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  2. 2. Introduction  Directing/Direction is a function of management performed by top level management in order to achieve organizational goals. It is very important and necessary function of management.  Management has to undertake various activities like, guide people, inspired and lead them as well as supervision of their activity is required in order to achieve desired results.
  3. 3. Meaning and Definition  Direction consists of the process and techniques utilized in issuing instructions and making certain that operations are carried as originally planned.  “Directing involves determining the course, giving order and instruction and providing dynamic leadership” – Marshall  “Activating means and moving into actionsupplying simulative power to the group”G.R Terry
  4. 4. Directing involves….. Telling people what is to be done and explaining how to do it.  Issuing instructions and orders to subordinates.  Inspiring them to contribute towards the achievement of objectives,  Supervising their activities;  Providing leadership and motivation 
  5. 5. ELEMENTS OF DIRECTION  Communication  Leading  Motivation  Supervision  Coordination
  7. 7. Communication Is…  - Complex and multifaceted phenomenon. It is the process by which verbal and non-verbal symbols are sent, received and given meaning.  “Communication” word has been derived from Latin word “Communis” which means common, thus communication stands for sharing of an idea in common.
  8. 8.  “Communication is an exchange of facts, ideas, opinions or emotions by two or more persons” – Newman and Summer  “It is a sum of all the things one person does when he wants to create understanding in the minds of another. It is a bridge of meaning, it involve systematic telling, listening, and understanding” – Haimann
  9. 9. Most Common Way to Communicate Speaking Writing Body language Visual images
  10. 10. ELEMENTS OF COMMUNICATION People - minimum is 2; one will act as the sender and the other the receiver Message – the content or the substance of what is being communicated, could be an idea, feeling, instruction, fact or opinion Channel – the medium and the manner by which the message is conveyed ; could be verbal or non-verbal
  11. 11. Feedback – the reaction of the receiver to the message as conveyed through a particular channel; measures the effectiveness of the communication Noise – anything that distorts the message conveyed
  12. 12. The Communication Process
  14. 14. Downward Communication Travels from superior to subordinates. Katz and Kahn have identified five general purposes of superior-subordinate communication.  To give specific task directives about job instruction  To give information about organization procedures and practices
  15. 15.  To provide information about the rationale of the job  To tell subordinates about their performance  To provide ideological-type information to facilitate the indoctrination of goals
  16. 16. Upward Communication Travels from subordinate to superior. The most common purpose of this communication is to provide feedback on how well things are going. It provides also the middle level managers the opportunity to represent their subordinates to the upper level managers.
  17. 17. Examples: a. Open-Door Policy a communication policy in which a manager, CEO, president or supervisor leaves their office door "open" in order to encourage openness and transparency with the employees of that company. c. Complaint program
  18. 18. Lateral Communication Takes place between people in the same level of the management hierarchy. The most common reason for this communication flow is to provide coordination and teamwork
  19. 19. Diagonal Communication Occurs between people who are neither in the same department nor in the same level of management hierarchy. In this case, someone communicate either downward or upward with someone in another functional area. In utilizing this flow of communication, protocol must be observed so as not to bypass the authority of the person concerned
  20. 20. Effective Methods of Communication
  21. 21. Electronics These are highly effective means of quickly reaching those with whom you are communicating Interaction and participation are possible and often simple – for all involved parties
  22. 22. Their ease of use means that they pose a possible risk of communications overload The seemingly endless possible combinations of words, images and colour are very powerful
  23. 23. Meetings If used properly; meetings can build relationships and mutual trust Meetings enable instant feedback Meetings facilitate mutual understanding Reponses can often be gauged through eye contact Preparation, planning and openness are required
  24. 24. Journalism In-house publications enable a wide range of messages and editorial techniques It is possible to facilitate some interaction through reader’ letters and contributions. The content of most organizations’ journals tends to be bland, resulting in
  25. 25. Internal Marketing This is a powerful method of “selling” change to the organization’s own staff Detailed written documents and colourful posters help to explain and simplify complex messages These techniques are able to elicit very strong, immediate motivational responses
  26. 26. Noticeboards Can be either official information givers, or for general use by employees Provide a central location in which to make information accessible to all employees. There is no real possibility of interactive response, and employees may feel uninvolved.
