Third conditional

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Third conditional

  1. 1. THIRD CONDITIONAL, TAMBIÉN -TYPE III<br />Refiere a una situación hipotética del pasado y se forma según la estructura: if + past perfect + Conditional perfect. Aquí tienes algunos ejemplos traducidos.<br />If clauseMain clauseIf + Past Perfect tensewould/could/might + have + past participleIf I had won the lottery,I would have traveled around the world.<br />If I had won the lottery, I would have traveled around the world.Si yo hubiera ganado la lotería, habría viajado por todo el mundo. <br />If I had seen him, I would have told him about you.Si lo hubiese visto, le habría contado acerca de ti. <br />If I had known the answer, I would have raised my hand.Si hubiese sabido la respuesta, habría levantado mi mano. <br />If she had come on Saturday, I would have seen her.Si ella hubiese venido el sábado, la habría visto. <br />If they had left earlier, they would have arrived on time.Si ellos hubiesen salido más temprano, habrían llegado a tiempo. <br />If we had studied harder, we might have passed the test.Si hubiésemos estudiado más duro, podríamos haber aprobado la prueba. <br />If you had gone to Brazil, you would have had lots of fun.Si tu hubieses ido a Brasil, habrías tenido mucha diversión. <br />If I hadn't been so busy, I could have helped you.Si no hubiese estado tan ocupado, te podría haber ayudado. <br />If you had phoned me, I would have known you were here.Si tu me hubieses telefoneado, habría sabido que estabas aquí. <br />If they had invited us, we would have accepted at once.Si ellos nos hubiesen invitado, habríamos aceptado de inmediato. <br />If she had explained me the problem, I would have understood it.Si ella me hubiese explicado el problema, lo habría entendido. <br />If I hadn't forgotten his number, I would have phoned him.Si no hubiese olvidado su número, lo habría llamado. <br />If it hadn't rained, we would have gone fishing.Si no hubiese llovido, habríamos ido a pescar. <br />If my sister had been here, she would have enjoyed this.Si mi hermana hubiese estado aquí, habría disfrutado esto. <br />If they hadn't drunk so much last night, they wouldn't have felt sick today.Si no hubiesen tomado tanto anoche, no se habrían sentido enfermos hoy. <br />If he had worked more, he could have saved more money.Si él hubiese trabajado más, podría haver ahorrado más dinero. <br />Phrasal Verbs List<br />This is a list of about 200 common phrasal verbs, with meanings and examples. Phrasal verbs are usually two-word phrases consisting of verb + adverb or verb + preposition. Think of them as you would any other English vocabulary. Study them as you come across them, rather than trying to memorize many at once. Use the list below as a reference guide when you find an expression that you don't recognize. The examples will help you understand the meanings. If you think of each phrasal verb as a separate verb with a specific meaning, you will be able to remember it more easily. Like many other verbs, phrasal verbs often have more than one meaning. As well as learning their meanings, you need to learn how to use phrasal verbs properly. Some phrasal verbs require a direct object (someone/something), while others do not. Some phrasal verbs can be separated by the object, while others cannot. Review the grammar lesson on phrasal verbs from time to time so that you don't forget the rules!<br />Most phrasal verbs consist of two words, but a few consist of three words, which always stay together.<br />  <br />VerbMeaningExampleask someone outinvite on a dateBrian asked Judy out to dinner and a movie.ask aroundask many people the same questionI asked around but nobody has seen my wallet.add up to somethingequalYour purchases add up to $205.32.back something upreverseYou'll have to back up your car so that I can get out.back someone upsupportMy wife backed me up over my decision to quit my job.blow upexplodeThe racing car blew up after it crashed into the fence.blow something upadd airWe have to blow 50 balloons up for the party.break downstop functioning (vehicle, machine)Our car broke down at the side of the highway in the snowstorm.break downget upsetThe woman broke down when the police told her that her son had died.break something downdivide into smaller partsOur teacher broke the final project down into three separate parts.break inforce entry to a buildingSomebody broke in last night and stole our stereo.break into somethingenter forciblyThe firemen had to break into the room to rescue the children.break something inwear something a few times so that it doesn't look/feel newI need to break these shoes in before we run next week.break ininterruptThe TV station broke in to report the news of the president's death.break upend a relationshipMy boyfriend and I broke up before I moved to America.break upstart laughing (informal)The kids just broke up as soon as the clown started talking.break outescapeThe prisoners broke out of jail when the guards weren't looking.break out in somethingdevelop a skin conditionI broke out in a rash after our camping trip.bring someone downmake unhappyThis sad music is bringing me down.bring someone upraise a childMy grandparents brought me up after my parents died.bring something upstart talking about a subjectMy mother walks out of the room when my father brings up sports.bring something upvomitHe drank so much that he brought his dinner up in the toilet.call aroundphone many different places/peopleWe called around but we weren't able to find the car part we needed.call someone backreturn a phone callI called the company back but the offices were closed for the weekend.call something offcancelJason called the wedding off because he wasn't in love with his fiancé.call on someoneask for an answer or opinionThe professor called on me for question 1.call on someonevisit someoneWe called on you last night but you weren't home.call someone upphoneGive me your phone number and I will call you up when we are in town.calm downrelax after being angryYou are still mad. You need to calm down before you drive the car.not care for someone/somethingnot like (formal)I don't care for his behaviour.catch upget to the same point as someone elseYou'll have to run faster than that if you want to catch up with Marty.check inarrive and register at a hotel or airportWe will get the hotel keys when we check in.check outleave a hotelYou have to check out of the hotel before 11:00 AM.check someone/something outlook at carefully, investigateThe company checks out all new employees.check out someone/somethinglook