Openings in walls

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Openings in walls

  1. 1. Openings in wallsStructural integrity and weather exclusion
  2. 2. Wall openings• Potential source of major problems – The opening weakens the wall – The wall above the opening can fall down into it – Rain can get in around the edges of the opening• But we have to have them – To get in and out – To let light and air in – To define the character of the building…
  3. 3. Openings crucial to building appearance
  4. 4. Modern architecture uses openings too
  5. 5. Dealing with structural problems• Openings in walls create two structural problems – Support for the wall above the opening – Retaining the integrity of the wall• Problems almost non-existent in timber framed walls• The problems are dominating in masonry walls…
  6. 6. Making a masonry opening
  7. 7. Making a masonry opening
  8. 8. Beam over opening: called a lintel
  9. 9. Simple reinforced concrete lintelsSimple, robust, heavy
  10. 10. Masonry with lintel architecture: “trabeated” architecture UK UAEThe simplest and mostuniversal architectural motif,an opening with a beam acrossthe top.
  11. 11. Arch over opening KeystoneVousoirs
  12. 12. The city of arches, Krakow: “arcuated” architecture
  13. 13. Historical architecture• Greek architecture: trabeated, structurally limited• Roman architecture: arcuated, structurally open
  14. 14. Ancient historical architectureStonehenge: about 4,500 Ctesiphon: about 1,700 years oldyears old • Stonehenge: ultimate trabeated structure • Ctesiphon: oldest and still the biggest brick arch in the World
  15. 15. Arches want to spread out flat
  16. 16. Arches want to spread out flat
  17. 17. Arches want to spread out flat
  18. 18. Arches want to spread out flat
  19. 19. Ties and buttresses
  20. 20. Retaining the structural integrity of the wall
  21. 21. Retaining the structural integrity of the wall Opening < 1/3 wall length
  22. 22. Keeping the rain outlintels Forming opening breaks the cavity
  23. 23. Keeping the rain out Rain penetrating above the opening gets intolintels the window frame Forming opening breaks the cavity
  24. 24. Keeping the rain out Rain penetrating above the opening gets intolintels the window frame Rain must be guided to the outside by a DPC above the lintel Forming opening breaks the cavity
  25. 25. Cavity tray above simple lintelsSloped DPC overhead of lintelcalled a cavity trayIt guides any waterin the cavity to theoutside
  26. 26. Cavity tray above simple lintelsSloped DPC overhead of lintelcalled a cavity trayIt guides any waterin the cavity to theoutside
  27. 27. Cavity trays Cavity tray Dam stops water opening pouring off end of trayCavity tray can be formed from lead,sheet plastic or specially made for the job
  28. 28. Specially formed steel lintelsSteel lintel, filled with expandedpolystyrene for insulation,shaped to direct water to theoutside
  29. 29. Speciality lintels DPC cavity tray“Arched” lintels The lintel is not necessary structurally, but it provides a former for the arch and supports a cavity tray
  30. 30. Side of opening must be closed Cut brick, mortar, flexible DPC. Common but difficultPlan view of one side of an opening
  31. 31. Side of opening must be closed Cut brick, mortar, flexible DPC. Common but difficult Prefabricated plastic, insulated cavity reveal closer. Very effectivePlan view of one side of an opening
  32. 32. References• CHUDLEY, R. ; GREENO, R. (2010). Construction technology. 6th ed. Pearson Education.• CHUDLEY, R. ; GREENO, R. (2006). Building construction handbook. 6th ed. Butterworth-Heinemann.• Suppliers of lintels, cavity tray and cavity closers: – Cavity trays: http://www.cavitytrays.co.uk/ – Steel lintels: http://www.catnic.com/

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