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3 d printing ppt

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A presentation for non-conventional manufacturing process...

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3 d printing ppt

  1. 1. Presented By: KALPESH SHAH M.E.(Design)
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION :  3D printing has gained importance in the field of manufacturing in past decade.  It is an additive process in contrast to some conventional process’s of manufacturing which are subtractive.  In conventional process like cutting,milling,etc the material is removed to form the required component , but in 3D printing material is added as per requirement and component to be formed.
  3. 3.  It is being studied at world level to attain new techniques relating to this process so that is becomes more feasible to use this process on large scale.  The printer’s or scanner’s are required to form a particular component through this process.  The process is also used for Rapid Prototyping.
  4. 4. HISTORY :  The process of 3D printing was evolved way back in 70’s but became quite popular in past decade.  The reason behind this was the set up required to carry out this process was costly compared to other conventional process.  But as time passed by the cheaper machinery were developed also the patent’s regarding this process expired in 90’s.  These things couples with rise is expenditure of conventional techniques attracted the manufacturers to this process.
  5. 5. LITERATURE :  3D printing or Additive manufacturing is a process of making a three dimensional solid object of virtually any shape from a digital model.  3D printing is achieved using an additive process, where successive layers of material are laid down in different shapes  A 3D printer is a limited type of industrial robot that is capable of carrying out an additive process under computer control.  The 3D printing is used for prototyping and distributed manufacturing with applications in architecture, construction (AEC), industrial design, automotive, aerospace, military, engineering etc.
  6. 6.  3D printing could become a mass market item because domestic 3D printers can offset their capital costs by enabling consumers to avoid costs associated with purchasing common household objects.  The term additive manufacturing refers to technologies that create objects through sequential layering.  Objects that are manufactured additively can be used anywhere throughout the product life cycle, from pre-production (i.e. rapid prototyping) to full-scale production (i.e. rapid manufacturing),
  7. 7. WORKING PRINCIPLE : The 3D printing technique has following steps :- 1. Forming 3D printable model. 2. Printing the model. 3. Finishing of the model.
  8. 8. FORMING 3D PRINTABLE MODEL :  A printable model can be formed either by using a computer Aided Designing software package or using a 3D scanner.  The CAD software might be used to form a design of a model according to user input.  While a 3D scanner is an industrial robot which scans a particular object and records it’s dimensions and provides input to the printer.
  9. 9. PRINTING THE MODEL :  Depending on the design data provided the printer lays down several layers of powder, liquid, paper, polymer, plastic or other material depending on the material required.  Printer resolution describes layer thickness and X-Y resolution in micrometers.  3D printers give designers and concept development teams the ability to produce parts and concept models using a desktop size printer.
  10. 10. FINISHING :  Though the printer-produced resolution is sufficient for many applications, printing a slightly oversized version of the desired object in standard resolution and then removing material with a higher-resolution subtractive process can achieve greater precision  In this process the supports would be dissolved which might be used to support overhanging features in the model to be printed.
  11. 11. TYPES OF PRINTING :  Steriolithography  Laminated Object Manufacturing.  Selective Laser Sintering (SLS).  Selective Laser Melting (SLM).  Electron Beam Melting (EBM).  Granular Material Binding.  Fused Deposition Modelling.
  12. 12. STERIOLITHOGRAPHY :  In this process polymerisation technique is used to create a solid model from liquid resin.  The liquid polymer is filled in a mould of required shape, then it is exposed to light.  Due to this exposure the liquid polymer layer hardens and this layer goes down exposing another liquid layer , thus creating a complete solid model.  Another method is to jet the liquid polymer on the tray and passing UV rays through it forming a solid model.
  13. 13. LASER STIRIOLITHOGRAPHY :
  14. 14. LAMINATED OBJECT MANUFACTURING :  In this process papers are used to form a solid model of required shape.  A special adhesive coated paper could be cut using CO2 laser and then laminated them together to form a model of required shape.  Regular paper can also be used which might be cut using tungsten carbide blade and then selective deposition using adhesives to form required model.