at (informal)Check out the crazy hair on that guy!cheer upbecome happierShe cheered up when she heard the good news.cheer someone upmake happierI brought you some flowers to cheer you up.chip inhelpIf everyone chips in we can get the kitchen painted by noon.clean something uptidy, cleanPlease clean up your bedroom before you go outside.come across somethingfind unexpectedlyI came across these old photos when I was tidying the closet.come apartseparateThe top and bottom come apart if you pull hard enough.come down with somethingbecome sickMy nephew came down with chicken pox this weekend.come forwardvolunteer for a task or to give evidenceThe woman came forward with her husband's finger prints.come from somewhereoriginate inThe art of origami comes from Asia.count on someone/somethingrely onI am counting on you to make dinner while I am out.cross something outdraw a line throughPlease cross out your old address and write your new one.cut back on somethingconsume lessMy doctor wants me to cut back on sweets and fatty foods.cut something downmake something fall to the groundWe had to cut the old tree in our yard down after the storm.cut ininterruptYour father cut in while I was dancing with your uncle.cut inpull in too closely in front of another vehicleThe bus driver got angry when that car cut in.cut instart operating (of an engine or electrical device)The air conditioner cuts in when the temperature gets to 22°C.cut something offremove with something sharpThe doctors cut off his leg because it was severely injured.cut something offstop providingThe phone company cut off our phone because we didn't pay the bill.cut someone offtake out of a willMy grandparents cut my father off when he remarried.cut something outremove part of something (usually with scissors and paper)I cut this ad out of the newspaper.do someone/something overbeat up, ransack (Br.E., informal)He's lucky to be alive. His shop was done over by a street gang.do something overdo again (N.Amer.)My teacher wants me to do my essay over because she doesn't like my topic.do away with somethingdiscardIt's time to do away with all of these old tax records.do something upfasten, closeDo your coat up before you go outside. It's snowing!dress upwear nice clothingIt's a fancy restaurant so we have to dress up.drop backmove back in a position/groupAndrea dropped back to third place when she fell off her bike.drop in/by/overcome without an appointmentI might drop in/by/over for tea some time this week.drop someone/something offtake someone/something somewhere and leave them/it thereI have to drop my sister off at work before I come over.drop outquit a class, school etcI dropped out of Science because it was too difficult.eat outeat at a restaurantI don't feel like cooking tonight. Let's eat out.end upeventually reach/do/decideWe ended up renting a movie instead of going to the theatre.fall apartbreak into piecesMy new dress fell apart in the washing machine.fall downfall to the groundThe picture that you hung up last night fell down this morning.fall outseparate from an interiorThe money must have fallen out of my pocket.fall out(of hair, teeth) become loose and unattachedHis hair started to fall out when he was only 35.figure something outunderstand, find the answerI need to figure out how to fit the piano and the bookshelf in this room.fill something into write information in blanks (Br.E.)Please fill in the form with your name, address, and phone number.fill something outto write information in blanks (N.Amer.)The form must be filled out in capital letters.fill something upfill to the topI always fill the water jug up when it is empty.find outdiscoverWe don't know where he lives. How can we find out?find something outdiscoverWe tried to keep the time of the party a secret, but Samantha found it out.get something across/overcommunicate, make understandableI tried to get my point across/over to the judge but she wouldn't listen.get along/onlike each otherI was surprised how well my new girlfriend and my sister got along/on.get aroundhave mobilityMy grandfather can get around fine in his new wheelchair.get awaygo on a vacationWe worked so hard this year that we had to get away for a week.get away with somethingdo without being noticed or punishedJason always gets away with cheating in his maths tests.get backreturnWe got back from our vacation last week.get something backreceive something you had beforeLiz finally got her Science notes back from my room-mate.get back at someoneretaliate, take revengeMy sister got back at me for stealing her shoes. She stole my favourite hat.get back into somethingbecome interested in something againI finally got back into my novel and finished it.get on somethingstep onto a vehicleWe're going to freeze out here if you don't let us get on the bus.get over somethingrecover from an illness, loss, difficultyI just got over the flu and now my sister has it.get over somethingovercome a problemThe company will have to close if it can't get over the new regulations.get round to somethingfinally find time to do (N.Amer.: get around to something)I don't know when I am going to get round to writing the thank you cards.get togethermeet (usually for social reasons)Let's get together for a BBQ this weekend.get upget out of bedI got up early today to study for my exam.get upstandYou should get up and give the elderly man your seat.give someone awayreveal hidden information about someoneHis wife gave him away to the police.give someone awaytake the bride to the altarMy father gave me away at my wedding.give something awayruin a secretMy little sister gave the surprise party away by accident.give something awaygive something to someone for freeThe library was giving away old books on Friday.give something backreturn a borrowed itemI have to give these skates back to Franz before his hockey game.give inreluctantly stop fighting or arguingMy boyfriend didn't want to go to the ballet, but he finally gave in.give something outgive to many people (usually at no cost)They were giving out free perfume samples at the department store.give something upquit a habitI am giving up smoking as of January 1st.give upstop tryingMy maths homework was too difficult so I gave up.go after someonefollow someoneMy brother tried to go after the thief in his car.go after somethingtry to achieve somethingI went after my dream and now I am a published writer.go against someonecompete, opposeWe are going against the best soccer team in the city tonight.go aheadstart, proceedPlease go ahead and eat before the food gets cold.go backreturn to a placeI have to go back home and get