  27. 27. Telephone The telephone is not suitable for lengthy or complicated discussions The lack of physical presence may lessen the speakers’ understanding of each other
  29. 29.  Too much information – people suffers from what we call sensory overload  The message is poorly organized – communicating also involves planning
  30. 30.  Inaudible voice – when talking in front of a crowd be sure that you have loud and clear voice so that everybody will be able to hear what you are saying  Mannerisms – distract attention
  31. 31.  Lack of understanding  Inconsistent verbal and non-verbal communication  Noise – any factors that disturbs, confuses or interferes with communication
  32. 32.  Differing perceptions – people who have different backgrounds of knowledge and experience often perceive the same phenomenon from different perspective  Language differences – the words used must mean the same thing to sender and receiver  Too many links in the communication process
  34. 34.  Use feedback to facilitate understanding and increase the potential for appropriate action  Repeat message in order to provide assurance that they are properly received
  35. 35.  Use multiple channels so that the accuracy of the information may be enhanced  Use simplified language that are easily understandable and which eliminates the possibility of people getting mixedup with meanings
  37. 37.  Humanize – understand, appreciate and elevate the importance of humans above other concerns  Harmonize – establish a climate of cooperation, trust, helpfulness, confide nce, belongingness and openness  Habitualize – put into a habit such positive practices
  38. 38.  Institutionalize – put into practice good communication habits at the individual level until these practices are introduced to the company or organization as standard operating procedure  Acclimatize – adjust, be flexible and extra tolerant  Modernize – learn the modern ways of communicating  Symbolize – if words will not do, use symbols
  39. 39.  Empathize – to understand intimately the other people’s feelings ,thoughts, motives and aspirations  Dualize – make your communication dual  Minimize – Keep It short!!!!
  41. 41. The Grapevine is an informal channel of business communication. It is called so because it stretches throughout the organization in all directions irrespective of the authority levels.
  42. 42. a. Grapevine Networks
  43. 43. Gossip chain – happens when one person passes informal communication to all others in the informal organization Single strand – each person receives information from one individual and passes it to another
  44. 44. Probability chain – people randomly pass information to the other members of the organization Cluster chain – people pass information to other members of the informal organization selectively
  45. 45. b. Grapevine Activity.
  46. 46. People tend to engage in grapevine when: When people lack information When there is insecurity in a situation When people have personal interest in the situation
  47. 47. LEADERSHIP
  48. 48. Leadership Is… - Art of getting someone else to do something that you want done because he wants to do it (Dwight D. Eisenhower) - Process of directing the behaviour of others toward the accomplishments of objectives. - Is one of the important parts of direction.
  49. 49. “Leadership is the ability to secure desirable action from a group of followers voluntarily, without the use of coercion”- Alford and Beatly “Leadership refers to the quality of the behaviour of the individual whereby they guide people on their activities in organized efforts”- Chester Barnard
  50. 50. LEADING IN TIMES OF CRISIS Stay calm  Be visible  Put people before business  Tell the truth  Know when to get back to business 
  51. 51. LEADERSHIP STYLES  Autocratic Leadership Under the autocratic leadership style, all decision-making powers are centralized in the leader, as with dictators. Leaders do not entertain any suggestions or initiatives from subordinates. The autocratic management has been successful as it provides strong motivation to the manager. It permits quick decision-making, as only one person decides for the whole group and keeps each decision to him/herself until he/she feels it needs to be shared with the rest of the group.
  52. 52.  Participative Leadership consists of the leader sharing the decision-making abilities with group members by promoting the interests of the group members and by practicing social equality. Consultative Leaders Consensus Leaders Democratic Leaders
  53. 53.  Free- rein Leadership /Laissez-faire A person may be in a leadership position without providing leadership, leaving the group to fend for itself. Subordinates are given a free hand in deciding their own policies and methods.
  54. 54.  Narcissistic leadership The narcissism may be healthy or destructive although there is a continuum between the two. To critics, "narcissistic leadership (preferably destructive) is driven by unyielding arrogance, selfabsorption, and a personal egotistic need for power and admiration.
  55. 55.  Toxic leadership A toxic leader is someone who has responsibility over a group of people or an organization, and who abuses the leader-follower relationship by leaving the group or organization in a worse-off condition than when he/she first found them.
  56. 56. Importance of Leadership
  57. 57.  Initiates action- Leader is a person who starts the work by communicating the policies and plans to the subordinates from where the work actually starts.  Motivation- He motivates the employees with economic and noneconomic rewards and thereby gets the work from the subordinates.
