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B Y : J I G A R M A K H I J A
IT tools & technology
What is computer?
 A computer can be defined as an electronic machine
that receive data, processes the data and then
generates the output.
 The data is processed based on the instructions given
by the user.
Components of a computer
Central
processing unit Storage
Primary
memory
Secondary
memory
magnetic
disk
Optical
disk
Pen drive
Input-Output
devices
Printer
Dot
matrix
Inkjet laser
Modern day computer
Micro
Mini
Mainframe
super
Application of computer
 Common people use computers for spreadsheets, e-
mailing, and word processing.
 Professional use computers for desktop publishing
(DTP).
 The main job of computer is information processing
and storage.
 It is used to perform complicated calculations at
much faster rate.
Advantages
 Computer system can continue to work for long time
without getting tired.
 The speed with which a computer performs a job
cannot be compared with human being.
 Usage of computer increases work efficiency , speed
with which our work is done.
 It has become major source of instruction medium.
Brief history of computers
First
gen.
Second
gen.
Third
gen.
Fourth
gen.
Fifth
gen.
First
• Year 1945-1955
• These computers were built using thousands of vacuum
tubes.
• VT big in size and produces a lot of heat and have short life.
• EG: ENAIC
Second
• They were made of device called transistor.
• It is a small size and made of semi conductor.
• It produce lass heat compared to vacuum tubes.
• Year 1955-1965
Contd..
Third
• They were based on integrated circuit(IC).
• An IC consist of large number of circuit components, such as diodes, transistors,
capacitors, resistors, etc
• Fabricated and integrated on to a very small chip of semiconductor material.
• It is known by chip.
• Year 1965-180
Fourth
• It was based on VLSI technology.
• That made possible to put millions of components on a single chip.
• Introduce in 1980 and uses microprocessor chip that are very small.
Fifth
• They will have intelligence.
• They will understand our natural language and we would be able to talk with these
computers.
• They use artificial intelligence.
Software Categories
System
software
Application
software
User
Application software
System software
Hardware
Functionality of layers in computer system
Operating system
 The OS its name implies is collection of various
programs used to operate the computer.
 It act as intermediate between the user and the
computer.
 3-goals
To manage resources of computer system efficiently. These
resources include I/O device, memory, processor, etc.
To provide convenient environment to user to interact with
resources available with the computer system.
To provide secure environment to user so that he can share
resources and interact with other users of the system or on the
network.
Operating systems functions.
Processor management
Memory and storage
management
Device management
Communication and security
management
Application interface
User interface of operating system
GUI-graphical user
interface
• GUI uses graphics to
make life easy for the
user.
• To perform different
tasks, the user is
provided with
buttons, menu, icons
of os using GUI.
CLI-command line
interface
• The os which use CLI
require user to type
text-based
commands.
• These commands are
used to perform task
by os.
Type of OS
Categories of OS
Single
task
Multi
task
Single
user
Multi
user
Real
time
Booting Process
Network architecture
Client
Client
Client
Client
Server

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It tools & technology

  • 1. B Y : J I G A R M A K H I J A IT tools & technology
  • 2. What is computer?  A computer can be defined as an electronic machine that receive data, processes the data and then generates the output.  The data is processed based on the instructions given by the user.
  • 3. Components of a computer Central processing unit Storage Primary memory Secondary memory magnetic disk Optical disk Pen drive Input-Output devices Printer Dot matrix Inkjet laser
  • 5. Application of computer  Common people use computers for spreadsheets, e- mailing, and word processing.  Professional use computers for desktop publishing (DTP).  The main job of computer is information processing and storage.  It is used to perform complicated calculations at much faster rate.
  • 6. Advantages  Computer system can continue to work for long time without getting tired.  The speed with which a computer performs a job cannot be compared with human being.  Usage of computer increases work efficiency , speed with which our work is done.  It has become major source of instruction medium.
  • 7. Brief history of computers First gen. Second gen. Third gen. Fourth gen. Fifth gen. First • Year 1945-1955 • These computers were built using thousands of vacuum tubes. • VT big in size and produces a lot of heat and have short life. • EG: ENAIC Second • They were made of device called transistor. • It is a small size and made of semi conductor. • It produce lass heat compared to vacuum tubes. • Year 1955-1965
  • 8. Contd.. Third • They were based on integrated circuit(IC). • An IC consist of large number of circuit components, such as diodes, transistors, capacitors, resistors, etc • Fabricated and integrated on to a very small chip of semiconductor material. • It is known by chip. • Year 1965-180 Fourth • It was based on VLSI technology. • That made possible to put millions of components on a single chip. • Introduce in 1980 and uses microprocessor chip that are very small. Fifth • They will have intelligence. • They will understand our natural language and we would be able to talk with these computers. • They use artificial intelligence.
  • 9. Software Categories System software Application software User Application software System software Hardware Functionality of layers in computer system
  • 10. Operating system  The OS its name implies is collection of various programs used to operate the computer.  It act as intermediate between the user and the computer.  3-goals To manage resources of computer system efficiently. These resources include I/O device, memory, processor, etc. To provide convenient environment to user to interact with resources available with the computer system. To provide secure environment to user so that he can share resources and interact with other users of the system or on the network.
  • 11. Operating systems functions. Processor management Memory and storage management Device management Communication and security management Application interface
  • 12. User interface of operating system GUI-graphical user interface • GUI uses graphics to make life easy for the user. • To perform different tasks, the user is provided with buttons, menu, icons of os using GUI. CLI-command line interface • The os which use CLI require user to type text-based commands. • These commands are used to perform task by os.
  • 13. Type of OS Categories of OS Single task Multi task Single user Multi user Real time