my lunch.go outleave home to go on a social eventWe're going out for dinner tonight.go out with someonedateJesse has been going out with Luke since they met last winter.go over somethingreviewPlease go over your answers before you submit your test.go overvisit someone nearbyI haven't seen Tina for a long time. I think I'll go over for an hour or two.go without somethingsuffer lack or deprivationWhen I was young, we went without winter boots.grow apartstop being friends over timeMy best friend and I grew apart after she changed schools.grow backregrowMy roses grew back this summer.grow upbecome an adultWhen Jack grows up he wants to be a fireman.grow out of somethingget too big forElizabeth needs a new pair of shoes because she has grown out of her old ones.grow into somethinggrow big enough to fitThis bike is too big for him now, but he should grow into it by next year.hand something downgive something used to someone elseI handed my old comic books down to my little cousin.hand something insubmitI have to hand in my essay by Friday.hand something outto distribute to a group of peopleWe will hand out the invitations at the door.hand something overgive (usually unwillingly)The police asked the man to hand over his wallet and his weapons.hang instay positive (N.Amer., informal)Hang in there. I'm sure you'll find a job very soon.hang onwait a short time (informal)Hang on while I grab my coat and shoes!hang outspend time relaxing (informal)Instead of going to the party we are just going to hang out at my place.hang upend a phone callHe didn't say goodbye before he hung up.hold someone/something backprevent from doing/goingI had to hold my dog back because there was a cat in the park.hold something backhide an emotionJamie held back his tears at his grandfather's funeral.hold onwait a short timePlease hold on while I transfer you to the Sales Department.hold onto someone/somethinghold firmly using your hands or armsHold onto your hat because it's very windy outside.hold someone/somethinguprobA man in a black mask held the bank up this morning.keep on doing somethingcontinue doingKeep on stirring until the liquid comes to a boil.keep something from someonenot tellWe kept our relationship from our parents for two years.keep someone/something outstop from enteringTry to keep the wet dog out of the living room.keep something upcontinue at the same rateIf you keep those results up you will get into a great college.let someone downfail to support or help, disappointI need you to be on time. Don't let me down this time.let someone inallow to enterCan you let the cat in before you go to school?look after someone/somethingtake care ofI have to look after my sick grandmother.look down on someonethink less of, consider inferiorEver since we stole that chocolate bar your dad has looked down on me.look for someone/somethingtry to findI'm looking for a red dress for the wedding.look forward to somethingbe excited about the futureI'm looking forward to the Christmas break.look into somethinginvestigateWe are going to look into the price of snowboards today.look outbe careful, vigilant, and take noticeLook out! That car's going to hit you!look out for someone/somethingbe especially vigilant forDon't forget to look out for snakes on the hiking trail.look something overcheck, examineCan you look over my essay for spelling mistakes?look something upsearch and find information in a reference book or databaseWe can look her phone number up on the Internet.look up to someonehave a lot of respect forMy little sister has always looked up to me.make something upinvent, lie about somethingJosie made up a story about about why we were late.make upforgive each otherWe were angry last night, but we made up at breakfast.make someone upapply cosmetics toMy sisters made me up for my graduation party.mix something upconfuse two or more thingsI mixed up the twins' names again!pass awaydieHis uncle passed away last night after a long illness.pass outfaintIt was so hot in the church that an elderly lady passed out.pass something outgive the same thing to many peopleThe professor passed the textbooks out before class.pass something updecline (usually something good)I passed up the job because I am afraid of change.pay someone backreturn owed moneyThanks for buying my ticket. I'll pay you back on Friday.pay for somethingbe punished for doing something badThat bully will pay for being mean to my little brother.pick something outchooseI picked out three sweaters for you to try on.point someone/something outindicate with your fingerI'll point my boyfriend out when he runs by.put something downput what you are holding on a surface or floorYou can put the groceries down on the kitchen counter.put someone downinsult, make someone feel stupidThe students put the substitute teacher down because his pants were too short.put something offpostponeWe are putting off our trip until January because of the hurricane.put something outextinguishThe neighbours put the fire out before the firemen arrived.put something togetherassembleI have to put the crib together before the baby arrives.put up with someone/somethingtolerateI don't think I can put up with three small children in the car.put something onput clothing/accessories on your bodyDon't forget to put on your new earrings for the party.run into someone/somethingmeet unexpectedlyI ran into an old school-friend at the mall.run over someone/somethingdrive a vehicle over a person or thingI accidentally ran over your bicycle in the driveway.run over/through somethingrehearse, reviewLet's run over/through these lines one more time before the show.run awayleave unexpectedly, escapeThe child ran away from home and has been missing for three days.run outhave none leftWe ran out of shampoo so I had to wash my hair with soap.send something backreturn (usually by mail)My letter got sent back to me because I used the wrong stamp.set something uparrange, organizeOur boss set a meeting up with the president of the company.set someone uptrick, trapThe police set up the car thief by using a hidden camera.shop aroundcompare pricesI want to shop around a little before I decide on these boots.show offact extra special for people watching (usually boastfully)He always shows off on his skateboardsleep overstay somewhere for the night (informal)You should sleep over tonight if the weather is too bad to drive home.sort something outorganize, resolve a problemWe need to sort the bills out before the first of the month.stick to somethingcontinue doing something, limit yourself to one particular thingYou will lose weight if you stick to the