  58. 58.  Providing guidance- A leader has to not only supervise but also play a guiding role for the subordinates. Guidance here means instructing the subordinates the way they have to perform their work effectively and efficiently.  Creating confidence- Confidence is an important factor which can be achieved through expressing the work efforts to the subordinates, explaining them clearly their role and giving them guidelines to achieve the goals effectively. It is also important to hear the employees with regards to their complaints and problems.
  59. 59.  Building morale- Morale denotes willing cooperation of the employees towards their work and getting them into confidence and winning their trust. A leader can be a morale booster by achieving full co-operation so that they perform with best of their abilities as they work to achieve goals.  Builds work environment- Management is getting things done from people. An efficient work environment helps in sound and stable growth. Therefore, human relations should be kept into mind by a leader. He should have personal contacts with employees and should listen to their problems and solve them. He should treat employees on humanitarian terms.
  60. 60.  Co-ordination- Co-ordination can be achieved through reconciling personal interests with organizational goals. This synchronization can be achieved through proper and effective coordination which should be primary motive of a leader.
  62. 62. a. Fielder’s Contingency Theory - it hypothesizes that, in any given leadership situation success is determined primarily by; 1. The degree to which the task being performed by the followers is structured 2. The degree of position power possess by the leader 3. The type of relationship that exists between the leader and the followers. b. Theory X and Y Assumptions c. Theory Z
  63. 63. MANAGEMENT STYLES 1. Management by crisis The process by which an organization deals with a major event that threatens to harm the organization, its stakeholders, or the general public. 2. Management by exception Is a "policy by which management devotes its time to investigating only those situations in which actual results differ significantly from planned results.
  64. 64. 3. Management by objectives A process of defining objectives within an organization so that management and employees agree to the objectives and understand what they need to do in the organization 4. Management by coaching and development Best described as the process from which managers learn and improve their skills not only to benefit themselves but also their employing organizations.
  65. 65. 5. Management by competitive edge defined as the strategic advantage one business entity has over its rival entities within its competitive industry. Achieving competitive advantage strengthens and positions a business better within the business environment. 6. Management by consensus Consensus management means that when a decision is reached by the group, there is total commitment to it by all members. It does not necessarily mean the decision was reached easily or that there were not widely differing views shared and debated during the group's discussion. But once consensus is formally achieved, division of opinion, so far as that decision is concerned, should cease.
  66. 66. 7. 8. 9. Management by styles Management by walking around Words simplifications
  67. 67. FILIPINOS AS MANAGERS a. Managers who are content-oriented; interested on what to do and why; most planners and thinkers 1.Manager by Libro 2.Manager by Oydo
  68. 68. b. Managers who are process oriented; interested in how to do the job; most implementers and doers 1.Manager by Kayod 2.Manager by Lusot c. Combination of content and process 1.Management by Ognayan
  69. 69. MOTIVATION
  70. 70. - set of forces that energize worker to do their job and to sustain their behaviour. Introduction & Definition to motivate means to provide motive, to impel people to action, and to create incentives to work. “Motivation is the work a manager performs to inspired, encourage, and impel people to take required action” – Lewis Allen “The act of stimulating someone or oneself to get a desired course of action”- Michael J
  71. 71. Nature and Characteristics Motivation Is an internal feeling  Motivation is related to needs  Motivation lead to goal oriented behaviour  Motivation can be positive or negative 
  72. 72. Importance of Motivation 1.Puts human resources into action Every concern requires physical, financial and human resources to accomplish the goals. It is through motivation that the human resources can be utilized by making full use of it. This can be done by building willingness in employees to work. This will help the enterprise in securing best possible utilization of resources.
  73. 73. 2. Improves level of efficiency of employees The level of a subordinate or an employee does not only depend upon his qualifications and abilities. For getting best of his work performance, the gap between ability and willingness has to be filled which helps in improving the level of performance of subordinates. This will result intoa. Increase in productivity, b. Reducing cost of operations, and c. Improving overall efficiency.
  74. 74. 3. Leads to achievement of organizational goals The goals of an enterprise can be achieved only when the following factors take place :4. Builds friendly relationship Motivation is an important factor which brings employees satisfaction. This can be done by keeping into mind and framing an incentive plan for the benefit of the employees. This could initiate the following things: a. Monetary and non-monetary incentives, b. Promotion opportunities for employees, c. Disincentives for inefficient employees.
