The Critical Importance of Foundational Pre-School Education: An Economic Analysis


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Early Childhood Education Global Conference:
ECE: Opportunities and Challenges
Grand Hyatt Hotel, Santa Cruz, Mumbai
17 July 2010

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  • 2008: India ranks 99th in the list of Education For All (EFA) Development Index among 125 countries, even though there have been reductions in the number of out-of-school children since 2004
  • 361 million should be in school. 219 million are in school
  • The Critical Importance of Foundational Pre-School Education: An Economic Analysis

    1. 1. The Critical Importance of Foundational Pre-School Education:<br />An Economic Analysis<br />Professor Jeremy B Williams<br />Chief Academic Officer<br />Knowledge Universe Education<br />Early Childhood Education Global Conference: <br />ECE: Opportunities and Challenges<br />Grand Hyatt Hotel, Santa Cruz, Mumbai<br />17 July 2010<br />
    2. 2.
    3. 3. The standard economic analysis of the net benefits tosocietyof education<br />Social Costs/Returns<br />SC<br />SR<br />Years in education<br />A<br />B<br />C<br />ECE/K-8<br />9-12<br />Post-Sec<br />Life-long learning<br />
    4. 4. Recent brain development research has upset mainstream <br />thinking …<br />
    5. 5. The human brain and critical periods for learning in a person’s development<br />John Abbott, President of The 21st Century Learning<br />
    6. 6. The link between social and emotional development and cognitive development <br />“ …When it comes to brain circuitry, it’s better to get it right the first time, than to try and fix it later.”<br />Professor Jack P. Shonkoff, M.D.Harvard University<br />
    7. 7.
    8. 8. A speech from <br />a little known<br />US Senator <br />in 2006 …<br />
    9. 9.
    10. 10. J.J. Heckman (2000)<br />‘Policies to foster human capital’, Research in Economics, 54(1), 3-56.<br />The economic<br />debate is over<br />
    11. 11. Professor James Heckman<br />
    12. 12. Returns per dollar invested<br />
    13. 13. Rate of Return:Why Early Investment Matters<br />
    14. 14. Professor W. Steven Barnett <br />Director of the National Institute for Early Education Research (NIEER) at Rutgers University<br />
    15. 15. What Barnett (2008) <br />tells us …<br />
    16. 16. High rates of return<br />Comparing the costs of public investment in ECE against a variety of benefits:<br /><ul><li>higher achievement test scores, lower rates of grade repetition and special education, and higher educational attainment
    17. 17. higher earnings and resulting higher tax revenues
    18. 18. increased labour-force participation of parents
    19. 19. lower risks of delinquency, crime and teenage pregnancy</li></li></ul><li>Early skills: Importance of soft skills<br />
    20. 20. Change the early years.<br />Change life.<br />
    21. 21.
    22. 22. The 2008 EFA Global Monitoring Report stated that only 53% of the world’s countries have ECE programmes for children under 3<br />These are mostly in North America and Western Europe, Central Asia, and Latin America and the Caribbean<br />
    23. 23. So what about India? …<br />
    24. 24. Population: 1.17 billion; 1.38% p.a. <br />Per capita income: US$1089 (US$4542 in PPP)<br />50% of the population is below 25 years<br />360 million children of school-going age<br />The largest child population in the world<br />
    25. 25. <ul><li>Projected global teacher shortage by 2015 … 18 million
    26. 26. India will need the greatest inflow of new teachers in the world – more than 20 lakh</li></li></ul><li>24<br />India ranks 105th out of 128 on the EFA Development Index<br />
    27. 27. 25<br />3.4% of children aged 2-4 yrs are in pre-school (cf. 14.4% in the US)<br />
    28. 28. 361 million should be in school<br />219 million are in school<br />Drop-out rates …<br />Grades 1-4: 16% (25m)<br />Grades 5-8: 43% (39m)<br />Grades 9-12: 68% (78m)<br />
    29. 29. What does a strategic<br />approach to ECE<br />look like? …<br />
    30. 30. 1. Proven effectiveness<br /> Using ‘available funds wisely’ (Heckman 2000), policy makers will be focusing on replicating ECE models that have proven their effectiveness. <br /> Typically these models have relatively small class sizes and well-educated teachers with adequate remuneration<br />
    31. 31. 2. Quality assurance<br /> Teachers in these model ECE programmes (whether public or private) will be receiving intensive supervision and mentoring<br /> They will be involved in a continuous improvement process for learning and teaching<br />
    32. 32. 3. Regular review<br /> These ECE programmes will be regularly assessing a child’s learning and development to monitor the extent to which they are meeting their institutional goals<br />
    33. 33. 4. Holistic approach<br /> ECE programmes will embrace a pedagogy that develops the whole child (including social and emotional development and self-regulation)<br /> This will help to produce positive effects on children’s behaviour, which leads to later reductions in crime and delinquency.<br />
    34. 34. 5. Public policy<br /> More broadly, ECE policy needs to be developed within the context of comprehensive public policy to support child development from birth to age 5 and beyond<br /> With priority for socioeconomically disadvantaged children who are likely to benefit most. <br />
    35. 35. Credits …<br />Source for India data<br /><br /><br />Heckman [1]:<br />Heckman [2]:<br />Abbott:<br />Obama:<br />Harvard Education:<br />theounceofprevention:<br />Ms KirtanaHariharan, Research Analyst, Knowledge Universe Education<br />
    36. 36. Thank you for listening<br /><br />jeremybwilliams<br />This presentation is available at:<br /><br />