diet.switch something offstop the energy flow, turn offThe light's too bright. Could you switch it off.switch something onstart the energy flow, turn onWe heard the news as soon as we switched on the car radio.take after someoneresemble a family memberI take after my mother. We are both impatient.take something apartpurposely break into piecesHe took the car brakes apart and found the problem.take something backreturn an itemI have to take our new TV back because it doesn't work.take offstart to flyMy plane takes off in five minutes.take something offremove something (usually clothing)Take off your socks and shoes and come in the lake!take something outremove from a place or thingCan you take the garbage out to the street for me?take someone outpay for someone to go somewhere with youMy grandparents took us out for dinner and a movie.tear something uprip into piecesI tore up my ex-boyfriend's letters and gave them back to him.think backremember (often + to, sometimes + on)When I think back on my youth, I wish I had studied harder.think something overconsiderI'll have to think this job offer over before I make my final decision.throw something awaydispose ofWe threw our old furniture away when we won the lottery.turn something downdecrease the volume or strength (heat, light etc)Please turn the TV down while the guests are here.turn something downrefuseI turned the job down because I don't want to move.turn something offstop the energy flow, switch offYour mother wants you to turn the TV off and come for dinner.turn something onstart the energy, switch onIt's too dark in here. Let's turn some lights on.turn something upincrease the volume or strength (heat, light etc)Can you turn the music up? This is my favourite song.turn upappear suddenlyOur cat turned up after we put posters up all over the neighbourhood.try something onsample clothingI'm going to try these jeans on, but I don't think they will fit.try something outtestI am going to try this new brand of detergent out.use something upfinish the supplyThe kids used all of the toothpaste up so we need to buy some more.wake upstop sleepingWe have to wake up early for work on Monday.warm someone/something upincrease the temperatureYou can warm your feet up in front of the fireplace.warm upprepare body for exerciseI always warm up by doing sit-ups before I go for a run.wear offfade awayMost of my make-up wore off before I got to the party.work outexerciseI work out at the gym three times a week.work outbe successfulOur plan worked out fine.work something outmake a calculationWe have to work out the total cost before we buy the house.<br />El Reported speech o Estilo indirecto <br />es una estructura que usamos cuando reportamos o hacemos mención sobre algo que alguien ha dicho previamente. Aquí tenemos varias páginas que te ayudarán a entender su uso.<br />Cambios en los tiempos verbales "I live in Italy". She said. -> She said that he lived in Italy. Cambios en los verbos modales "They will help you". She said. -> She said that they would help me. Cambios en las referencias de tiempo y lugar "We live here". They said -> they said that they lived there Cambios en las preguntas "Where do they sell the tickets?" -> He asked where they sold the ticketsVerbos usuales para reportar - Página 1 say, tell, ask, admit, agree, aswer, invite, complain Verbos usuales para reportar - Página 2 offer, suggest, demand, request, remind, describe, confess, blame Verbos usuales para reportar - Página 3 propose, refuse, congratulate, greet, introduce, warn, insist, insult Verbos usuales para reportar - Página 4 apologize, thank, protest, threaten, advise, inquire, praise, deny Verbos usuales para reportar - Página 5 assure, persuade, convince, beg, dissuade, confide, recommend, scold Verbos usuales para reportar - Página 6 order, accuse, explain, mention, compliment, encourage, discourage, console <br />Reported speech - English Grammar<br />Statements<br />1) If the sentence starts in the present, there is no backshift of tenses in Reported speech.Example: Susan: "I work in an office." Susan says that she works in an office.<br />2) If the sentence starts in the past, there is often backshift of tenses in Reported speech. (see: Note)Example: Susan: "I work in an office." Susan said that she worked in an office.<br />Backshift of tensesfromtoSimple PresentSimple PastSimple PastPast PerfectPresent PerfectPast PerfectwillwouldProgressive formsam/are/iswas/werewas/werehad beenhas beenhad been<br />Backshift of tensesfromtoPeter: "I work in the garden."Peter said that he worked in the garden.Peter: "I worked in the garden."Peter said that he had worked in the garden.Peter: "I have worked in the garden."Peter: "I had worked in the garden."Peter: "I will work in the garden."Peter said that he would work in the garden.Peter: "I can work in the garden."Peter said that he could work in the garden.Peter: "I may work in the garden."Peter said that he might work in the garden.Peter: "I would work in the garden." (could, might, should, ought to)Peter said that he would work in the garden.(could, might, should, ought to)Progressive formsPeter: "I'm working in the garden."Peter said that he was working in the garden.Peter: "I was working in the garden."Peter said that he had been working in the garden.Peter: "I have been working in the garden."Peter: "I had been working in the garden."<br />If the sentence contains an expression of time, you must change it as well.<br />Peter: "I worked in the garden yesterday."Peter said that he had worked in the garden the day before.<br />Shifting of expressions of time<br />this (evening)that (evening)today/this daythat daythese (days)those (days)nowthen(a week) ago(a week) beforelast weekendthe weekend before / the previous weekendheretherenext (week)the following (week)tomorrowthe next/following day<br />Note:<br />In some cases the backshift of tenses is not necessary, e.g. when statements are still true.<br />John: "My brother is at Leipzig university."John said that his brother was at Leipzig university. orJohn said that his brother is at Leipzig university.<br />or<br />Mandy: "The sun rises in the East."Mandy said that the sun rose in the East. orMandy said that the sun rises in the East.<br />Direct Speech / Quoted Speech<br />Saying exactly what someone has said is called direct speech (sometimes called quoted speech)<br />Here what a person says appears within quotation marks ("...") and should be word for word.<br />For example:<br />She said, "Today's lesson is on presentations."