Comparison Between Western Traditional and Modern Philosophies of Education
Perennialism Comes from the root word, “ perennial ” means Fixed and do not change = For perennialists : Truth is something they define as perennial. Education should focus on the search and dissemination of knowledge which is fixed.
Characteristics of human nature are Concept universal & fixed GOALS OF Teach knowledge and eDUCATION universal values which are everlasting. FocusIF YOU WANT TO KNOW MORE,CLICK QUESTION MARK Curriculum : Humanities & literature Teacher : Expert disseminator of knowledge Teaching method : Didactic Pupils : Passive recipients of knowledge to proceed . .
CURRICULUMThey contain concrete truths regardingthe nature of man, unlike vocational ortechnical subjects which are consideredto be more concerned with machines andmachinery Subject recommended: literature, mathematics, science, language and art
Considered a learned & authorizedexpert in education &knowledge. Teacher’s role Responsible to deliver knowledge and facilitate group discussions.
Teaching method Teacher teaches and pupils learn without any opportunity to ask question.Has expert power and does not entertain hispupils view
Pupils’ Role The responsible to work hard in order to gain as much knowledge as they can.Have to complete all the assignmentgiven by the teacher.
ESSENTIALISM Started as a systematic educational movement in the 1930s. Originated from realism and idealism Conservative in nature
ConceptKnowledge and skills that need to betaught to the pupils. Focus more on basics; what an individual needs to know in order to become a productive person. Change from time to time .Essentialism is said to be bothpractical and pragmatic.
Goals of EducationTeachknowledge and basicculture. Focus Curriculum : Basic skills (reading, writing, arithmetic)Teacher : Skilled disseminator of knowledge Teaching method : DidacticPupils : P a s s i v e r e c i p i e n t o f k n o w l e d g e IF YOU WANT TO KNOW MORE, CLICK QUESTION MARK to proceed . .
Curriculum Focus more on reading, writing and arithmetic (3R)Compulsory subject like Science, History, Art, andMusic whilst Literature and Humanities are optional.
Teacher’s roleAuthority in the teaching - and - learning process inthe classroom. Skilled in classroom control. Role model for the pupils.
Teaching method DIDACTIC????????? = not encouraged to involve themselvesPupils arein the speculative reflection process =Waste of time
Pupils’ roleStudy hard a n d pay attentionto what is taught in school.
PROGRESSIVISM developed from Pragmatism came under influence of John Dewey’s idea Concept human beings are capable of adapting to change knowledge cannot be regarded as an everlasting truth do not believe in the existence of permanenttruth that needs to be mastered by our pupils
Knowledge is something which is both relative and tentative and used to used to explain the present realityis said to undergo continuous changes Therefore, an educated people is defined as one who has the insight which enables him to adapt to changes his environment
Goals of Education produce individuals who are ready to face changes in their daily livesCLICK QUESTION FocusMARK IF YOUWANT TO KNOWMORE, Curriculum : Choice of subjects according to individual interest Teacher : Facilitator and manager Teaching Method : Inductive Pupils : Active seekers of knowledge to proceed . .
students be given the freedom to choose the subjects they wish to study will ensure that they study according to their personal interests learning becomes more effective andpupils are able to maximize their individual abilities and potentials
assists pupils to handle any problems in their ever-changing surroundings as facilitator Teacher as manager responsible to create a conducive learning environment puts forward questions to stimulate pupils’ thinking guides their interests towards a positive direction
• give pupils the opportunity to explain certain educational issues arising • enhance their understanding about environmental environment that always changing Inductive Teaching Method Recommended teaching strategies : Teaching problem-solving skills Laboratory work and experiments Direct experience with the environment
Need to study how to ask questions about the environment Pupils : Active seekers of knowledge Responsible to seek their own explanations for phenomena given by the teacher
RECONSTRUCTIVISM stems from Pragmatism recommends that we improve and reconstruct our society Conceptschools are considered as the main catalyst for improving the state of human beings school is a platform to build a new society
Goals of Education lays the foundation for a new cultural patternFocus Curriculum : Social science subjects Teacher : Agents of change Teaching Method : Pupil-centered Pupils : Have the courage to try and be active
emphasizes current and future orientations besides local and global issues has to be creative and innovative in classroom Curriculum : Social science subjects Teacher : Agents of change Teaching Method : Pupil-centered Pupils : Have the courage to try and be active pupils are taught problem-solving skills • to achieve the predetermined goals of trough activities, education brainstorming, role plays • should be courage enough to try out new and stimulationthings and willing to change their existing paradigms
EXISTENTIALISM focus on the nature of existence of manhuman beings are considered born without any aim or purpose in life Concept human beings are responsible for themselves
Goals of Educationschool system or teacher does not have the right to impose the goals of education
Focus Curriculum : Aesthetics and philosophy students are responsible for their own does noteducation subjects have specific subjects which are aesthetic and philosophy-based like art, literature and drama are considered relevant Teacher : Knowledge catalyst Provides educational opportunities so that pupils can voice out their feelings and emotions
Teaching Method : Activity-centered and pupil- centeredRole plays and simulations are frequently employed in the class room Pupils are motivated to engage n deep thinking Pupils : Active recipients of knowledgeEncourage to involve themselves actively to maximizethe educational activities opportunities offered to them