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Module 4
HEAT TREATMENT
PROCESS
By
Keval K. Patil
Reference-
Materials Science and Engineering by William D. Callister, Jr. –
Adapted by R. Balasubramaniam, Wiley India (P) Ltd
kevalpatil@gmail.com 1
Heat Treatment
11
Heat treating is a group of industrial and metalworking processes used
to alter the physical, and sometimes chemical, properties of a material.
The most common application is metallurgical.
Heat treatment involves the use of heating or chilling, normally to
extreme temperatures, to achieve a desired result such as hardening or
softening of a material.
Heat treatment techniques include:
Annealing,
Hardening,
Normalizing
Carburizing
Tempering, and
Quenching. kevalpatil@gmail.com 2
HEAT TREATMENT
Heat treatment may be defined as:
An operation or combination of operations
involving
Heating and cooling of a metal/alloy in solid state
to obtain desirable
kevalpatil@gmail.com 3
Purpose
• RelieveInternal stresses developed during solidification,
machining, forging, rolling or welding,
• Harden and strengthen metals.
• Enhance Machinability,
• Soften metals for further (cold) working as in wire
drawing or cold rolling.
• Improve or restore ductility and toughness,
• Increase , heat, wear and corrosion resistance of
materials.
• Improve electrical and magnetic properties.
• Eliminate chemical non-uniformity,
• Refrain grain size
• Reduce the gaseous contents in steel.
kevalpatil@gmail.com 4
Heat Treatment Theory
• The various types of heat-treating processes are
similar because they all involve the heating and
cooling of metals; they differ in the heating
temperatures and the cooling rates used and the final
results.
• Ferrous metals (metals with iron) are annealing,
normalizing, hardening, and tempering.
• Nonferrous metals can be annealed, but never
tempered, normalized, or case-hardened.
kevalpatil@gmail.com 5
Stages of Heat Treatment
• Stage l—Heating the metal slowly to ensure a
uniform temperature.
• Stage 2—Soaking (holding) the metal at a given
temperature for a given period of time.
• Stage 3—Cooling the metal to room temperature.
kevalpatil@gmail.com 6
Stages of Heat Treatment
kevalpatil@gmail.com 7
Heat Treatment- Annealing
Annealing involves heating the material to a
predetermined temperature and hold the material at the
temperature and cool the material to the room
temperature slowly. The process involves:
1. Heating of the material at
the elevated or
predetermined temperature
2. Holding the material
(Soaking) at the
temperature for longer time.
3. Very slowly cooling the
material to the room
temperature.
kevalpatil@gmail.com 8
Heat Treatment
Process Annealing
In this treatment, steal (or any material) is heated to a temperature below
the lower critical temperature, and is held at this temperature for
sufficient time and then cooled.
 The purpose of this
treatment
hardness
is to reduce
and to increase
ductility of cold-worked steel
so that further working may
be carried easily.
kevalpatil@gmail.com 9
Heat Treatment
Process Annealing
 This process is extensively used in the treatment of sheets and wires.
 Parts which are fabricated by cold forming such as stamping,
extrusion, upsetting and drawing are frequently given this
treatment as an intermediate step.
 Scaling or oxidation can be
prevented or
this process
minimized by
specially if
annealed at lower temperatures
or in non-oxidizing areas.
kevalpatil@gmail.com 10
Heat Treatment
Annealing: Stress Relieving
As the name suggests, this process is employed to relieve internal
stresses. No microstructural changes occur during the process.
Internal stresses are those stresses which can exist within a body in the
absence of external forces. These are also known as residual stresses are
locked-in stresses.
These stresses are developed in operations like:
Solidification of castings, welding, machining, grinding, shot peening,
surface hammering, cold working, case hardening, electroplated coatings,
precipitation and phase transformation.
kevalpatil@gmail.com 11
Heat Treatment
Annealing: Stress Relieving
These internal stresses under certain
conditions can have adverse
effects: example: Steels with residual
stresses under corrosive environment fail
with stress corrosion cracking.
These stresses also enhance the tendency
of steels towards warpage and dimensional
instability.
Fatigue strength is reduced considerably
when residual tensile stresses are present in
steel.
The problems associated with internal
stresses are more difficult in brittle materials
than in ductile materials.
kevalpatil@gmail.com 12
Heat Treatment
The process of stress relieving consists of heating materials uniformly to a
temperature below the lower critical temperature, holding at this temperature for
sufficient time, followed by uniform cooling.
Annealing: Stress Relieving
 Uniform cooling is of utmost
importance as non-uniform cooling
will itself result in the development of
internal stresses. Thus the very
Stress – Corrosion Cracking
purpose of stress relieving will be lost.
Plain carbon steels and low alloy
steels generally temperature is limited
to 600 oC. Higher temperature is used
for high alloy steels.
The extent of the stresses relieved
depend upon the temperature employed
and holding time. kevalpatil@gmail.com 13
Heat Treatment
17
Annealing: Normalizing
Normalizing is similar to full
annealing, except steel is
generally cooled in still air.
The normalizing consists of
heating steel to about 40-55 oC
above critical temperature
(Ac3 or Accm), and holding for
proper item and then cooling
in still air or slightly agitated
air to room temperature.
 In some special cases,
cooling rates can be controlled
by either changing air
temperature or air volume.
kevalpatil@gmail.com 14
Heat Treatment- Normalizing
18
After normalizing, the resultant micro-structure should be pearlitic.