<br />or<br />"Today's lesson is on presentations," she said. <br />Indirect Speech / Reported Speech<br />Indirect speech (sometimes called reported speech), doesn't use quotation marks to enclose what the person said and it doesn't have to be word for word.<br />When reporting speech the tense usually changes. This is because when we use reported speech, we are usually talking about a time in the past (because obviously the person who spoke originally spoke in the past). The verbs therefore usually have to be in the past too. <br />For example: <br />Direct speechIndirect speech "I'm going to the cinema", he said. He said he was going to the cinema. <br />Tense change<br />As a rule when you report something someone has said you go back a tense: (the tense on the left changes to the tense on the right): <br />Direct speech  Indirect speech Present simple She said, "It's cold."›Past simple She said it was cold. Present continuous She said, "I'm teaching English online." ›Past continuous She said she was teaching English online. Present perfect simple She said, "I've been on the web since 1999."›Past perfect simple She said she had been on the web since 1999. Present perfect continuous She said, "I've been teaching English for seven years."›Past perfect continuous She said she had been teaching English for seven years. Past simple She said, "I taught online yesterday."›Past perfect She said she had taught online yesterday. Past continuous She said, "I was teaching earlier." ›Past perfect continuous She said she had been teaching earlier. Past perfect She said, "The lesson had already started when he arrived."›Past perfect NO CHANGE - She said the lesson had already started when he arrived.Past perfect continuousShe said, "I'd already been teaching for five minutes."›Past perfect continuous NO CHANGE - She said she'd already been teaching for five minutes.<br />Modal verb forms also sometimes change: <br />Direct speech  Indirect speech will She said, "I'll teach English online tomorrow."›would She said she would teach English online tomorrow. can She said, "I can teach English online." ›could She said she could teach English online. must She said, "I must have a computer to teach English online."›had to She said she had to have a computer to teach English online. shall She said, "What shall we learn today?" ›should She asked what we should learn today. may She said, "May I open a new browser?"›might She asked if she might open a new browser.<br />!Note - There is no change to; could, would, should, might and ought to.<br />Direct speechIndirect speech "I might go to the cinema", he said. He said he might go to the cinema. <br />You can use the present tense in reported speech if you want to say that something is still true i.e. my name has always been and will always be Lynne so:-<br />Direct speech Indirect speech "My name is Lynne", she said. She said her name was Lynne. orShe said her name is Lynne. <br />You can also use the present tense if you are talking about a future event.<br />Direct speech (exact quote) Indirect speech (not exact) "Next week's lesson is on reported speech ", she said. She said next week's lesson is on reported speech. <br />Time change <br />If the reported sentence contains an expression of time, you must change it to fit in with the time of reporting. <br />For example we need to change words like here and yesterday if they have different meanings at the time and place of reporting.<br />Today+ 24 hours - Indirect speech "Today's lesson is on presentations." She said yesterday's lesson was on presentations. <br />Expressions of time if reported on a different day this (evening) ›that (evening) today›yesterday ... these (days) ›those (days) now ›then (a week) ago ›(a week) before last weekend ›the weekend before last / the previous weekend here ›there next (week) ›the following (week) tomorrow ›the next/following day <br />In addition if you report something that someone said in a different place to where you heard it you must change the place (here) to the place (there).<br />For example:- <br />At workAt home"How long have you worked here?" She asked me how long I'd worked there.<br />Reported Speech (El estilo indirecto)<br />El estilo indirecto, a diferencia del estilo directo, no utiliza las comillas y no necesita ser palabra por palabra. En general, cuando se usa el estilo directo, el tiempo verbal cambia. A continuación tienes un explicación de los cambios que sufren los tiempos verbales.<br />A veces se usa "that" en las frases afirmativas y negativas para introducir lo que ha dicho la otra persona. Por otro lado, en las frases interrogativas se puede usar "if" o "whether".<br />Direct SpeechReported SpeechPresent SimplePast Simple"He's American" she said.She said he was American."I'm happy to see you," Mary said.Mary said that she was happy to see me.He asked, "Are you busy tonight?"He asked me if I was busy tonight.Present ContinuousPast Continuous"Dan is living in San Francisco," she said.She said Dan was living in San Francisco.He said, "I'm making dinner."He told me that he was making dinner."Why are you working so hard?" they asked.They asked me why I was working so hard.Past SimplePast Perfect Simple"We went to the movies last night," he said.He told me they had gone to the movies last night.Greg said, "I didn't go to work yesterday."Greg said that he hadn't gone to work yesterday."Did you buy a new car?" she asked.She asked me if I had bought a new car.Past ContinuousPast Perfect Continuous"I was working late last night," Vicki said.Vicki told me she'd been working last night.They said, "We weren't waiting long."They said that they hadn't been waiting long.He asked, "Were you sleeping when I called?"He asked if I'd been sleeping when he called.Present Perfect SimplePast Perfect SimpleHeather said, "I've already eaten."Heather told me that she'd already eaten."We haven't been to China," they said.They said they hadn't been to China."Have you worked here before?" I asked.I asked her whether she'd worked there before.Present Perfect ContinuousPast Perfect Continuous"I've been studying English for two years," he said.He said he'd been studying English for two years.Steve said, "We've been dating for over a year now."Steve told me that they'd been dating for over a year."Have you been waiting long?" they asked.They asked whether I'd been waiting long.Past Perfect SimplePast Perfect Simple (*NO CHANGE)"I'd been to Chicago before for work," he said.He said that he'd been to Chicago before for work.Past Perfect Continuous Past Perfect Continuous (*NO CHANGE)She said, "I'd been dancing for years before the accident."She said she'd been dancing for years before the accident.