Introduction Directing/Direction is a function of management performed by top level management in order to achieve organizational goals. It is very important and necessary function of management. Management has to undertake various activities like, guide people, inspired and lead them as well as supervision of their activity is required in order to achieve desired results.
Meaning and Definition Direction consists of the process and techniques utilized in issuing instructions and making certain that operations are carried as originally planned. “Directing involves determining the course, giving order and instruction and providing dynamic leadership” – Marshall “Activating means and moving into action- supplying simulative power to the group”- G.R Terry
Directing involves….. Telling people what is to be done and explaining how to do it. Issuing instructions and orders to subordinates. Inspiring them to contribute towards the achievement of objectives, Supervising their activities; Providing leadership and motivation
ELEMENTS OF DIRECTION Communication Leading Motivation Supervision Coordination
Communication Is… - Complex and multifaceted phenomenon. It is the process by which verbal and non-verbal symbols are sent, received and given meaning. “Communication” word has been derived from Latin word “Communis” which means common, thus communication stands for sharing of an idea in common.
“Communication is an exchange of facts, ideas, opinions or emotions by two or more persons” – Newman and Summer “It is a sum of all the things one person does when he wants to create understanding in the minds of another. It is a bridge of meaning, it involve systematic telling, listening, and understanding” – Haimann
Most Common Way toCommunicate Speaking Writing Body Visual language images
ELEMENTS OFCOMMUNICATIONPeople - minimum is 2; one will act asthe sender and the other the receiverMessage – the content or thesubstance of what is beingcommunicated, could be an idea,feeling, instruction, fact or opinionChannel – the medium and the mannerby which the message is conveyed ;could be verbal or non-verbal
Feedback – the reaction of the receiverto the message as conveyed through aparticular channel; measures theeffectiveness of the communicationNoise – anything that distorts themessage conveyed
Downward Communication Travels from superior tosubordinates. Katz and Kahn haveidentified five general purposes ofsuperior-subordinate communication. To give specific task directives about job instruction To give information about organization procedures and practices
To provide information about the rationale of the job To tell subordinates about their performance To provide ideological-type information to facilitate the indoctrination of goals
Upward Communication Travels from subordinate tosuperior. The most common purpose ofthis communication is to providefeedback on how well things are going.It provides also the middle levelmanagers the opportunity to representtheir subordinates to the upper levelmanagers.
Examples: a. Open-Door Policy a communication policy in which amanager, CEO, president or supervisorleaves their office door "open" in orderto encourage openness andtransparency with the employees of thatcompany. c. Complaint program
Lateral Communication Takes place between people in thesame level of the managementhierarchy. The most common reason forthis communication flow is to providecoordination and teamwork
Diagonal Communication Occurs between people who areneither in the same department nor inthe same level of managementhierarchy. In this case, someonecommunicate either downward orupward with someone in anotherfunctional area. In utilizing this flow ofcommunication, protocol must beobserved so as not to bypass theauthority of the person concerned
Electronics These are highly effective means of quickly reaching those with whom you are communicating Interaction and participation are possible and often simple – for all involved parties
Their ease of use means that they posea possible risk of communicationsoverloadThe seemingly endless possiblecombinations of words, images andcolour are very powerful
MeetingsIf used properly; meetings can buildrelationships and mutual trustMeetings enable instant feedbackMeetings facilitate mutual understandingReponses can often be gauged through eyecontactPreparation, planning and openness arerequired
JournalismIn-house publications enable a widerange of messages and editorialtechniquesIt is possible to facilitate someinteraction through reader’ letters andcontributions.The content of most organizations’journals tends to be bland, resulting in
Internal MarketingThis is a powerful method of “selling”change to the organization’s own staffDetailed written documents andcolourful posters help to explain andsimplify complex messagesThese techniques are able to elicit verystrong, immediate motivationalresponses
NoticeboardsCan be either official information givers,or for general use by employeesProvide a central location in which tomake information accessible to allemployees.There is no real possibility of interactiveresponse, and employees may feeluninvolved.