Since the temperature involved in this process is more than that for
annealing , the homogeneity
results in better dispersion
of austenite increases and it
of
ferrite and Cementite in the final structure.
Results in better dispersion of ferrite and Cementite in the final
structure.
The grain size is finer in normalized structure than in annealed structure.
kevalpatil@gmail.com 15
Heat Treatment- Normalizing
19
Normalized steels are generally stronger and harder than fully annealed
steels.
 Steels are soft in annealed
condition and tend to stick during
machining. By normalizing, an
optimum combination of strength
and softness is achieved, which
results in satisfactory level of
Machinability in steels.
Normalizing is the effective way
to eliminate the carbide network.
kevalpatil@gmail.com 16
Heat Treatment- Normalizing
2
0
Normalized treatment is frequently applied to steel in order to achieve
any one or more of the objectives, namely:
 To refine the grain structure,
 To obtain uniform structure,
 To decrease residual stresses,
 To improve Machinability.
kevalpatil@gmail.com 17
Heat Treatment- Hardening:
21
Hardening and Hardness are two very different things. One is a process
of heat treatment and other is a extrinsic property of a material.
 Hardening is a heat treatment
process in which steel is rapidly cooled
from austenitising temperature. As a
result of hardening, the hardness and
wear resistance of steel are improved.
 Hardening treatment
consists of
generally
hardening
temperature,
heating to
holding at that
temperature, followed by rapid cooling
such as quenching in oil or water or salt
baths.
kevalpatil@gmail.com 18
Heat Treatment- Hardening:
22
The high hardness developed by this process is due to the phase
transformation accompanying rapid cooling.
Rapid cooling results in the transformation of austenite at considerably
low temperature into non- equilibrium products.
The hardening temperature depends on chemical composition.
 For plain carbon steels, it depends on the carbon content alone.
Hypoeutectoid steels are heated to about 30 – 50 oC above the upper critical
temperature, whereas eutectoid and hyper eutectoid steels are heated to
about 30 – 50 oC above lower critical temperature.
Ferrite and pearlite transform to austenite at hardening temperature for
hypoectectoid steel.
This austenite transforms to martensite on rapid quenching from
hardening temperature.
The presence of martensite accounts for high hardness of quenched steel.kevalpatil@gmail.com 19
Heat Treatment- Hardening:
Hardening is applied to cutting tools and machine parts where high
hardness and wear resistance are important.
The Process Variables:
Hardening Temperature: The steel should be heat treated to optimum austenitising
temperature.
A lower temperature results lower hardness due to incomplete transformation t
austenite. If this temperature is too high will also results lower hardness due to a
coarse grained structure.
Soaking Time: Soaking time at hardening temperature should be long enough to
transform homogenous austenite structure. Soaking time increases with increase in
section thickness and the amount of alloying element.
Delay in quenching: After soaking, the steel is immediately quenched. Delay in
quenching may reduce hardness due to partial transformation of austenite.
Type of quenching medium also has a profound effect, which will be discussed
briefly kevalpatil@gmail.com 20
Heat Treatment
Hardening:
The main purpose of hardening tool steel is
to develop high hardness. This enables tool
steel to cut other metals. High hardness
developed by this process also improves wear
resistance. Gears, shafts and bearings. Tensile
strength and yield strength are improved
considerably y hardening structural steels.
Because of rapid cooling, high internal
stresses are developed in the hardened steel.
Hence these steels are generally brittle.
Hardening in general is followed by another
treatment known as tempering which reduces
internal stresses and makes the hardened
steel relatively stable,
kevalpatil@gmail.com 21
Heat Treatment
Tempering:
Hardened steels are so brittle
that even a small impact will cause
fracture.
Toughness of such a steel can be
improved by tempering.
However there is small reduction in
strength and hardness.
Tempering is a sub-critical heat
treatment process used to improve the
toughness of hardened steel.
Tempering consists of reheating of
hardened steel to a temperature below
Lower critical temperature and is held
for a period of time, and then slowly
cooled in air to room temperature.kevalpatil@gmail.com 22
Heat Treatment- Tempering:
2
6
At tempering temperature, carbon atoms diffuses out and form fine
cementite and softer ferrite structure left behind. Thus the structure of
tempered steel consists of ferrite and fine cementite.

function of the parts. Cutting tools
The temperatures are related to the
are
tempered between 230 – 300 oC. If greater
ductility and toughness are desired as in case
of shafts and high strength bolts, the steel is
tempered in the range of 300 – 600 oC.
Thus tempering allows to precipitate carbon
as very fine carbide and allow the
microstructure to return to BCC
kevalpatil@gmail.com 23
Heat Treatment- Tempering:
27
Tempering temperatures are usually identified by the colour. Tempering
temperatures for tools and shafts along with temper colors.
Depending on temperatures, tempering processes can be classified as:
1)Low- temperature tempering (150 – 250 oC),
2)Medium – temperature tempering (350 – 450 oC),
3)High – temperature tempering (500 – 650 oC).
kevalpatil@gmail.com 24
Heat Treatment- Tempering:
2
8
Tempering temperatures are usually identified by the colour. Tempering
temperatures for tools and shafts along with temper colors.
kevalpatil@gmail.com 25
Heat Treatment- Hardenability:
29
The responsibility of a steel to a given hardening treatment is indicated by
the property known as Hardenability.
It is an index of the depth to which the martensite can be formed in a
given steel as a result of a given hardening treatment.
