Pangasinan State University DM 212 and ME 212 Human Resource Development & Management Module 1 Definition of HRM vs. Personnel Management Prof. Josefina B. Bitonio,DPA Summer 2012
Module I Definition of HRM vs. Personnel Management Objectives: • to Introduce the concept of human resources management (HRM); • to learn the various schools of management; • to review the key names in management theories; and • to compare and contrast HRM with personnel management in terms of these features: scope, hours of work, place of work, types of services/function, goals, technology, strategies and philosophy
HRMHRM is a broad concept from employee selection, training and development programs, career development, promotion, performance review and union – management interface and other activities.Peterson and Tracy (1981) emphasized that HRM is an “emerging dynamic field in terms of both the staff functional and day-to-day utilization of human resources throughout the organization”.
Stressing the processes involved in managing human resources in an organization, Concepcion (1988) explain that - HRM is an “art and science of acquiring, motivating, maintaining and developing people in their jobs in light of their personal, professional and technical knowledge, skills, potentialities, needs and values and in synchronization with the organization philosophy, resources and culture for the maximum achievement of individuals, organization and society’s goals”.
W. French (1990) refers to HRM as thatwhich embodies the “philosophy, policies,procedures, and practices related to themanagement at people within theorganization.”
It implies• HRM can be viewed from a process-system perspective. From a process point of view, the concept includes all those process affecting and involving all employees o the organization including human resources planning, job design and information, staffing, training and development performance appraisal, compensation, and organization development.• However, these processes have to be interrelated with each other through systems. Thus, the study of HRM involves a network of interrelated processes through systems which have to be planned, developed, and implemented by all levels of management and the rank and files. These are directed towards the achievement of organizational goals and objectives
These processes have to be interrelated with each other through systems. Thus, the study ofHRM involves a network of interrelated processes through systems which have to be planned,developed, and implemented by all levels of management and the rank and files. These aredirected towards the achievement of organizational goals and objectives
GOAL should be “SMARTER” than others: S – Specific M – Measurable A – Achievable R – Realistic T – Time-Bound E – Emotionally Intelligent R – Resources Specific Source: Shobhit Tayal:2009 Slideshare
Time is something that we can never take back. Why is time management so important? Time never rewinds like videotape. We can get more money but we cannot get more time! • Time is rare. • Time cannot be stored. • Time is required for everything. • Time Management reduces effort.Source: Shobhit Tayal, Slideshare
History of Various Schools of Management Each perspective of management grew out of hospitable cultural context, what appear to be a naïve procedure may at another time have been useful solution to a perceived problem. Source: UP ISSI:2006
Key Names in Management Theory Perspective I Perspective II Perspective III Structural System Information System Human System1 Weber Roelthlisberger Taylor Gilbreth1940 Blackett Coch and French Cock and French (Univ of Michigan Group) Churchman and Ackoff1950 Woodward March & Simon (Ohio State Group) McGregor Argyris, Maier Herzberg, Likert1 Etzioni Forrester Vroom Seiler Emshoff Blake And Mouton Reddin Fiedler1970 Integrated Systems Approach
Perspective I: The Structural Design View ofManagement
Perspective II: Information flow 1. Operations Research – mathematically quantifiable parameters (Churchman - 6 phases, and Forrester’s system Dynamics - )
2. Output and Input model (Emshoff) Is it blacks, whites and orientals die earlier Input data: Diet Elderly tend to Sanitation die before the Work habits young Causal and OUTPUT antecedent factors MODEL Emshoff states that input –oriented research is needed for behavioral systems rather than output oriented The fact that Emshoff and Forrester are concerned with the human variables clearly manifests that the newer perspective theorists are aware of the human component.
Perspective III: Human Perspective• Hawthorne Plant of Western Electric Co.• HAWTHORNE EFFETC (by behavioral scientists: Elton Mayo, and Fritz Roethlisberger of Harvard Business School Bright sunlight Darker Full Moon Levels of Illumination • A group of female relay assemblers was set apart and observed closely. Each time the intensity of light was changed, the production rate went up until it was physically impossible to see. • The workers knew that the researchers were interested in their performance but did not really think about the implications of differing level of illuminations
Gold fish bowl • Increase performance resulting from the workers knowledge that they were being observed with interest, treated as important and that their inputs were taken into consideration • Workers attitudes, morale, group effects • People oriented supervisory styles “nice guys” coming from the HR training (“warm feeling training”) or “charm school” consists primarily of company picnics, getting the wives together, and company sponsored athletics
• The post World War II studies done at the University of Michigan and Ohio state University indicated that “people oriented” leadership. From this school emanated human relations training which was designed to make “nice guys” coming from the HR training (“warm feeling training”) or “charm school” consists primarily of company picnics, getting the wives together, and company sponsored athletics
Multi – Dimensional Theorists – MotivationTheories)
Multi – Dimensional Theorists - A third multi-dimensional theorists is Fred Fiedler. His leadership style theory, based on over 20 studies, identifies three dimensions: a. Position power of leader (strong or weak) b. Leader-member relationships (favorable & unfavorable) c. Definition of job ( clearly and vaguely defined)
Finally Lawrence and LorschCertain organizational functions e.g. marketing, production, R & D should be more or less tied with one another. However, the relative independence of these operations should vary, depending on the nature of the industry and environment
Multi-dimensional are here to stay. Coupled with situational approach to organizational design, leadership styles and OD appear to be the current directions for the study of organizations. Examine each situation to determine the most appropriate directions allows much more flexibility in the study and development of organizations
Both influenceeach otherto promotetheir needs and well being
Stressing the processes involved in managing human resources in an organization, Concepcion (1988) explain that HRM is an “art and science of acquiring, motivating, maintaining and developing people in their jobs in light of their personal, professional and technical knowledge, skills, potentialities, needs and values and in synchronization with the organization philosophy, resources and culture for the maximum achievement of individuals, organization and society’s goals”.