<br />Nota: Cuando hablamos de algo que no ha cambiado (todavía es verdad) o que es en el futuro, no tenemos que cambiar el tiempo verbal.<br />Ejemplos:<br />"I'm 30 years old," she said. -> She said she is 30 years old.<br />Dave said, "Kelly is sick." -> Dave said Kelly is sick.<br />"We are going to Tokyo next week," they said. -> They said they are going to Tokyo next week.<br />"I'll cut my hair tomorrow," Nina said. -> Nina said she is cutting her hair tomorrow.<br />Modal Verbs (Los verbos modales)<br />El tiempo verbal cambia en el estilo indirecto también con algunos de los verbos modales:<br />Direct SpeechIndirect SpeechWillWould"I'll go to the movies tomorrow," John said.John said he would go to the movies tomorrow."Will you help me move?" she asked.She asked me if I would help her move.CanCouldDebra said, "Allen can work tomorrow."Debra said Allen could work tomorrow."Can you open the window, please?", he asked.He asked me if I could open the window.MustHad to"You must wear your seatbelt," mom said.My mom said we had to wear my seatbelt.She said, "You must work tomorrow."She said I had to work tomorrow.ShallShould"Shall we go to the beach today?" Tom asked.Tom asked if we should go to the beach today."What shall we do tonight?" she asked.She asked me what we should do tonight.MayMight/CouldJane said, "I may not be in class tomorrow."Jane said she might not be in class tomorrow."May I use the bathroom, please?" the boy asked.The boy asked if he could use the bathroom.<br />Nota: Con "would", "could", "should", "might" y "ought to", el tiempo no cambia.<br />EXERCISE AYesterday you ran into a friend of yours, Helen. She told you a lot of things. Here are some of the things she said to you:left000<br />1.2.3.4.5.6.7.I'm thinking of going to live in France.My father is in the hospital.Sue and Jim are getting married next month.I haven't seen Bill for a while.I've been playing tennis a lot lately.Barbara has had a baby.I don't know what Fred is doing.8. 9.10.11.12.13.I hardly ever go out these days.I work 14 hours a day.I'll tell Jim I saw you.You can come and stay with me if you are ever in Toronto.Tom had an accident last week, but he wasn't injured.I saw Jack at a party a few months ago, and he seemed fine.<br />Later that day you tell another friend what Helen said. Use reported speech.<br /> <br />1.Helen said that she was thinking of going to live in France.2.Helen said that  .3..4..5..6..7..8..9..10..11..12..13..<br /> <br /> <br />EXERCISE BIn this exercise someone says something to you that is the opposite of what they said before. You have to answer I THOUGHT YOU SAID ...left000<br />Examples:  "That restaurant is expensive." "I thought you said it wasn't expensive."<br /> <br />1."Ann is coming to the party."  "I thought you said that she ."2."Bill passed his exam."  "I thought you said  ."3."Ann likes Bill."  "I thought ."4."I've got many friends."  "I thought you said you ."5."Jack and Karen are going to be married."  "."6."Tom works very hard."  "."7."I want to be rich and famous."  "."8."I'll be here next week."  "."9."I can afford a vacation this year."  "."<br /> <br />NOTA DEBEN TRANSCRIBIR ESTO AL CUADERNO Y REALIZAR LAS ACTIVIDADES EN EL MISMO PARA PRESENTARMELAS LA PROXIMA CLASE.<br />Modals VERBS<br />Qué son Modal Verbs?<br />Los verbos modales son un tipo de verbo auxiliar, como DO, BE y HAVE, pero dan más información que un auxiliar normal; o en el caso de DO, no se puede traducir al español. Los modales, además, tienen sus propias reglas.<br />Los verbos modales son CAN, COULD, WILL, WOULD, SHALL, MAY, MIGHT, MUST, SHOULD and OUGHT TO.<br />Reglas de Modal Verbs:<br />SIGNIFICADOS/USOSEJEMPLOS1. Se conjugan igual para todas las personas.I can, you can, he can, etc.Not: he cans2. No se utilizan con otros auxiliares, excepto en los tiempos perfectos.Can you run? Not: Do you can run?3. Son seguidos por el infinitivo (sin TO).I must take my medicine.(Excepción: Ought to)4. Se forma el negativo agregando not o la contracción -n’t.I can’t play the piano. (Excepción: may not no lleva contracción)<br />Atención: Hay otro tipo de verbos modales llamados HALF-MODALS los cuales tienen la misma función que los verbos modales pero siguen otras reglas estructurales. Éstos son  HAVE TO y NEED TO.<br />Rules of half modals  <br />SIGNIFICADOS/USOSEJEMPLOS1. La conjugación es diferente para   la tercera persona del singular.I have to,  he has to, I need to, he needs to 2. Se pueden usar con el auxiliar DO.I do need to go, can’t you understand that?3. Van seguidos por el infinitivo con TO (Excepto por el negativo de need to)I have to wear a uniform. He needn’t wear a uniform.4. El negativo de HAVE TO no se puede formar con la contracción –‘nt.I don’t have to go.Not: I haven’t to go.<br />Lista de significados y usos de los Modals<br />Como fue mencionado anteriormente, los verbos modales y half-modals expresan significado. A continuación tienes una lista de ellos con sus significados y usos.<br />SIGNIFICADOS/USOSEJEMPLOSCAN 1.    Habilidad2.    Permiso3.    Petición4.    Posibilidad 1. I can speak English.2. Can I borrow your pen.3. Can you open the window?4. I can come next Monday.COULD1.    Habilidad en el pasado2.    Petición formal3.    Permiso en Reported Speech4.    Posibilidad5.    Segundo condicional1. Could run fast when I was a child. 2. Could you open the window, please? 3. Mary said she could go out tonight. 4. Where’s Mary? I don’t know, she could be in her office.5. If it didn’t rain, we could go to the park.WILL1.    Certeza2.    Futuro: - decisiones espontáneas- predicciones    3.    Promesas 4.    Ordenes     5.    Primer condicional  1. He will definitely come to the party2a. I will call Mary before she leaves.2b. I think the economy will get better soon.3. I will return your money tomorrow.4. You will do as I tell you.5. If it stops raining we will play football.WOULD1.    Ofertas formales2.    Condicionales3.    Hábitos en el pasado    1. Would you like some cheese?2. If I had a car I would change my job.3. On Sundays we would go to the park to play football.SHALL1.    Futuro    2.    Promesas3.    Pedir consejo4.    Para ofrecer ayuda 5.    Pedir instrucciones6.    Ordenes1. I shall visit Mary next week.2. I shall help you with your homework.3. Shall I invite Jim to the party?4. Shall I open the window for you?5. Where shall I put this box?6. You shall go there immediatelyMAY1.    Posibilidad 2.    Permiso 3.    Petición formal4.    Ofertas formales1. I may be able to take a day off.2. May I use your phone?3. May I have some more cake, please?4. May I help you?MIGHT1.    