The term Hardenability is used to measure the depth of hardness achieved
i.e. martensite introduced into the steel section by quenching the steel from
austenite state.
Greater the depth of hardness below the surface, higher will be the
Hardenability of steel.
kevalpatil@gmail.com 26
Heat Treatment- Hardenability:
30
Hardenability of steel depends on compositionof steel,method of quenching
and section of steel.
The addition of alloying elements in steel decreases the critical cooling rate.
Thus the Hardenability of alloy steels is more than that of the carbon steels.
While in the oil quenching, the
cooling rates are lower than water
quenching and thus the hardness
values are lower in case of oil
quenched steels.
The larger section shows lower
Hardenability because of their
increase mass results in a lower
overall rate of cooling.
kevalpatil@gmail.com 27
Hardenability : Jominy End Quench Test
31
The Jominy test involves heating a standard test piece of diameter 25 mm
and length 100 mm to the austenite state, fixing it to a frame in a vertical
position and then quenching the lower end by means of a jet of water.
The most simple and convenient method of determining the Hardenability
is the Jominy End Quench Test.
kevalpatil@gmail.com 28
Hardenability : Jominy End Quench Test
32
the test price,
measurements are
and hardness
made along the
length of the test piece.
 A bar of steel having good
Hardenability shows higher hardness
readings for greater distance from the
quenched end.
The mode of quenching results in different rate of cooling along
the length of the test piece.
After a quenching, a flat of 0.38 mm deep is ground along one side of
kevalpatil@gmail.com 29
Heat Treatment- Quenching:
33
Quenching is a process of rapid cooling of materials from high
temperature to room temperature or even lower. In steels quenching
results in transformation of austenite to martensite (a non-equilibrium
constituent).
 Under ideal conditions, all the heat
absorbed by the medium should be rejected
to the surroundings immediately.
During cooling, heat must be
extracted at a very fast rate from the
steel piece. This is possible only when
a steel piece is allowed to come in
contact with some medium which can
absorb heat from the steel piece with in
a short period.
kevalpatil@gmail.com 30
Heat Treatment- Quenching:
34
Quenching:
The removal of heat during quenching is complex in the sense that heat
is removed in three stages.
1) Vapor Blanket,
2) Nucleate Boiling,
3) Convection.
kevalpatil@gmail.com 31
Heat Treatment- Quenching:
35
Vapor Blanket (stage 1)
As soon as the work-piece comes into contact with a liquid coolant
(quenchant), the surrounding quenchant layer is instantaneously heated
up to the boiling point of the quenchant and gets vaporized due to the
high temperature of the work- piece.
This acts as an insulator, preventing the
quenching oil from contacting the metal
surface. As a consequence, the rate of
cooling during this stage is slow.
At this stage the work piece is cooled
only by conduction and radiation
through the vapor film.
 Only the surface is cooled
considerably prior to the formation of
vapor envelop.
kevalpatil@gmail.com
32
Heat Treatment- Quenching:
36
Nucleate Boiling (stage 2)
This second stage is also called as transport cooling stage or liquid boiling
stage. The temperature of the work-piece comes down, through very slowly
and the vapor blanket is no longer stable and collapses.
Metal surface comes into contact with the liquid/ quenchant. Violent
boiling quickly removes heat from the quenched component while forming
bubbles and being pushed away, resulting in the cooler fluid coming into
contact with the work piece.
This happens till the temperature of the
work piece comes down to the boiling
point of the liquid.
Maximum cooling rate is achieved during
this stage.
kevalpatil@gmail.com 33
Heat Treatment- Quenching:
37
Convection (stage 3)
The third stage is called as the liquid cooling stage or the convection stage.
I starts when the temperature of the
surface becomes equal to the boiling
point of the quenchant.
Cooling at this stage takes place via
conduction and convection processes.
The rate of cooling is the slowest at
this stage.
kevalpatil@gmail.com 34
Qenching: Effect of Quenching Medium
38
Quenching medium has the profound effect on the final phase of the
material. Quenching medium is directly related to the rate of the cooling
of the material.
Some of the widely employed quenching media are water, aqueous
solutions, oils (mineral, vegetable and even animal oils), molten salts and
air.
kevalpatil@gmail.com 35
Effect of Quenching Medium -(Water)
3
9
Water has maximum cooling rate amongst
all common quenchants except few
aqueous solutions.
It is very cheap and easily disposed off
compared to other quenchants.
 Hence water is used for carbon
steels, alloy steels and non-ferrous
alloys.
The layer if scale formed on the
surface during heating is also broken
by water quenching, thus eliminating
an additional process of surface
cooling.
kevalpatil@gmail.com 36
Effect of Quenching Medium -(Oil)
Most of the Oils used as quenchants
are mineral oils. These are in general
paraffin based and do not possess any
fatty oils.
Quenching in oil provides slower
cooling rates as compared to those
achieved by water quenching.
The slower cooling rate reduces the
possibility of hardening defects.
The temperature difference between
core and the case of work piece is less
for oil quenching than for water
quenching.
40kevalpatil@gmail.com 37
Effect of Quenching Medium (AIR)
• Many alloy steels are capable
of getting hardened by cooling
either in still air or in a blast of air.
 Such steels are popularly known
as air hardening steels.
 These steels are almost free
from distortion problem. However,
the problem of oxidation during
cooling (quenching) may be
encountered in practice. Many
grades of tool steels are subjected
to air hardening.