  15. 15.  Selective Laser Melting (SLM) does not use sintering for the fusion of powder granules but will completely melt the powder using a high-energy laser to create fully dense materials in a layerwise method with similar mechanical properties to conventional manufactured metals.  Electron beam melting (EBM) It produces parts by melting metal powder layer by layer with an electron beam in a high vacuum. Unlike metal sintering techniques that operate below melting point, EBM parts are fully dense, void-free, and very strong  Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) It fuses materials in a granular bed. The technique fuses parts of the layer, and then moves the working area downwards, adding another layer of granules and repeating the process until the piece has built up
  16. 16. GRANULAR MATERIAL BINDING:
  17. 17. FUSED DEPOSITION MODELLING :  In fused deposition modeling the model or part is produced by extruding small beads of material which harden immediately to form layers.  A thermoplastic filament or metal wire that is wound on a coil is unreeled to supply material to an extrusion nozzle head. The nozzle head heats the material and turns the flow on and off.  Typically stepper motors or servo motors are employed to move the extrusion head and adjust the flow and the head can be moved in both horizontal and vertical directions.
  18. 18. Various polymers are used, including acrylonitrile butadiene styrene(ABS), polycarbon ate(PC), polylactic acid (PLA),high density polyethylene (HDPE), PC/ABS, and polyphenylsulfone (P PSU). In general the polymer is in the form of a filament, fabricated from virgin resins.
  19. 19. Paper By :- Terry Wohlers September 7th 2013
  20. 20. HIGHLIGHTS :  There were nearly 100 three-dimensional (3D) printers quietly making things at RedEye, a company based in Eden Prairie, Minnesota, and you can catch a glimpse of how factories will work in the future.  Terry Gou, the boss of Foxconn, the world’s largest contract manufacturer of electronic goods.He thinks 3D printing is just “a gimmick” without any commercial value in the manufacture of real finished goods.  The market for 3D printers and services is small, but growing fast. Last year it was worth $2.2 billion worldwide, up 29% from 2011.
  21. 21.  The additive manufacturing process might not replace the conventional process in mass production.  As 3D printers get better and printed materials improve, the quality and finish of prototypes is becoming harder to distinguish from things made in traditional factories.  3D printing is not competing with conventional manufacturing, but is hybridising with it  The value of 3D printing as a production tool will increase further with systems that are capable of printing electrical circuits directly onto or into components. It can be used to print functioning switches, buttons and sensors.
  22. 22.  Additive manufacturing has other limitations. It can be slow—taking several hours to print, say, a body panel for a car. But speed is relative. What may be too slow for a large production run might be fine for a one-off item which would take weeks to make in a machine-shop.  Meanwhile, 3D printing is becoming more readily available to people with no equipment of their own through service providers that print objects on demand  The heightened buzz surrounding 3D printing technology has prompted many manufacturers to consider bringing this capability in-house.
  23. 23. Paper By :- Tim Thellin 10th August 2005
  24. 24. HIGHLIGHTS :-  Estimated sales of 3D printers by the leading manufacturers jumped from $37.4 million in 2003 to $74.6 million in 2004, an increase of 99.5 percent.  The number of models and prototype parts produced last year grew to an estimated 6.05 million, up from 4.83 million in 2003.  The first question arising is, will bringing a machine in-house provide increased productivity, faster time-to- market, and cost savings over buying parts from a service provider?
  25. 25.  Many manufacturers with 3D printers actually use a combination of in-house and outsourced models in the process of developing and producing products.  In-house 3D printing is usually faster and more convenient because it can eliminate delays related to shipping and the administrative work associated with purchasing external services.  Also, it provides manufacturers with the flexibility for managing and prioritizing their own model production queues.  Realizing the benefits of speed and convenience is a function of the volume of models you need.
  26. 26.  Another factor to consider in determining whether to purchase a 3D printer is the sensitivity of the new design  Having a 3D printer in-house helps to reduce the likelihood of new designs landing in the wrong hands.  The leading systems range in price from just under $25,000 to about $60,000 per unit. An annual maintenance agreement costs about $3,000 to $9,000 and vary by machine type.  Materials range from about $1.50 to $2 per cubic inch of part (including infiltrant) for the materials from Z Corp. to $250 per kilogram for the ABS material for the Dimension machine.