TelephoneThe telephone is not suitable for lengthyor complicated discussionsThe lack of physical presence maylessen the speakers’ understanding ofeach other
Too much information – people suffers from what we call sensory overload The message is poorly organized – communicating also involves planning
Inaudible voice – when talking in front of a crowd be sure that you have loud and clear voice so that everybody will be able to hear what you are saying Mannerisms – distract attention
Lack of understanding Inconsistent verbal and non-verbal communication Noise – any factors that disturbs, confuses or interferes with communication
Differing perceptions – people who have different backgrounds of knowledge and experience often perceive the same phenomenon from different perspective Language differences – the words used must mean the same thing to sender and receiver Too many links in the communication process
Use feedback to facilitate understanding and increase the potential for appropriate action Repeat message in order to provide assurance that they are properly received
Use multiple channels so that the accuracy of the information may be enhanced Use simplified language that are easily understandable and which eliminates the possibility of people getting mixed- up with meanings
Humanize – understand, appreciate and elevate the importance of humans above other concerns Harmonize – establish a climate of cooperation, trust, helpfulness, confide nce, belongingness and openness Habitualize – put into a habit such positive practices
Institutionalize – put into practice good communication habits at the individual level until these practices are introduced to the company or organization as standard operating procedure Acclimatize – adjust, be flexible and extra tolerant Modernize – learn the modern ways of communicating Symbolize – if words will not do, use symbols
Empathize – to understand intimately the other people’s feelings ,thoughts, motives and aspirations Dualize – make your communication dual Minimize – Keep It short!!!!
Gossip chain – happens when oneperson passes informalcommunication to all others in theinformal organizationSingle strand – each person receivesinformation from one individual andpasses it to another
Probability chain – people randomlypass information to the other membersof the organizationCluster chain – people pass informationto other members of the informalorganization selectively
Leadership Is…- Art of getting someone else to dosomething that you want done because hewants to do it (Dwight D. Eisenhower)- Process of directing the behaviour ofothers toward the accomplishments ofobjectives.- Is one of the important parts of direction.
“Leadership is the ability to securedesirable action from a group offollowers voluntarily, without the use ofcoercion”- Alford and Beatly “Leadership refers to the quality of thebehaviour of the individual wherebythey guide people on their activities inorganized efforts”- Chester Barnard
LEADING IN TIMES OF CRISIS Stay calm Be visible Put people before business Tell the truth Know when to get back to business
LEADERSHIP STYLES Autocratic Leadership Under the autocratic leadership style, alldecision-making powers are centralized in theleader, as with dictators. Leaders do not entertain any suggestions orinitiatives from subordinates. The autocraticmanagement has been successful as it providesstrong motivation to the manager. It permits quickdecision-making, as only one person decides for thewhole group and keeps each decision to him/herselfuntil he/she feels it needs to be shared with the restof the group.
Participative Leadership consists of the leader sharing thedecision-making abilities with groupmembers by promoting the interests of thegroup members and by practicing socialequality. Consultative Leaders Consensus Leaders Democratic Leaders
Free- rein Leadership /Laissez-faire A person may be in a leadershipposition without providingleadership, leaving the group to fend foritself. Subordinates are given a freehand in deciding their own policies andmethods.
Narcissistic leadership The narcissism may be healthy ordestructive although there is acontinuum between the two. To critics,"narcissistic leadership (preferablydestructive) is driven by unyieldingarrogance, self-absorption, and apersonal egotistic need for power andadmiration.
Toxic leadership A toxic leader is someone who hasresponsibility over a group of people oran organization, and who abuses theleader-follower relationship by leavingthe group or organization in a worse-offcondition than when he/she first foundthem.
Initiates action- Leader is a person who starts the work by communicating the policies and plans to the subordinates from where the work actually starts. Motivation- He motivates the employees with economic and non- economic rewards and thereby gets the work from the subordinates.
Providing guidance- A leader has to not only supervise but also play a guiding role for the subordinates. Guidance here means instructing the subordinates the way they have to perform their work effectively and efficiently. Creating confidence- Confidence is an important factor which can be achieved through expressing the work efforts to the subordinates, explaining them clearly their role and giving them guidelines to achieve the goals effectively. It is also important to hear the employees with regards to their complaints and problems.