 Cooling rates can be improved
by mixing air and water.
4
1
kevalpatil@gmail.com 38
Effect of Quenching Medium
42
Just the drastic water quench generates a fully martensite
structure.
 Although quenched in oil the austensite converts into suitably
fine pearlite.
 Accurate pearlite also results if the austenised eutectoid steel is
air-cooled.
 Though, if allowed to cool in furnace coarse pearlite is
appearance.
kevalpatil@gmail.com 39
Effect of Quenching Medium
43
Coarse Pearlite
Smaller T: colonies
are larger
Fine Pearlite
Larger T:
colonies are
smaller
Figure: Microstructure resulting
from Different Cooling Rates
Applied to Austenitized Samples
of Eutectoid Steelkevalpatil@gmail.com 40
Surface Hardening: Flame Hardening
44
In many situations hard and wear resistance surface is required with the
tough core. Because of tough core the components can withstand impact
load. The typical applications requiring these conditions include gear teeth,
cams shafts, bearings, crank pins, clutch plate, tools and dies.
The combination of the these properties can be achieved by the following
methods:
 1. Hardening and tempering the surface layers (surface hardening)
(i) Flame Hardening (ii) Induction Hardening
 2.Changing the composition at surface layers (chemical
heat treatment or case hardening)
(i) Carburising
(ii) Nitriding.
(iii) Cyaniding
kevalpatil@gmail.com 41
Surface Hardening: Flame Hardening
4
5
The flame hardening involves heating the surface of a steel to a
temperature above upper critical point (850 oC) with a oxyacetylene flame
and then immediately quenched the surface with cold water.
Heating transforms the structure of surface layers to austenite, and the
quenching changes it to martensite.
kevalpatil@gmail.com 42
Surface Hardening: Flame Hardening
46
The surface layers are hardened to about 50 – 60 HRC. It is less expensive
and can be easily adopted for large and complex shapes.
Flame hardened parts must be tempered after hardening. The tempering
temperature depends on the alloy composition and desired hardness.
 The flame hardening methods are suitable for the steels with carbon
contents ranging from 0.40 to 0.95% and low alloy steels.
kevalpatil@gmail.com
43
Surface Hardening: Induction hardening
47
Induction hardening involves placing the steel components within a coil
through which high frequency current is passed. The current in the coil
induce eddy current in the surface layers, and heat the surface layers uotp
austenite state.
Then the surface is immediately quenched with the cold water to transfer
the austenite to martensite. The principle of induction hardening is:
kevalpatil@gmail.com 44
Surface Hardening: Induction hardening
4
8
Advantages of induction hardening over flame hardening is its speed and
ability to harden small parts; but it is expensive. Like flame hardening, it
is suitable for medium carbon and low alloy steels.
Typical applications for induction hardening are crank shafts, cam shafts,
connecting rods, gears and cylinders.
kevalpatil@gmail.com 45
Surface Hardening: Carburising
4
9
Carburising is carried out on a steels containing carbon less than 0.2%. It
involves increasing the carbon contents on the surface layers upto 0.7 to
0.8%.
In this process, the steel is heated in contact with carbonaceous material
from which it absorbs carbon. This method is mostly used for securing
hard and wear resistance surface with tough core carburising is used for
gears, cams, bearings and clutch plates.
2 C O C + CO2
kevalpatil@gmail.com 46
Surface Hardening: Carburising
50
The Following methods are used to diffuse carbon into
surface layers:
1) Pack (solid) Carburising,
2) Gas Carburising,
3) Liquid Carburising.
Gas Carburising
Liquid Carburising
kevalpatil@gmail.com 47
Surface Hardening: Nitriding
51
The atomic nitrogen diffuses into steel surface, and combines with the
alloying elements (Cr, Mo, W, V etc) to form hard nitrides. The depth to
which nitrides are formed in the steel depends on the temperature and the
time allowed for the reaction. After the nitriding the job is allowed to cool
slowly. Since there is no quenching involved, chances of cracking and
distortion of the component are less.
Nitriding involves diffusion of nitrogen into the product to form nitrides.
The resulting nitride case can be harder than the carburized steel. This
process is used for alloy steels containing alloying elements (Aluminum,
Chromium and Molybdenum) which form stable nitrides.
Nitriding consists if heating a component in a retort to a temperature of
about 500 to 600 oC. Through the retort the ammonia gas is allowed to
circulate. At this temperature the ammonia dissociates by the following
reaction.
2 NH 3 2N + 3H2
kevalpatil@gmail.com 48
Surface Hardening: Nitriding
52
The depth of nitrided case ranges from 0.2 to 0.4 mm and no machining is
done after nitriding.
Nitriding increase wear and corrosion resistance and fatigue strength of the
steel. Since nitriding is done at low temperature, it requires more time than
carburising, and also the capital cost if the plant is higher than carburising.
kevalpatil@gmail.com 49
Surface Hardening: Cyaniding
Similar to carbonitriding, cyaniding also involves the diffusion of carbon
and nitrogen into the surface of steel. It is also called liquid carbonitriding.
The components are heated to the temperature of about 800 – 900 oC in a
molten cyanide bath consisting of sodium cyanide, sodium carbonate and
sodium chloride.
After allowing the components in the bath for about 15 – 20 minutes, they
are quenched in oil or water. Cyaniding is normally used for low-carbon
steels, and case depths are usually less than 0.25 mm.