  76. 76. 1. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs a. Physiological b. Safety and security c. Social d. Esteem e. Self-actualization
  77. 77. 2. Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory a. Establishing basic needs at work 1. Salary and benefits 2. Working conditions 3. Company Policy 4. Status 5. Job security 6. Supervision and autonomy 7. Office Life
  78. 78. b. Heightening workplace motivation 1. Achievement 2. Recognition 3. Job Interest 4. Responsibility 5. Advancement
  79. 79. 3. Need Achievement Theory 4. Acquired needs Theory a. Need for achievement b. Need for power c. Need for Affiliation
  80. 80. 5. Goal setting Theory a. Specific goals lead to higher performance than do generalize do goals b. Performance generally increases in direct proportion to go difficulty c. For goals to improve performance, the employee accept them must
  81. 81. d. Goals are more effective when they are use to evaluate performance e. Goals should be linked to feedback and reward f. Goals setting is as important as individual goal setting
  82. 82. 6. Expectancy Theory of Motivation 1. The individual believes effort (E) will lead to favourable performance (P) 2. The individual believes performance will lead to favourable outcome (O) 3. Outcome or reward satisfies an important need 4. Needs dissatisfaction is intense enough to make efforts seem worthwhile
  83. 83. 7. Theory I TYPES OF MOTIVATION 1. Fear motivation 2. Incentive motivation 3. Change or growth motivation
  85. 85. Supervision implies expert overseeing of subor-dinates -at work in order to guide and regulate their efforts. Every manager has to supervise the work of his subordinates to see that they do their work as desired. But supervision is particularly important at the operat-ing level of management or at the lowlevel management. The supervisor is in direct personal contact with the workers and he acts as the link between workers and manage-ment. He communicates the policies, plans and orders of management to the workers. He also brings workers' grievances, suggestions and appeals to the notice of management. Effective supervision is essential for the accomplishment of desired goals.
  86. 86. The direction of people at work is the most difficult of all production related tasks. Supervision means constantly functioning in a state of flux and ambiguity and few people feel satisfaction from being a supervisor. The reason this is worth mentioning is because many new supervisors feel that something is "wrong" when they are constantly faced with problems relating to their workforce. This state of flux and ambiguity is normal to supervision and success is measured in percentages rather than absolutes.
  87. 87. All work requires the coordination of effort. We accomplish this by giving workers assigned tasks and assigned time in which they are to accomplish these tasks. But just giving instructions is not enough. You must give clear, specific instructions on what is to be done, monitor the worker in the course of their efforts and hold them accountable for specific results. These three elements; specific instructions on what is to be done, monitoring them periodically to make sure it is being done, and making the employee accountable for the results are the core of the supervisory process. It is the responsibility of the supervisor to do this. Workers who do not receive good instruction and direction; who are allowed to do work incorrectly without correction and who do not have a review of their performance have not had proper supervision and hence have not been allowed to perform properly. The purpose of supervision is to ensure that subordinates perform their tasks according to prescribed procedures and as efficiently as possible.
  88. 88. In Supervising 1. Set realistic expectations. The expectations that are often left unstated need to be openly discussed. 2. Establish clear goals. Goal setting gives purpose and direction to the work of the individual subordinates as well as to the manager. It ensures alignment to corporate strategy. 3. Communicate. Successful communication is a learned process that must accommodate individual needs. As the boss, you establish the norms. Solicit feedback, encourage discussion (especially alternate points of view), and be accessible.
  89. 89. 4. Support. A manager is not made by title alone. Anyone new to a supervisory position needs to develop certain professional skills. Your mentoring will be the key to success. 5. Be the Model Manager . Lead the way! Have others do as you say and do.
  91. 91. What's Coordination? Co-ordination is the unification, integration, synchronization of the efforts of group members so as to provide unity of action in the pursuit of common goals. It is a hidden force which binds all the other functions of management.  According to Mooney and Reelay, “Coordination is orderly arrangement of group efforts to provide unity of action in the pursuit of common goals”.  According to Charles Worth, “Coordination is the integration of several parts into an orderly hole to achieve the purpose of understanding”. 
  92. 92. Management seeks to achieve co-ordination through its basic functions of planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling. That is why, co-ordination is not a separate function of management because achieving of harmony between individuals efforts towards achievement of group goals is a key to success of management. Co-ordination is the essence of management and is implicit and inherent in all functions of management.  A manager can be compared to an orchestra conductor since both of them have to create rhythm and unity in the activities of group members. 
  93. 93. Co-ordination through Directing - The purpose of giving orders, instructions & guidance to the subordinates is served only when there is a harmony between superiors & subordinates.
  94. 94. END