
    8. 8. <ul><li>A phase is a distinct and physically, chemically or crystographically homogeneous portion of an alloy. There are three types of phases: </li></ul><ul><li>Pure metals </li></ul><ul><li>Intermetallic compound </li></ul><ul><li>Solid solution </li></ul>Presented by Ansar Hussain Rizvi
    9. 9. <ul><li>Chemical compounds between metals and metalloids are known as Intermetallic compounds. A large portion of the known Intermetallic compounds contain one of the following metalloids: carbon, phosphorus, silicon, sulfur, arsenic or the metal aluminum. </li></ul><ul><li>The important compound present in alloys of iron and carbon is the carbide Fe 3 C or Cementite. </li></ul>Presented by Ansar Hussain Rizvi
    10. 10. <ul><li>A complete merging in the solid state of the two phases, pure metals and Intermetallic compounds, are known as the solid solutions. There can be solid solution of two metals, of a metal and an Intermetallic compound, or of two compounds. </li></ul>Presented by Ansar Hussain Rizvi
    11. 11. <ul><li>In Iron-Carbon alloys austenite is the solid solution formed when carbon dissolves in face-centered cubic (gamma) iron in amounts up to 2%. Its microstructure is usually large grained. </li></ul>Presented by Ansar Hussain Rizvi
    12. 12. <ul><li>Austenite transforms to Pearlite when it is cooled slowly below the Ar critical temperature. When more rapidly cooled, however, this transformation is retarded. The faster the cooling rate, the lower the temperature at which the transformation occurs resulting in a formation of the micro-constituents given hereunder:- </li></ul>Presented by Ansar Hussain Rizvi Constituents Temperature range Pearlite 705 o C to 535 o C Bainite 535 o C to 230 o C Martensite Below 230 o C
    13. 13. Pearlite is a lamellar aggregate of ferrite and cementite. It is a result of the eutectoid reaction which takes place when a plain carbon steel of approximately 0.8% carbon is cooled slowly from the temperature range at which austenite is stable. Presented by Ansar Hussain Rizvi
    14. 14. <ul><li>Bainite is a decomposition of austenite consisting of an aggregate of ferrite and carbide. Its appearance is featherlike if formed in the upper part of the temperature range and acicular if formed in the lower part. </li></ul>Presented by Ansar Hussain Rizvi
    15. 15. <ul><li>The hardness increases as the transformation temperature decreases. This is due to a finer distribution of carbide in Bainite formed at lower temperature. </li></ul>Presented by Ansar Hussain Rizvi
    16. 16. <ul><li>It is formed by the rapid cooling of Austenite </li></ul><ul><li>Has a body centered tetragonal cubic structure </li></ul><ul><li>Martensite is not shown in the equilibrium phase diagram of the iron-carbon system because it is a metastable phase, the kinetic product of rapid cooling of steel containing sufficient carbon. </li></ul>Presented by Ansar Hussain Rizvi
    17. 17. <ul><li>Interstitial compound of Iron and Carbon </li></ul><ul><li>Formula  Fe 3 C </li></ul><ul><li>A very hard compound </li></ul><ul><li>Tensile strength = 5000 psi approx </li></ul><ul><li>Elongation in 2 inches = 0% </li></ul>Presented by Ansar Hussain Rizvi
    18. 18. <ul><li>Carbon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gives steel the properties that make it valuable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Makes steel responsive to heat treatment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restricts the motion of dislocations thereby increasing the resistance t deformation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces the ductility and toughness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increases the hardness, tensile strength and yield point </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces the percentage of elongation, reduction in area and impact strength. </li></ul></ul>Presented by Ansar Hussain Rizvi
    19. 19. <ul><li>Manganese </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A deoxidizer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Its content ranges from 0.5 to 0.8% in plain carbon steels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Raises the strength of steel without practically reducing its ductility. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces the RED SHORTNESS, i.e. brittleness at high temperature due to the effect sulphur. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Silicon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A common deoxidizer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In plain carbon steels – up to 1% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increases tensile strength and yield point </li></ul></ul>Presented by Ansar Hussain Rizvi
    20. 20. The Process Presented by Ansar Hussain Rizvi
    21. 21. <ul><li>It is a surface quenching process </li></ul><ul><li>Makes use of the rolling heat </li></ul><ul><li>Involves three stages:- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Surface quenching stage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self tempering stage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Final cooling stage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Controlling parameters:- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Finishing rolling temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quenching time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water flow rate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Microstructure of TMT bars consists of:- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Surface layer  tempered martensite </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Core  ferrite, Pearlite and/or Bainite </li></ul></ul>Presented by Ansar Hussain Rizvi
    22. 22. Presented by Ansar Hussain Rizvi
    23. 23. Presented by Ansar Hussain Rizvi
    24. 24. <ul><li>Technological characteristics depend upon:- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Volume fraction of the martensite </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tensile properties of martensite </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tensile properties of the ferritc-pearlitic (Bainite) structure of the core </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Volume fraction of the martensite </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Depends upon the temperature at which the martensitic transformation starts (Ms) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ms is a function of the chemical composition and of the temperature field in the cross-section of the bar at the exit of the water box. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ms o C = 512-456*C-16.9*Ni+15*Cr-9.5*Mo+217*C 2 -71.5*(C*Mn)-67.6(C*Cr) </li></ul></ul>Presented by Ansar Hussain Rizvi
    25. 25. <ul><li>Tensile properties of martensite </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The yield strength level of the martensitic layer depends on the chemical composition and on the tempering temperature. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower tempering temperature  higher yield strength, lower ductility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tempering temperature is the maximum surface temperature achieved at the end of the second stage and it is directly depending on the water quenching procedure adopted in the first stage. </li></ul></ul>Presented by Ansar Hussain Rizvi
    26. 26. <ul><li>The core of the bar </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The mechanical properties depend on two groups of parameters: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The chemical composition of the steel giving specific TTT diagrams-microstructure-mechanical properties relationship </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The process conditions along the three stages of the process </li></ul></ul></ul>Presented by Ansar Hussain Rizvi
    27. 27. <ul><li>This is one of the most important factors of the TMT process </li></ul><ul><li>The heat removal from the surface of the bar in the water box is characterized as the Heat Exchange Factor </li></ul><ul><li>Parameters to reach a high heat exchange factor:- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The flow rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The filing factor </li></ul></ul>Presented by Ansar Hussain Rizvi
    28. 28. <ul><li>Pressure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pressure is most important </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less pressure gives lower heat exchange and thus less cooling efficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A certain pressure range is necessary to obtain given mechanical properties </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Flow rate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flow rate is function of pressure and gap setting between the nozzles of TMT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The relative velocity between the water and the bar contributes significantly the heat exchange </li></ul></ul>Presented by Ansar Hussain Rizvi
    29. 29. <ul><li>It is the relative water flow on the surface of the roll stock </li></ul><ul><li>It is defined as the square of the ratio between bar diameter and pipe diameter </li></ul><ul><li>Low filling factor results in a thick steam jacket around the bar thus limiting the heat exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Lower D/d ratio (the ratio between the bar diameter and the pipe diameter) results in thin water film causing the water to boil. This causes vibration in the bar consequently there might be a mis-roll. </li></ul>Presented by Ansar Hussain Rizvi
    30. 30. Presented by Ansar Hussain Rizvi
    31. 31. <ul><li>Water temperature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No significant effect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The temperature of the cooling water after cooling should be less than 60 o C. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Impurities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water impurities have no influence on the formation of martensite </li></ul></ul>Presented by Ansar Hussain Rizvi