Posibilidad1. We might be able to join you in London next week.SHOULD 1.    Recomendaciones2.    Sugerencias3.    Suposiciones4.    Consejo 1. You should read this book, it’s great.2. Perhaps we should consider a different option.3. They should be at home by now.4. You should see a doctor at onceOUGHT TO1.    Obligación moral2.    Recomendación3.    Probabilidad1. You ought to do as you are told.2. You ought to see the Picasso museum.3. They ought to be home by now.MUST1.    Obligación    2.    Necesidad         3.    Deducción/suposición    4.    Invitación1. You must wear protective glasses in the lab.2. I must take my medicine.3. They left at 8 o’clock, so they must be at home by now.4. You must stay at my house when you come to the city.HAVE TO 1.    Obligación1.  I have to wear safety goggles in the lab.NEED TO1.    Necesidad1. I need to take my medicine with my breakfast.<br />Modales negativos<br />SIGNIFICADOS/USOSEJEMPLOSCAN’TCertezaMr. Simpson can’t be dead, I saw him only 5 minutes ago. MUSTN’TProhibiciónYou mustn‘t smoke in a hospital.DON’T HAVE TOInnecesidad You don’t have to go to the party if you don’t want to.<br />PRESENT UNREAL CONDITIONAL<br />1. Es utilizado el Present Unreal Conditional al referirse acerca de irreales, imaginaria o imposible condiciones y sus resultados. Ambos- If Clause y Result Clause, presentan el unreal result de la condición.<br />Ejemplo:<br />·        If I lived in  palace , I would give parties all the time.<br />( But I don´t live in a palace, so I don´t give parties.)<br />·        If I had a car , I would drive everywhere.<br />2.     El verbo en el If Clause se muestra en simple past tense. En el Result Clause es utiltizado el auxiliary Would + base form of the verb.<br />Ejemplo:<br />·        If Luisa went to Cusco , she would spend a great time<br />Nota: <br />a.      El If Clause usa el simple past tense, pero el significado no se refiere al pasado.<br />·        If I had money now , I would supply many things to myself.<br />b.     No emplees el uso del auxiliar Would en el If Clause en present unreal conditional sentences.<br />·        If I bought some flowers to Mary , she would be happy.<br />NOT: If I would buy .......<br />c.     Emplea el Were para todas las personas cuando el verbo en el If Clause esta en forma básica ( be).<br />·       If I were a king , I would contribute in many charity associations in all the world.<br />En el habla informal americana, algunas veces escucharas decir Was en el If Clause. Sin embargo en el habla formal es incorrecto.                                                                        <br />3.  Si el Result Clause no es muy cierto, entonces utiliza Might o Could en el Result Clause para expresar posibilidad. Tambien puedes emplear Could en el Result Clause al expresar habilidad.<br />Ejemplo:<br />·        If I had enough time , I could take dancing classes.<br />(It´s possible I would take dancing classes).<br />·        If you spoke German , You could translate this letter for me.<br />4.     Recuerda que puedes variar la posición de las oraciones ya que esto no altera la idea. Toma en cuenta el uso de la coma.<br />·        If I won the lottery , I would travel around the whole world.<br />·        I would travel around the whole world if I won the lottery.<br />5.     Es posible convertir una oración o ambas en forma negativa.<br />·        If I caught a fish, I would share it with my partner.<br />·        If I didn´t catch a fish , I wouldn´t share it with my partner.<br />·        If I caught a fish , I wouldn´t eat it alone.<br />·        If I didn´t catch a fsih , I would be happy.<br />6.     Las oraciones que comienzan con If I were you, ... , a menudo son empleadas para brindar un consejo.<br />·        If I were you , I would wear that wonderful dress.<br />Repasa la gramática y ponla en práctica <br />Repite los ejercicios tantas veces como quieras<br />Mejora tu inglés y tiempo de respuesta<br />Y aprueba el examen oficial de Cambridge!<br />Principio del formulario<br />Menu home<br />Modals<br />Qué son Modal Verbs?<br />Los verbos modales son un tipo de verbo auxiliar, como DO, BE y HAVE, pero dan más información que un auxiliar normal; o en el caso de DO, no se puede traducir al español. Los modales, además, tienen sus propias reglas.<br />Los verbos modales son CAN, COULD, WILL, WOULD, SHALL, MAY, MIGHT, MUST, SHOULD and OUGHT TO.<br />Reglas de Modal Verbs:<br />SIGNIFICADOS/USOSEJEMPLOS1. Se conjugan igual para todas las personas.I can, you can, he can, etc.Not: he cans2. No se utilizan con otros auxiliares, excepto en los tiempos perfectos.Can you run? Not: Do you can run?3. Son seguidos por el infinitivo (sin TO).I must take my medicine.(Excepción: Ought to)4. Se forma el negativo agregando not o la contracción -n’t.I can’t play the piano. (Excepción: may not no lleva contracción)<br />Atención: Hay otro tipo de verbos modales llamados HALF-MODALS los cuales tienen la misma función que los verbos modales pero siguen otras reglas estructurales. Éstos son  HAVE TO y NEED TO.<br />Rules of half modals  <br />SIGNIFICADOS/USOSEJEMPLOS1. La conjugación es diferente para   la tercera persona del singular.I have to,  he has to, I need to, he needs to 2. Se pueden usar con el auxiliar DO.I do need to go, can’t you understand that?3. Van seguidos por el infinitivo con TO (Excepto por el negativo de need to)I have to wear a uniform. He needn’t wear a uniform.4. El negativo de HAVE TO no se puede formar con la contracción –‘nt.I don’t have to go.Not: I haven’t to go.<br />Lista de significados y usos de los Modals<br />Como fue mencionado anteriormente, los verbos modales y half-modals expresan significado. A continuación tienes una lista de ellos con sus significados y usos.<br />SIGNIFICADOS/USOSEJEMPLOSCAN 1.    Habilidad2.    Permiso3.    Petición4.    Posibilidad 1. I can speak English.2. Can I borrow your pen.3. Can you open the window?4. I can come next Monday.COULD1.    Habilidad en el pasado2.    Petición formal3.    Permiso en Reported Speech4.    Posibilidad5.    Segundo condicional1. Could run fast when I was a child. 2. Could you open the window, please? 3. Mary said she could go out tonight. 4. Where’s Mary? I don’t know, she could be in her office.5. If it didn’t rain, we could go to the park.WILL1.    Certeza2.    Futuro: - decisiones espontáneas- predicciones    3.    Promesas 4.    Ordenes     5.    Primer condicional  1. He will definitely come to the party2a. I will call Mary before she leaves.2b. I think the economy will get better soon.3. I will return your money tomorrow.4. You will do as I tell you.5. If it stops raining we will play football.WOULD1.    