Sugiharto, SH.MM (2009) outlined the management of Human Resourcein an Organization Human Resource Management’s Outline Acquisition Development Motivation Maintenance Source: Sugiharto, SH.MM 2009
• HRM differs in terms of perspective• French (1990) stresses that personnel management has a strong functional focus in that it is concerned with the administration of specific employee-related functions such as hiring, training, compensation, and disciplinary action. It does not view these functions as interrelated
• it views all personnel functions as interrelated and emphasizes a more dynamic, action-oriented perspective of organization / personnel processes.• In other words, HRM which combines individual and organization goal takes on a more developmental, flexible and participatory stance. Because of its concern for the growth and development of the individual. – It provides opportunities and mechanisms for things to happen. It is proactive in the sense that the involvement and participation of the employees in all management processes is harnessed and developed. – It is innovative in the sense that it does not stop at making changes and introducing innovations in all personnel functions to facilitate and promote change and development for both organization and employees.
Comparison Between Personnel Management and Human Resources Management FACTORS PERSONNEL HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT MANAGEMENT1. Scope : people mostly rank and file all people working for andinvolved with the organization including the Board, top management consultants or resource persons, middle management, rank and file2. Hours of work full-time work full-time, part-time, flex time3.Place of work formal setting: office, formal and informal settings factory / plant
FACTORS PERSONNEL HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT MANAGEMENT4.Types of service few and simple: Varied and complex: job organization/ function personnel and information: job analysis, job information, design and job evaluation; acquisition recruitment and of human resources: human resources screening social planning, recruitment, screening, activities, selection and placement, maintenance: management-labor orientation, motivation, assessment relationship and evaluation, compensation administration, movement analysis, benefits, participation and services programs, management- labor relations.5.Department administrative Separate Human Resourceshead or officer-in officer or chief Department manned by humancharge executive officer resources specialist
FACTORS PERSONNEL HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT MANAGEMENT6.Department lawyer, records clerk behavioral scientist, socialstaff: qualifications science researcher7.Level reporting lower level of line of higher level of general managers manager or chief executive officer8.Goals accomplishment of accomplishment of organization goals being organization and individual emphasized goals9.Technology mechanistic: reactive, Developmental: proactive, structural, inflexible, socio-technical orientation, technical, control oriented flexible, participatory, and organization-oriented creative and innovative
FACTORS PERSONNEL HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT MANAGEMENT10. Strategies Personally subjective Objective and scientific based based on management’ on individual and organization needs and values: culture, total systems compartmentalized approach approach11.Philosophy Traditional work Human with emphasis on orientation with respect for individual and priorities on organization society’s well-being: people: an and management investment and a resource welfare mainly for profit people: an expense and a factor or production
Summary• A personnel has a strong functional focus. It is concerned with the administration of specific employee-related functions such a hiring, training and disciplinary actions which are not viewed as interrelated.• Human resources management views all personnel functions asinterrelated and takes an encompassing view. It is development flexibleand participatory in the sense that it is more concerned with the growthand development of the individual employee; provides moreopportunities and innovations in all personnel functions.
Integrating Theory and practices A number of government agencies do not have HRM plans and programs based on the needs and expectations of individual employees. In fact , some agencies have strategic plans which do not spell out approaches to the development of human resources of the organization. Identified strategies have focused more on achieving the goals of the organization rather than on attaining both the goals of the organization and employees. In this regard, employees are not seen as an investment and a resource for the organization’s productivity and efficiency.
Reference:• Perla Legaspi- Human Resource Development Open University, University of the Philippines 2002• Wendell French. (1990). Human Resources Management. 2nd edition, New Jersey: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1990, Chapter 1, pp.5-25.• Richard Peterson and lane Tracy. Systematic management of Human Resources. Massachusetts: Addition-Wesley Publishing Co., 1981 . Chapter1, pp. 3-18.• Conception Martires. (1988), Human Resource Management Principles and Practices. Quezon City Kalayaan Press Marketing, Inc. Chapter 1, pp. 3-9.• UP ISSI Managers Course 2006• Shobhit Tayal et al: 2009 Personal Success Strategies. Slideshare