Civil service, Merit system and CSC

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  • The term explicitly excludes the armed services, although civil officials work at “Military" headquarters
  • When a political party comes to power, its leaders tend to place many of their faithful followers into important public offices. The use of public offices as rewards for political party work is known as the "Spoils System." The system is popular in numerous nations.
  • Civil service system in the Philippines was formally established…
    The Board administered civil service examinations and set standards for appointment in government service.
    It was reorganized into a Bureau in 1905.
  • 1935 - The following years also witnessed the expansion of the Bureau’s jurisdiction to include the three branches of government: the national government, local government and government corporations. Manuel Quezon
    1959 - This was the first integral law on the Philippine bureaucracy, superseding the scattered administrative orders relative to government personnel administration issued since 1900. Carlos P. Garcia
  • The Philippine Civil Service has undergone a great number of reforms in terms of structure, size, leadership, position classification, and pay scheme, among others, under the management and regulation of the CSC.
  • Civil service, Merit system and CSC

    1. 1. Civil Service, Merit System & Civil Service Commission Presented by: Erwin T. Abad PLM-MGM
    2. 2. What is Civil Service? A branch of governmental service in which individuals are employed on the basis of professional merit as proven by competitive examinations. The body of employees in any government agency other than the military. A civil servant is a person in the public sector employed for a government department or agency.
    3. 3. Merit-based Civil Servants  Entrance to the service based on competitive exams.  Protection of civil servants from arbitrary removal.  Protection of their political neutrality.  Policing of these rules by an independent body. 3
    4. 4. Merit-based Civil Servants  Common features:      positions are established centrally and classified according to rank; bureaucrats are paid a salary and pension that is determined by their rank, rather than the work that they do; there are often impediments to external lateral entry at senior grades; there are few points of entry, with most entering at a young age and most senior positions filled by promotion. . 4
    5. 5. Table 1: Comparing Civil-Service Systems: Management Principles Patronage system (modern) Merit system Entrance criteria Informally based on loyalty/affinities, formally on merit criteria Competitive, transparent process open to all citizens. Tenure & relation to political principals Most appointments on political/ welfare grounds. Lifetime tenure, with removal only through due process. Lifetime tenure, with removal only through due process, protects political neutrality. Remuneration Formal pay structures undermined by variety of allowances, supplements, etc. Relatively rigid pay structure based largely on rank (rather than work done); Position classification Same as merit system. Positions are established centrally and classified according to rank. Lateral entry points (internal or external labor market) Senior appointments Management There are often impediments to external lateral entry at senior grades; there are few points of entry, with most entering at a young age and most senior positions filled by promotion. Many countries have flexible approaches to political appointments. The amount and depth of political (as opposed to merit) appointments is limited. Management is centralized, often with an independent body managing 5 appointments.
    6. 6. Table 2: Comparing Civil-Service Systems: the External Environment Patronage system (modern) Political arrangements and the civilservice system Labor-market conditions and the civil-service system Merit system •Modern spoils systems are informal, hidden behind formal merit systems. •Merit systems arise under mature democracies with checks and balances and where political parties are funded independently of civil-service spoils. •Informal patronage politics are based on spoils systems, affinity systems •Scarcity of “modern-sector” jobs. •Poorly functioning labor markets, and scarcities of qualified people. •A merit system, by protecting civil servants from politicians, promotes credible commitment, but at the risk of shirking and inefficiency. •Well-functioning labor markets, but many civil services function as internal labor markets, insulated from the national market. 6
    7. 7. Historical Developments Under Public Law No. 5 ("An Act for the Establishment and Maintenance of Our Efficient and Honest Civil Service in the Philippine Island") in 1900 by the Second Philippine Commission. It was reorganized into a Bureau in 1905. A Civil Service Board was created composed of a Chairman, a Secretary and a Chief Examiner.
    8. 8. Historical Developments In 1935, Philippine Constitution firmly established the merit system as the basis for employment in government. In 1959, Republic Act 2260, otherwise known as the Civil Service Law, was enacted. This Act converted the Bureau of Civil Service into the Civil Service Commission with department status. In 1975, Presidential Decree No. 807 (The Civil Service Decree of the Philippines) redefined the role of the Commission as the central personnel agency of government.
    9. 9. Historical Developments Its present mandate is derived from Article IX-B of the 1987 Constitution which was given effect through Book V of Executive Order No. 292 (The 1987 Administrative Code). The Code essentially reiterates existing principles and policies in the administration of the bureaucracy and recognizes, for the first time, the right of government employees to self-organization and collective negotiations under the framework of the 1987 Constitution.
    10. 10. Philippine Civil Service Commission  The Civil Service Commission (CSC) is the central personnel agency of the Philippine government. One of the three independent constitutional commissions with adjudicative responsibility in the national government structure, it is also tasked to render final arbitration on disputes and personnel actions on Civil Service matters. 10
    11. 11. Philippine Civil Service Commission  RESPONSIBILITY  Recruitment, building, maintenance and retention of a competent, professional and highly motivated government workforce truly responsive to the needs of the government's client - the public. 11
    12. 12. Philippine Civil Service Commission  SPECIFIC FUNCTIONS     leading and initiating the professionalization of the civil service; promoting public accountability in government service; adopting performance-based tenure in government; and implementing the integrated rewards and incentives program for government employees. 12
    13. 13. CSC 2030 Agency Vision CSC shall be Asia's leading center of excellence for strategic Human Resource (HR) and Organizational Development (OD) Mission Gawing Lingkod-Bayani ang Bawat Kawani
    14. 14. Thank you

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