Building morale- Morale denotes willing co- operation of the employees towards their work and getting them into confidence and winning their trust. A leader can be a morale booster by achieving full co-operation so that they perform with best of their abilities as they work to achieve goals. Builds work environment- Management is getting things done from people. An efficient work environment helps in sound and stable growth. Therefore, human relations should be kept into mind by a leader. He should have personal contacts with employees and should listen to their problems and solve them. He should treat employees on humanitarian terms.
Co-ordination- Co-ordination can be achieved through reconciling personal interests with organizational goals. This synchronization can be achieved through proper and effective co- ordination which should be primary motive of a leader.
a. Fielder’s Contingency Theory - it hypothesizes that, in any givenleadership situation success is determinedprimarily by;1. The degree to which the task being performed by the followers is structured2. The degree of position power possess by the leader3. The type of relationship that exists between the leader and the followers.b. Theory X and Y Assumptionsc. Theory Z
MANAGEMENT STYLES1. Management by crisisThe process by which an organization dealswith a major event that threatens to harm theorganization, its stakeholders, or the generalpublic.2. Management by exceptionIs a "policy by which management devotes itstime to investigating only those situations inwhich actual results differ significantly fromplanned results.
3. Management by objectivesA process of defining objectives within anorganization so that management andemployees agree to the objectives andunderstand what they need to do in theorganization4. Management by coaching anddevelopmentBest described as the process from whichmanagers learn and improve their skills notonly to benefit themselves but also theiremploying organizations.
5. Management by competitive edgedefined as the strategic advantage one business entityhas over its rival entities within its competitive industry.Achieving competitive advantage strengthens andpositions a business better within the businessenvironment.6. Management by consensusConsensus management means that when a decision isreached by the group, there is total commitment to it by allmembers. It does not necessarily mean the decision wasreached easily or that there were not widely differingviews shared and debated during the groups discussion.But once consensus is formally achieved, division ofopinion, so far as that decision is concerned, shouldcease.
7. Management by styles8. Management by walking around9. Words simplifications
FILIPINOS AS MANAGERSa. Managers who are content-oriented;interested on what to do and why; mostplanners and thinkers 1.Manager by Libro 2.Manager by Oydo
b. Managers who are process oriented;interested in how to do the job; mostimplementers and doers 1.Manager by Kayod 2.Manager by Lusotc. Combination of content and process 1.Management by Ognayan
- set of forces that energize worker to do their joband to sustain their behaviour.Introduction & Definition to motivate means toprovide motive, to impel people to action, and tocreate incentives to work.“Motivation is the work a manager performs toinspired, encourage, and impel people to takerequired action” – Lewis Allen“The act of stimulating someone or oneself to get adesired course of action”- Michael J
Nature and CharacteristicsMotivation Is an internal feeling Motivation is related to needs Motivation lead to goal oriented behaviour Motivation can be positive or negative
Importance of Motivation1.Puts human resources into action Every concern requires physical,financial and human resources toaccomplish the goals. It is throughmotivation that the human resources canbe utilized by making full use of it. This canbe done by building willingness inemployees to work. This will help theenterprise in securing best possibleutilization of resources.
2. Improves level of efficiency of employees The level of a subordinate or an employeedoes not only depend upon his qualificationsand abilities. For getting best of his workperformance, the gap between ability andwillingness has to be filled which helps inimproving the level of performance ofsubordinates. This will result into- a. Increase in productivity, b. Reducing cost of operations, and c. Improving overall efficiency.
3. Leads to achievement of organizational goals The goals of an enterprise can be achievedonly when the following factors take place :-4. Builds friendly relationship Motivation is an important factor which bringsemployees satisfaction. This can be done bykeeping into mind and framing an incentive plan forthe benefit of the employees. This could initiate thefollowing things: a. Monetary and non-monetary incentives, b. Promotion opportunities for employees, c. Disincentives for inefficient employees.