It produces hard and wear resistance surface on the steels. Because of
shorter time cycles, the process is widely used for the machine components
subjected to moderate wear and service loads.
The process is particularly suitable for screws, small gears, nuts and bolts.
53
kevalpatil@gmail.com 50
End of UNIT -4
Please refer & read
the book.
kevalpatil@gmail.com 51

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Heat treatment Process

  • 1. Module 4 HEAT TREATMENT PROCESS By Keval K. Patil Reference- Materials Science and Engineering by William D. Callister, Jr. – Adapted by R. Balasubramaniam, Wiley India (P) Ltd kevalpatil@gmail.com 1
  • 2. Heat Treatment 11 Heat treating is a group of industrial and metalworking processes used to alter the physical, and sometimes chemical, properties of a material. The most common application is metallurgical. Heat treatment involves the use of heating or chilling, normally to extreme temperatures, to achieve a desired result such as hardening or softening of a material. Heat treatment techniques include: Annealing, Hardening, Normalizing Carburizing Tempering, and Quenching. kevalpatil@gmail.com 2
  • 3. HEAT TREATMENT Heat treatment may be defined as: An operation or combination of operations involving Heating and cooling of a metal/alloy in solid state to obtain desirable kevalpatil@gmail.com 3
  • 4. Purpose • RelieveInternal stresses developed during solidification, machining, forging, rolling or welding, • Harden and strengthen metals. • Enhance Machinability, • Soften metals for further (cold) working as in wire drawing or cold rolling. • Improve or restore ductility and toughness, • Increase , heat, wear and corrosion resistance of materials. • Improve electrical and magnetic properties. • Eliminate chemical non-uniformity, • Refrain grain size • Reduce the gaseous contents in steel. kevalpatil@gmail.com 4
  • 5. Heat Treatment Theory • The various types of heat-treating processes are similar because they all involve the heating and cooling of metals; they differ in the heating temperatures and the cooling rates used and the final results. • Ferrous metals (metals with iron) are annealing, normalizing, hardening, and tempering. • Nonferrous metals can be annealed, but never tempered, normalized, or case-hardened. kevalpatil@gmail.com 5
  • 6. Stages of Heat Treatment • Stage l—Heating the metal slowly to ensure a uniform temperature. • Stage 2—Soaking (holding) the metal at a given temperature for a given period of time. • Stage 3—Cooling the metal to room temperature. kevalpatil@gmail.com 6
  • 7. Stages of Heat Treatment kevalpatil@gmail.com 7
  • 8. Heat Treatment- Annealing Annealing involves heating the material to a predetermined temperature and hold the material at the temperature and cool the material to the room temperature slowly. The process involves: 1. Heating of the material at the elevated or predetermined temperature 2. Holding the material (Soaking) at the temperature for longer time. 3. Very slowly cooling the material to the room temperature. kevalpatil@gmail.com 8
  • 9. Heat Treatment Process Annealing In this treatment, steal (or any material) is heated to a temperature below the lower critical temperature, and is held at this temperature for sufficient time and then cooled.  The purpose of this treatment hardness is to reduce and to increase ductility of cold-worked steel so that further working may be carried easily. kevalpatil@gmail.com 9
  • 10. Heat Treatment Process Annealing  This process is extensively used in the treatment of sheets and wires.  Parts which are fabricated by cold forming such as stamping, extrusion, upsetting and drawing are frequently given this treatment as an intermediate step.  Scaling or oxidation can be prevented or this process minimized by specially if annealed at lower temperatures or in non-oxidizing areas. kevalpatil@gmail.com 10
  • 11. Heat Treatment Annealing: Stress Relieving As the name suggests, this process is employed to relieve internal stresses. No microstructural changes occur during the process. Internal stresses are those stresses which can exist within a body in the absence of external forces. These are also known as residual stresses are locked-in stresses. These stresses are developed in operations like: Solidification of castings, welding, machining, grinding, shot peening, surface hammering, cold working, case hardening, electroplated coatings, precipitation and phase transformation. kevalpatil@gmail.com 11
  • 12. Heat Treatment Annealing: Stress Relieving These internal stresses under certain conditions can have adverse effects: example: Steels with residual stresses under corrosive environment fail with stress corrosion cracking. These stresses also enhance the tendency of steels towards warpage and dimensional instability. Fatigue strength is reduced considerably when residual tensile stresses are present in steel. The problems associated with internal stresses are more difficult in brittle materials than in ductile materials. kevalpatil@gmail.com 12
  • 13. Heat Treatment The process of stress relieving consists of heating materials uniformly to a temperature below the lower critical temperature, holding at this temperature for sufficient time, followed by uniform cooling. Annealing: Stress Relieving  Uniform cooling is of utmost importance as non-uniform cooling will itself result in the development of internal stresses. Thus the very Stress – Corrosion Cracking purpose of stress relieving will be lost. Plain carbon steels and low alloy steels generally temperature is limited to 600 oC. Higher temperature is used for high alloy steels. The extent of the stresses relieved depend upon the temperature employed and holding time. kevalpatil@gmail.com 13
  • 14. Heat Treatment 17 Annealing: Normalizing Normalizing is similar to full annealing, except steel is generally cooled in still air. The normalizing consists of heating steel to about 40-55 oC above critical temperature (Ac3 or Accm), and holding for proper item and then cooling in still air or slightly agitated air to room temperature.  In some special cases, cooling rates can be controlled by either changing air temperature or air volume. kevalpatil@gmail.com 14