  27. 27.  By evaluating your specific design and modeling needs, you can determine whether the acquisition of a 3D printer is the right move for you.  And once you have made that determination, thoroughly evaluate your needs against what is available.  Be sure to ask about hidden costs or any extras that have not been discussed in any publications or presented by the vendor. Also, consider whether technical support and service is local or a considerable distance away.  Asking lots of questions and doing your homework will help you meet your goals of reducing cost, improving product quality, and accelerating time-to-market
  28. 28. Paper By :- Michael Weinberg 20th January 2012
  29. 29. HIGHLIGHTS :  For many people exposed to 3D printing for the first time, the question that follows “is it real?,” “how does it work?,” and “how can I get one?” is “what about piracy?” And by piracy, they usually mean copyright issues.  Copyright, patent, and trademark are the three primary types of intellectual property. Generally speaking, copyright covers creative works, patent covers technical works, and trademark covers the ways in which goods are identified in the marketplace.
  30. 30. The story of the first 3D printing-related copyright takedown request is a case in point. A designer named Ulrich Schwanitz created a 3D model for an optical illusion called a “Penrose triangle.”
  31. 31.  As 3D printing and modeling grow in popularity, it is likely that we will see more companies and individuals assuming they have a copyright for a design or object and demanding removal of unauthorized versions.  Purely artistic physical objects will be protected by copyright as sculptural works.  Licensing is another way to provide security where the designer provides license to other person to refer or use his designs.  But if the license holder leaks the information to others the copyright holder remains helpless.  Until there is better legal clarity, cultural clarity is the best way to protect the development of 3D printing.
  32. 32. CONCLUSION :  Depending on the knowledge raised from the information gained through several papers few conclusions are acquired.  3D printing is an important emerging manufacturing process with which the companies should get familiar to remain in competition in future.  Though this technique is not good enough from mass production point of view, but manufacturing some complex items which instead would take many days in workshop can be created using this technique.
  33. 33.  Rapid prototyping is another advantage of this technique.  Production line parts can also be designed using this process as employed by BMW in their production line.  Many patents associated with this technique have expired in 2008 and many of them will finish their term in coming years this would boost the use of this technique on large scale.  Many cheap 3D printers and their designs are now available in market or on net.  The 3D printing techniques should not be blindly incorporated without understanding the company’s need.
  34. 34.  Once the need of 3D printing is justified the 3D printer should be selected very carefully from a trustworthy supplier.  The post purchase service should also be considered while purchasing a machine from a particular supplier.  If you are giving your order to an outsider utmost care should be taken that no confidential design data should be leaked from that outsider.  The use of 3D printing technique is used with various style in various countries for various jobs.  Countries like U.S. , China , Japan etc are diverting their attention to more and more use of additive process.
  35. 35.  Fields like aerospace industry, automobile industry, civil structure, medical aids, defence , even household things are welcoming this technique happily.  The studies regarding this process is being made in many universities to make this process more popular and user friendly.  Components like guns, microphones, teeth, bones, pipes and many more are successfully manufactured using this process till date.  Even placing electric circuits directly into the cell phone structure is under development through 3d printing.
  36. 36.  Not just manufacturing a 3D printed model but also protecting it is also of high priority.  One should make himself very clear about the legal issues related to components produced through this technique.  The design and the product should be copyrighted so that no would could misuse your design.  Although no strict legislature , legal or cultural rules are available to secure the 3D printed objects manufacture, but one should take as much precaution as possible to secure it’s product.  This technique in future might turn a great blessings to the companies using it.
  37. 37.  With reference to our country the process is peeping out it’s head to draw attention of the companies for an alternative to conventional techniques.  Though it is not that popular today but the technique will surely mark it’s presence in near future as the our country has a great amount of skilled labour which get’s familiar to any new technique very quickly.  According to a research in next decade India would be amongst the top 5 countries using this manufacturing technique on large scale.  Also there is another side to this coin too.  Many companies are opposing use of this technique on the basis of less accuracy and rise in unemployement.
  38. 38.  If some big companies equip themselves with a 3D printer then the small companies or the vendors will not get orders endangering their business growth.  Also the laws regarding the security of the 3D printed objects are not yet strongly established leaving a loop hole in the progress of the technique.  The technique has even gone to the grass root level of production of clothes and even jewellery.  This techniquue according to me might be a revolution in manufacturing field in coming years prooving it’s importance in each and every aspect of life.  The aim is to take 3D printer in each house so that manufacturing will become a household process.
  39. 39. QUERIES???????

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