Ofertas formales2.    Condicionales3.    Hábitos en el pasado    1. Would you like some cheese?2. If I had a car I would change my job.3. On Sundays we would go to the park to play football.SHALL1.    Futuro    2.    Promesas3.    Pedir consejo4.    Para ofrecer ayuda 5.    Pedir instrucciones6.    Ordenes1. I shall visit Mary next week.2. I shall help you with your homework.3. Shall I invite Jim to the party?4. Shall I open the window for you?5. Where shall I put this box?6. You shall go there immediatelyMAY1.    Posibilidad 2.    Permiso 3.    Petición formal4.    Ofertas formales1. I may be able to take a day off.2. May I use your phone?3. May I have some more cake, please?4. May I help you?MIGHT1.    Posibilidad1. We might be able to join you in London next week.SHOULD 1.    Recomendaciones2.    Sugerencias3.    Suposiciones4.    Consejo 1. You should read this book, it’s great.2. Perhaps we should consider a different option.3. They should be at home by now.4. You should see a doctor at onceOUGHT TO1.    Obligación moral2.    Recomendación3.    Probabilidad1. You ought to do as you are told.2. You ought to see the Picasso museum.3. They ought to be home by now.MUST1.    Obligación    2.    Necesidad         3.    Deducción/suposición    4.    Invitación1. You must wear protective glasses in the lab.2. I must take my medicine.3. They left at 8 o’clock, so they must be at home by now.4. You must stay at my house when you come to the city.HAVE TO 1.    Obligación1.  I have to wear safety goggles in the lab.NEED TO1.    Necesidad1. I need to take my medicine with my breakfast.<br />Modales negativos<br />SIGNIFICADOS/USOSEJEMPLOSCAN’TCertezaMr. Simpson can’t be dead, I saw him only 5 minutes ago. MUSTN’TProhibiciónYou mustn‘t smoke in a hospital.DON’T HAVE TOInnecesidad You don’t have to go to the party if you don’t want to.<br />1.     Es utilizado el Present Unreal Conditional al referirse acerca de irreales, imaginaria o imposible condiciones y sus resultados. Ambos- If Clause y Result Clause, presentan el unreal result de la condición.<br />Ejemplo:<br />·        If I lived in  palace , I would give parties all the time.<br />( But I don´t live in a palace, so I don´t give parties.)<br />·        If I had a car , I would drive everywhere.<br />2.     El verbo en el If Clause se muestra en simple past tense. En el Result Clause es utiltizado el auxiliary Would + base form of the verb.<br />Ejemplo:<br />·        If Luisa went to Cusco , she would spend a great time<br />Nota: <br />a.      El If Clause usa el simple past tense, pero el significado no se refiere al pasado.<br />·        If I had money now , I would supply many things to myself.<br />b.     No emplees el uso del auxiliar Would en el If Clause en present unreal conditional sentences.<br />·        If I bought some flowers to Mary , she would be happy.<br />NOT: If I would buy .......<br />c.     Emplea el Were para todas las personas cuando el verbo en el If Clause esta en forma básica ( be).<br />·       If I were a king , I would contribute in many charity associations in all the world.<br />                                                                            <br />3.     Si el Result Clause no es muy cierto, entonces utiliza Might o Could en el Result Clause para expresar posibilidad. Tambien puedes emplear Could en el Result Clause al expresar habilidad.<br />Ejemplo:<br />·        If I had enough time , I could take dancing classes.<br />(It´s possible I would take dancing classes).<br />·        If you spoke German , You could translate this letter for me.<br />4.     Recuerda que puedes variar la posición de las oraciones ya que esto no altera la idea. Toma en cuenta el uso de la coma.<br />·        If I won the lottery , I would travel around the whole world.<br />·        I would travel around the whole world if I won the lottery.<br />5.     Es posible convertir una oración o ambas en forma negativa.<br />·        If I caught a fish, I would share it with my partner.<br />·        If I didn´t catch a fish , I wouldn´t share it with my partner.<br />·        If I caught a fish , I wouldn´t eat it alone.<br />·        If I didn´t catch a fsih , I would be happy.<br />6.     Las oraciones que comienzan con If I were you, ... , a menudo son empleadas para brindar un consejo.<br />·        If I were you , I would wear that wonderful dress.<br />Object Pronouns:<br />Definition:: It is a pronoun that is used as an object in the sentence.<br />Remember: A subjective or subject pronoun does the action and goes BEFORE the verb while object pronouns go AFTER the verb.<br />OBJECT PRONOUNS : <br />SINGULAR: —> Me (first person) You (2nd) Her / him / it (third person)<br />PLURAL —> Us (1st) You (2nd) Them (3rd)<br />* Como vemos los object pronouns reciben la action del verbo y pueden ser direct or indirect objects. EN español esto se entiende como me, le, se, nos, os etc.. En ingles siempre que hay un object pronoun hay que colocarlo en la oración (al igual que con el subject pronoun).<br />Otros Ejemplos:Imaginense que ven unos zapatos y dicen “Me gustan”. Esto en ingles no es I like o peor Me like. Primero que I like esta incompleto puesto que no se dice elo objeto. Me like es una patada a mi higado puesto que los object pronouns nunca hacen la acción. Lo corrcto es. I like them. (them por que se refiere a zapatos)<br />- La oracion: Quiero darle un beso. —–> I want to give her a kiss. (suponiendo que el objeto es una mujer)<br />Ejemplo:<br />Le quiero mucho. —–>> Quien quiere (subject) a quien quiere (object)<br />I love him/her. (Como vemos no hay tácito y se debe poner el “I” y tambien el objecto (en este caso indirecto) him her o tambien it deacuerdo al contexto.<br />Let’s Practice<br />Circle the correct pronouns<br />1) We/Us usually see they/them.<br />2) I/Me write to she/her everyday.<br />3) He/Him loves her/she very much but she/her doesn’t love he/him.<br />4) Please don’t wait for she/her.<br />5) Do you like he/him<br />Subject pronouns Example: Object pronouns  Example:  Significado:I  I am shy. me  Look at me. Mírame. (a mi)you  You are crying. you  Take a look at you!Mírate. (a ti)he  He is the president! him  Listen to him.Escúchalo. (a él)she She is an easy woman. her Look at her. Mírala. (a ella)it It's for our little cat. it Look at it.Míralo. we We are a nice group. See? us Look at us.Míranos. (a nosotros)they They are a happy family. them Look at them.Míralos: (a ellos/ ellas<br />

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