  • 15. Heat Treatment- Normalizing 18 After normalizing, the resultant micro-structure should be pearlitic. Since the temperature involved in this process is more than that for annealing , the homogeneity results in better dispersion of austenite increases and it of ferrite and Cementite in the final structure. Results in better dispersion of ferrite and Cementite in the final structure. The grain size is finer in normalized structure than in annealed structure. kevalpatil@gmail.com 15
  • 16. Heat Treatment- Normalizing 19 Normalized steels are generally stronger and harder than fully annealed steels.  Steels are soft in annealed condition and tend to stick during machining. By normalizing, an optimum combination of strength and softness is achieved, which results in satisfactory level of Machinability in steels. Normalizing is the effective way to eliminate the carbide network. kevalpatil@gmail.com 16
  • 17. Heat Treatment- Normalizing 2 0 Normalized treatment is frequently applied to steel in order to achieve any one or more of the objectives, namely:  To refine the grain structure,  To obtain uniform structure,  To decrease residual stresses,  To improve Machinability. kevalpatil@gmail.com 17
  • 18. Heat Treatment- Hardening: 21 Hardening and Hardness are two very different things. One is a process of heat treatment and other is a extrinsic property of a material.  Hardening is a heat treatment process in which steel is rapidly cooled from austenitising temperature. As a result of hardening, the hardness and wear resistance of steel are improved.  Hardening treatment consists of generally hardening temperature, heating to holding at that temperature, followed by rapid cooling such as quenching in oil or water or salt baths. kevalpatil@gmail.com 18
  • 19. Heat Treatment- Hardening: 22 The high hardness developed by this process is due to the phase transformation accompanying rapid cooling. Rapid cooling results in the transformation of austenite at considerably low temperature into non- equilibrium products. The hardening temperature depends on chemical composition.  For plain carbon steels, it depends on the carbon content alone. Hypoeutectoid steels are heated to about 30 – 50 oC above the upper critical temperature, whereas eutectoid and hyper eutectoid steels are heated to about 30 – 50 oC above lower critical temperature. Ferrite and pearlite transform to austenite at hardening temperature for hypoectectoid steel. This austenite transforms to martensite on rapid quenching from hardening temperature. The presence of martensite accounts for high hardness of quenched steel.kevalpatil@gmail.com 19
  • 20. Heat Treatment- Hardening: Hardening is applied to cutting tools and machine parts where high hardness and wear resistance are important. The Process Variables: Hardening Temperature: The steel should be heat treated to optimum austenitising temperature. A lower temperature results lower hardness due to incomplete transformation t austenite. If this temperature is too high will also results lower hardness due to a coarse grained structure. Soaking Time: Soaking time at hardening temperature should be long enough to transform homogenous austenite structure. Soaking time increases with increase in section thickness and the amount of alloying element. Delay in quenching: After soaking, the steel is immediately quenched. Delay in quenching may reduce hardness due to partial transformation of austenite. Type of quenching medium also has a profound effect, which will be discussed briefly kevalpatil@gmail.com 20
  • 21. Heat Treatment Hardening: The main purpose of hardening tool steel is to develop high hardness. This enables tool steel to cut other metals. High hardness developed by this process also improves wear resistance. Gears, shafts and bearings. Tensile strength and yield strength are improved considerably y hardening structural steels. Because of rapid cooling, high internal stresses are developed in the hardened steel. Hence these steels are generally brittle. Hardening in general is followed by another treatment known as tempering which reduces internal stresses and makes the hardened steel relatively stable, kevalpatil@gmail.com 21
  • 22. Heat Treatment Tempering: Hardened steels are so brittle that even a small impact will cause fracture. Toughness of such a steel can be improved by tempering. However there is small reduction in strength and hardness. Tempering is a sub-critical heat treatment process used to improve the toughness of hardened steel. Tempering consists of reheating of hardened steel to a temperature below Lower critical temperature and is held for a period of time, and then slowly cooled in air to room temperature.kevalpatil@gmail.com 22
  • 23. Heat Treatment- Tempering: 2 6 At tempering temperature, carbon atoms diffuses out and form fine cementite and softer ferrite structure left behind. Thus the structure of tempered steel consists of ferrite and fine cementite.  function of the parts. Cutting tools The temperatures are related to the are tempered between 230 – 300 oC. If greater ductility and toughness are desired as in case of shafts and high strength bolts, the steel is tempered in the range of 300 – 600 oC. Thus tempering allows to precipitate carbon as very fine carbide and allow the microstructure to return to BCC kevalpatil@gmail.com 23
  • 24. Heat Treatment- Tempering: 27 Tempering temperatures are usually identified by the colour. Tempering temperatures for tools and shafts along with temper colors. Depending on temperatures, tempering processes can be classified as: 1)Low- temperature tempering (150 – 250 oC), 2)Medium – temperature tempering (350 – 450 oC), 3)High – temperature tempering (500 – 650 oC). kevalpatil@gmail.com 24
  • 25. Heat Treatment- Tempering: 2 8 Tempering temperatures are usually identified by the colour. Tempering temperatures for tools and shafts along with temper colors. kevalpatil@gmail.com 25
