Realisation of the proposal• The contract has been signed• Start dates and completion dates are agreed• The whole project now moves into the “Realisation” stageConception Development Realisation
The Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao Frank GehryConception Development Realisation
The building design process v. project managementConception Development Realisation Design process: tails off on realisation Project Contractor appointed to organise management the realisation stage of the project and is responsible for the project management
The “Project”• There may be two projects running in parallel: – The entire design project, managed by the architect/professional advisor: • Completing and delivering the design – The realisation project managed by the contractor: • Completing and delivering the building – Sometimes the design project finishes completely at the end of the development stage
Managing the design project• The architect’s responsibility during the realisation phase of the design project is to ensure two things: 1. That what the contractor delivers is what the employer expects-the contract is met 2. Where that cannot be done, that the employer agrees any changes which have to be made • Where the design project is terminated at the end of the development stage, there may be no professional protection for the employer.
Managing the building project• This is the contractor’s responsibility. He/she has to manage – Different trades – Delivery and securing of materials and prefabricated elements (windows, plumbing etc) – Site security and safety – Payment of suppliers and sub-contractors – Testing of materials, as required by the contract – Agreeing changes with the supervising architect
Project tasks• Every building project is built up of many tasks.• Some of these tasks may be critical in that other tasks cannot be started/completed before they are: – Walls can’t be plastered until basic electrical wiring is installed and completed – Brick laying cannot start until foundations are finished and cured to full strength – Internal decorations can’t start until the building fabric is dry.
Defining tasks• The project is broken into tasks and sub tasks• Dependency of tasks is established (task B can’t start until task A is finished, task C can happen at any time etc. )• Estimated duration of tasks is calculated• A bar chart or GANT chart of the tasks is drawn up
GANT charting• Each task is a horizontal bar• Length of bar = time to complete task• The beginning and end of the chart are the start and finish dates for the building project
GANT chart for project planning• The contractor knows the chart must fit into the contract time.• Different tasks can be tweaked to shorten the overall project time – If a critical task looks like it might take one week too long, the contractor can allocate more resources to it to speed it up – If a non critical task looks like it is consuming resources needed by a critical task, it can be moved to a different time
GANT chart for project monitoring• Once the project is underway a parallel chart is drawn showing actual progress• A comparison between actual and planned progress will form the basis of all site meetings with the architect. This will give early warning of problems.• The management of the building project is entirely the responsibility of the contractor but he/she is obliged to demonstrate the state of progress of the project to the employer.
The architect’s project management role• The supervising architect carries out three fundamental project management roles – Confirming all works are in accordance with the contract documents – Authorising modifications from the contract documents, with the employer’s agreement – Authorising stage payments to the contractor
Confirming works• The architect will visit the site regularly, with the contractor’s permission• During those visits, completed works are inspected. If they are not in accordance with the contract, the architect will condemn them. It is the contractor’s responsibility to replace the works as necessary
Modifications• Things always change – Difficult ground conditions are discovered – Goods supplier goes bankrupt – Employer’s requirements change – New technology becomes available• Changes must only happen: – with the employer’s and the contractor’s agreement – With the changes fully priced, in accordance with rules agreed in the contract• The Architect issues formal instructions confirming these agreed changes
Stage payments• The contractor is paid in stages in arrears for completed work• The architect visits the site to confirm that the work is complete, to confirm the value of the work, and then issues a certificate authorising payment• The employer is contractually committed to pay the value of each certificate, less a retention amount (usually 10%), the “retention fund”
Practical completion• On “practical completion” the architect confirms the works are substantially complete and the building is handed over to the employer• Half the retention fund is paid to the contractor and the “defects liability period” commences (usually 6 months)• At the end of this period a “snagging list” of outstanding work and discovered defects is given to the contractor who must correct them before the final certificate of completion is issued and the remainder of the retention fund is released. The contract is now complete.
Management contract: very large projects Conception Development RealisationManagement Projectcontractor appointed managementat development stageto coordinatespecialist suppliersand contractors
Management really big projects: Olympics 2012Many sites, many designers, many builders, many clients,absolutely fixed deadline July 27, 2012 Conception Development Realisation Project management
Nothing is more complex than the OlympicsSource: London 2012
Summary• Contracts rarely run as smoothly as in theory – Building works are too unpredictable – The amount of work on the snagging list is not worth 5% to the contractor so he never does it – Agreement cannot always be achieved on who is responsible for a defect, is it the contractor, the designer, a nominated sub-contractor• However, if you know how a project should run, you have a good chance of managing the project in reality.