1. Maslow’s Hierarchy ofNeeds a. Physiological b. Safety and security c. Social d. Esteem e. Self-actualization
2. Herzberg’s Two-FactorTheorya. Establishing basic needs at work 1. Salary and benefits 2. Working conditions 3. Company Policy 4. Status 5. Job security 6. Supervision and autonomy 7. Office Life
3. Need Achievement Theory4. Acquired needs Theory a. Need for achievement b. Need for power c. Need for Affiliation
5. Goal setting Theorya. Specific goals lead to higherperformance than do generalize dogoalsb. Performance generally increases indirect proportion to go difficultyc. For goals to improve performance,the employee must accept them
d. Goals are more effective when theyare use to evaluate performancee. Goals should be linked to feedbackand rewardf. Goals setting is as important asindividual goal setting
6. Expectancy Theory ofMotivation 1. The individual believes effort (E)will lead to favourable performance (P) 2. The individual believesperformance will lead to favourableoutcome (O) 3. Outcome or reward satisfies animportant need 4. Needs dissatisfaction is intenseenough to make efforts seem worthwhile
7. Theory ITYPES OF MOTIVATION1. Fear motivation2. Incentive motivation3. Change or growth motivation
Supervision implies expert overseeing ofsubor-dinates -at work in order to guide andregulate their efforts. Every manager has tosupervise the work of his subordinates to seethat they do their work as desired. Butsupervision is particularly important at theoperat-ing level of management or at the low-level management. The supervisor is in direct personalcontact with the workers and he acts as the linkbetween workers and manage-ment. Hecommunicates the policies, plans and orders ofmanagement to the workers. He also bringsworkers grievances, suggestions and appealsto the notice of management. Effectivesupervision is essential for the accomplishmentof desired goals.
The direction of people at work is themost difficult of all production relatedtasks. Supervision means constantlyfunctioning in a state of flux and ambiguityand few people feel satisfaction from beinga supervisor. The reason this is worthmentioning is because many newsupervisors feel that something is "wrong"when they are constantly faced withproblems relating to their workforce. Thisstate of flux and ambiguity is normal tosupervision and success is measured inpercentages rather than absolutes.
All work requires the coordination of effort. Weaccomplish this by giving workers assigned tasks andassigned time in which they are to accomplish thesetasks. But just giving instructions is not enough. You mustgive clear, specific instructions on what is to be done,monitor the worker in the course of their efforts and holdthem accountable for specific results. These threeelements; specific instructions on what is to be done,monitoring them periodically to make sure it is being done,and making the employee accountable for the results arethe core of the supervisory process. It is the responsibilityof the supervisor to do this. Workers who do not receivegood instruction and direction; who are allowed to do workincorrectly without correction and who do not have areview of their performance have not had propersupervision and hence have not been allowed to performproperly. The purpose of supervision is to ensure thatsubordinates perform their tasks according to prescribedprocedures and as efficiently as possible.
In Supervising1. Set realistic expectations. The expectationsthat are often left unstated need to be openlydiscussed.2. Establish clear goals. Goal setting givespurpose and direction to the work of the individualsubordinates as well as to the manager. It ensuresalignment to corporate strategy.3. Communicate. Successful communication is alearned process that must accommodate individualneeds. As the boss, you establish the norms.Solicit feedback, encourage discussion (especiallyalternate points of view), and be accessible.
4. Support. A manager is not made bytitle alone. Anyone new to a supervisoryposition needs to develop certainprofessional skills. Your mentoring willbe the key to success.5. Be the Model Manager . Lead theway! Have others do as you say and do.
Whats Coordination? Co-ordination is the unification, integration, synchronization of the efforts of group members so as to provide unity of action in the pursuit of common goals. It is a hidden force which binds all the other functions of management. According to Mooney and Reelay, “Co- ordination is orderly arrangement of group efforts to provide unity of action in the pursuit of common goals”. According to Charles Worth, “Coordination is the integration of several parts into an orderly hole to achieve the purpose of understanding”.
Management seeks to achieve co-ordination through its basic functions of planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling. That is why, co-ordination is not a separate function of management because achieving of harmony between individuals efforts towards achievement of group goals is a key to success of management. Co- ordination is the essence of management and is implicit and inherent in all functions of management. A manager can be compared to an orchestra conductor since both of them have to create rhythm and unity in the activities of group members.
Co-ordination throughDirecting- The purpose of giving orders,instructions & guidance to thesubordinates is served only when thereis a harmony between superiors &subordinates.