  • 26. Heat Treatment- Hardenability: 29 The responsibility of a steel to a given hardening treatment is indicated by the property known as Hardenability. It is an index of the depth to which the martensite can be formed in a given steel as a result of a given hardening treatment. The term Hardenability is used to measure the depth of hardness achieved i.e. martensite introduced into the steel section by quenching the steel from austenite state. Greater the depth of hardness below the surface, higher will be the Hardenability of steel. kevalpatil@gmail.com 26
  • 27. Heat Treatment- Hardenability: 30 Hardenability of steel depends on compositionof steel,method of quenching and section of steel. The addition of alloying elements in steel decreases the critical cooling rate. Thus the Hardenability of alloy steels is more than that of the carbon steels. While in the oil quenching, the cooling rates are lower than water quenching and thus the hardness values are lower in case of oil quenched steels. The larger section shows lower Hardenability because of their increase mass results in a lower overall rate of cooling. kevalpatil@gmail.com 27
  • 28. Hardenability : Jominy End Quench Test 31 The Jominy test involves heating a standard test piece of diameter 25 mm and length 100 mm to the austenite state, fixing it to a frame in a vertical position and then quenching the lower end by means of a jet of water. The most simple and convenient method of determining the Hardenability is the Jominy End Quench Test. kevalpatil@gmail.com 28
  • 29. Hardenability : Jominy End Quench Test 32 the test price, measurements are and hardness made along the length of the test piece.  A bar of steel having good Hardenability shows higher hardness readings for greater distance from the quenched end. The mode of quenching results in different rate of cooling along the length of the test piece. After a quenching, a flat of 0.38 mm deep is ground along one side of kevalpatil@gmail.com 29
  • 30. Heat Treatment- Quenching: 33 Quenching is a process of rapid cooling of materials from high temperature to room temperature or even lower. In steels quenching results in transformation of austenite to martensite (a non-equilibrium constituent).  Under ideal conditions, all the heat absorbed by the medium should be rejected to the surroundings immediately. During cooling, heat must be extracted at a very fast rate from the steel piece. This is possible only when a steel piece is allowed to come in contact with some medium which can absorb heat from the steel piece with in a short period. kevalpatil@gmail.com 30
  • 31. Heat Treatment- Quenching: 34 Quenching: The removal of heat during quenching is complex in the sense that heat is removed in three stages. 1) Vapor Blanket, 2) Nucleate Boiling, 3) Convection. kevalpatil@gmail.com 31
  • 32. Heat Treatment- Quenching: 35 Vapor Blanket (stage 1) As soon as the work-piece comes into contact with a liquid coolant (quenchant), the surrounding quenchant layer is instantaneously heated up to the boiling point of the quenchant and gets vaporized due to the high temperature of the work- piece. This acts as an insulator, preventing the quenching oil from contacting the metal surface. As a consequence, the rate of cooling during this stage is slow. At this stage the work piece is cooled only by conduction and radiation through the vapor film.  Only the surface is cooled considerably prior to the formation of vapor envelop. kevalpatil@gmail.com 32
  • 33. Heat Treatment- Quenching: 36 Nucleate Boiling (stage 2) This second stage is also called as transport cooling stage or liquid boiling stage. The temperature of the work-piece comes down, through very slowly and the vapor blanket is no longer stable and collapses. Metal surface comes into contact with the liquid/ quenchant. Violent boiling quickly removes heat from the quenched component while forming bubbles and being pushed away, resulting in the cooler fluid coming into contact with the work piece. This happens till the temperature of the work piece comes down to the boiling point of the liquid. Maximum cooling rate is achieved during this stage. kevalpatil@gmail.com 33
  • 34. Heat Treatment- Quenching: 37 Convection (stage 3) The third stage is called as the liquid cooling stage or the convection stage. I starts when the temperature of the surface becomes equal to the boiling point of the quenchant. Cooling at this stage takes place via conduction and convection processes. The rate of cooling is the slowest at this stage. kevalpatil@gmail.com 34
  • 35. Qenching: Effect of Quenching Medium 38 Quenching medium has the profound effect on the final phase of the material. Quenching medium is directly related to the rate of the cooling of the material. Some of the widely employed quenching media are water, aqueous solutions, oils (mineral, vegetable and even animal oils), molten salts and air. kevalpatil@gmail.com 35
  • 36. Effect of Quenching Medium -(Water) 3 9 Water has maximum cooling rate amongst all common quenchants except few aqueous solutions. It is very cheap and easily disposed off compared to other quenchants.  Hence water is used for carbon steels, alloy steels and non-ferrous alloys. The layer if scale formed on the surface during heating is also broken by water quenching, thus eliminating an additional process of surface cooling. kevalpatil@gmail.com 36
  • 37. Effect of Quenching Medium -(Oil) Most of the Oils used as quenchants are mineral oils. These are in general paraffin based and do not possess any fatty oils. Quenching in oil provides slower cooling rates as compared to those achieved by water quenching. The slower cooling rate reduces the possibility of hardening defects. The temperature difference between core and the case of work piece is less for oil quenching than for water quenching. 40kevalpatil@gmail.com 37
  • 38. Effect of Quenching Medium (AIR) • Many alloy steels are capable of getting hardened by cooling either in still air or in a blast of air.  Such steels are popularly known as air hardening steels.  These steels are almost free from distortion problem. However, the problem of oxidation during cooling (quenching) may be encountered in practice. Many grades of tool steels are subjected to air hardening.  Cooling rates can be improved by mixing air and water. 4 1 kevalpatil@gmail.com 38
  • 39. Effect of Quenching Medium 42 Just the drastic water quench generates a fully martensite structure.  Although quenched in oil the austensite converts into suitably fine pearlite.  Accurate pearlite also results if the austenised eutectoid steel is air-cooled.  Though, if allowed to cool in furnace coarse pearlite is appearance. kevalpatil@gmail.com 39
  • 40. Effect of Quenching Medium 43 Coarse Pearlite Smaller T: colonies are larger Fine Pearlite Larger T: colonies are smaller Figure: Microstructure resulting from Different Cooling Rates Applied to Austenitized Samples of Eutectoid Steelkevalpatil@gmail.com 40
  • 41. Surface Hardening: Flame Hardening 44 In many situations hard and wear resistance surface is required with the tough core. Because of tough core the components can withstand impact load. The typical applications requiring these conditions include gear teeth, cams shafts, bearings, crank pins, clutch plate, tools and dies. The combination of the these properties can be achieved by the following methods:  1. Hardening and tempering the surface layers (surface hardening) (i) Flame Hardening (ii) Induction Hardening  2.Changing the composition at surface layers (chemical heat treatment or case hardening) (i) Carburising (ii) Nitriding. (iii) Cyaniding kevalpatil@gmail.com 41
  • 42. Surface Hardening: Flame Hardening 4 5 The flame hardening involves heating the surface of a steel to a temperature above upper critical point (850 oC) with a oxyacetylene flame and then immediately quenched the surface with cold water. Heating transforms the structure of surface layers to austenite, and the quenching changes it to martensite. kevalpatil@gmail.com 42
  • 43. Surface Hardening: Flame Hardening 46 The surface layers are hardened to about 50 – 60 HRC. It is less expensive and can be easily adopted for large and complex shapes. Flame hardened parts must be tempered after hardening. The tempering temperature depends on the alloy composition and desired hardness.  The flame hardening methods are suitable for the steels with carbon contents ranging from 0.40 to 0.95% and low alloy steels. kevalpatil@gmail.com 43
  • 44. Surface Hardening: Induction hardening 47 Induction hardening involves placing the steel components within a coil through which high frequency current is passed. The current in the coil induce eddy current in the surface layers, and heat the surface layers uotp austenite state. Then the surface is immediately quenched with the cold water to transfer the austenite to martensite. The principle of induction hardening is: kevalpatil@gmail.com 44
  • 45. Surface Hardening: Induction hardening 4 8 Advantages of induction hardening over flame hardening is its speed and ability to harden small parts; but it is expensive. Like flame hardening, it is suitable for medium carbon and low alloy steels. Typical applications for induction hardening are crank shafts, cam shafts, connecting rods, gears and cylinders. kevalpatil@gmail.com 45
  • 46. Surface Hardening: Carburising 4 9 Carburising is carried out on a steels containing carbon less than 0.2%. It involves increasing the carbon contents on the surface layers upto 0.7 to 0.8%. In this process, the steel is heated in contact with carbonaceous material from which it absorbs carbon. This method is mostly used for securing hard and wear resistance surface with tough core carburising is used for gears, cams, bearings and clutch plates. 2 C O C + CO2 kevalpatil@gmail.com 46
  • 47. Surface Hardening: Carburising 50 The Following methods are used to diffuse carbon into surface layers: 1) Pack (solid) Carburising, 2) Gas Carburising, 3) Liquid Carburising. Gas Carburising Liquid Carburising kevalpatil@gmail.com 47
  • 48. Surface Hardening: Nitriding 51 The atomic nitrogen diffuses into steel surface, and combines with the alloying elements (Cr, Mo, W, V etc) to form hard nitrides. The depth to which nitrides are formed in the steel depends on the temperature and the time allowed for the reaction. After the nitriding the job is allowed to cool slowly. Since there is no quenching involved, chances of cracking and distortion of the component are less. Nitriding involves diffusion of nitrogen into the product to form nitrides. The resulting nitride case can be harder than the carburized steel. This process is used for alloy steels containing alloying elements (Aluminum, Chromium and Molybdenum) which form stable nitrides. Nitriding consists if heating a component in a retort to a temperature of about 500 to 600 oC. Through the retort the ammonia gas is allowed to circulate. At this temperature the ammonia dissociates by the following reaction. 2 NH 3 2N + 3H2 kevalpatil@gmail.com 48
  • 49. Surface Hardening: Nitriding 52 The depth of nitrided case ranges from 0.2 to 0.4 mm and no machining is done after nitriding. Nitriding increase wear and corrosion resistance and fatigue strength of the steel. Since nitriding is done at low temperature, it requires more time than carburising, and also the capital cost if the plant is higher than carburising. kevalpatil@gmail.com 49
  • 50. Surface Hardening: Cyaniding Similar to carbonitriding, cyaniding also involves the diffusion of carbon and nitrogen into the surface of steel. It is also called liquid carbonitriding. The components are heated to the temperature of about 800 – 900 oC in a molten cyanide bath consisting of sodium cyanide, sodium carbonate and sodium chloride. After allowing the components in the bath for about 15 – 20 minutes, they are quenched in oil or water. Cyaniding is normally used for low-carbon steels, and case depths are usually less than 0.25 mm. It produces hard and wear resistance surface on the steels. Because of shorter time cycles, the process is widely used for the machine components subjected to moderate wear and service loads. The process is particularly suitable for screws, small gears, nuts and bolts. 53 kevalpatil@gmail.com 50
  • 51. End of UNIT -4 Please refer & read the book. kevalpatil@gmail.com 51