Early Learning in the USA and the Economic Crisis


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  • Aligned early learning and development standards that lead to school readiness and are integrated with program quality to guide curriculum and program development. An evidence-based quality rating system structured with progressive levels of quality – which may be used across early learning settings and programs. An effective system of program review, monitoring, and improvement applied across all programs and settings. An evidence-based system of professional development to prepare an effective and well-qualified workforce of early educators, including appropriate levels of training, education, and credentials. Strategies for families and parents to better assess quality in their child's early learning program and better support their child's learning. Systems to facilitate screening and referrals for health, mental health, disability and family support. A coordinated zero to five data infrastructure to collect essential information on where young children spend their time and the effectiveness of programs that serve them. An age- and developmentally-appropriate curriculum and assessment system that is used to guide practice, improve programs, and inform kindergarten readiness.
  • [Acknowledgements, etc.] But before I get into our proposal, I want to talk a little about why this reauthorization is so important to us. Student outcomes. First, and foremost, our education system isn’t delivering the results students deserve. 40% of children enter kindergarten without the skills they need to succeed in school. 25% of high school students don’t make it to graduation. 40% of college students need remediation. Millions of jobs go unfilled each year for lack of trained workers. NCLB. NCLB did some things right… Shined a spotlight on achievement gaps. Holding adults accountable for student results. … but there’s a great deal we need to fix. Standards too low. Growth vs. snapshots. Mislabeling schools & targeting resources. Too focused on teacher inputs. Process/bipartisanship. Law is overdue for reauthorization, and there is potential for bipartisan bill. Law was originally up for reauthorization in 2007; long overdue. We believe this can be a bipartisan bill, and have been working with Democratic and Republican members of Congress. Education can be the one issue that rises above partisanship and that unites adults together to do what’s best for students.
  • Of course, early learning is woven throughout each of these six areas. The achievement gap begins very early and is unacceptably large. Across the country, states and LEAs have increased their commitment to high-quality preschool programs. However, even high-quality preschool in not a magic bullet. The quality of our kindergarten through third grade early learning programs must improve to order to close the achievement gap and to keep the gap closed. A strong focus on early learning is necessary to ensure that children start off “on track” to be college and career ready.
  • Early Learning in the USA and the Economic Crisis

    1. 1. 7 th Meeting of the OECD Network on Early Childhood and Care: Financing ECE Services Paris, France June 22, 2010 Jacqueline Jones, PhD Senior Advisor to the Secretary for Early Learning Us Department Of Education Washington, DC Early Learning in the US and the Economic Crisis
    2. 2. <ul><li>“ It will be the goal of this administration to ensure that every child has access to a complete and competitive education from the day they are born to the day they begin a career ... we know that the most formative learning comes in those first years of life”. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>President Obama </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>February 24, 2009 </li></ul></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Early Learning Goal <ul><li>The Education Department’s early learning initiative is intended to improve the health, social-emotional, and cognitive outcomes for all children birth through 3 rd grade, especially those with high-needs. </li></ul>
    4. 4. Early Learning: A Range of Ages <ul><ul><li>Infants and Toddlers - Birth to 3 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pre-Kindergarten (3- and 4-year-olds) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>K–3 </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Domains of Learning <ul><ul><li>Physical health and well-being </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social-emotional development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Approaches to learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Language and literacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive skills </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Major Public Funding Streams <ul><li>U.S. Department of Health and Human Services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Early Head Start </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Head Start </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Child Care </li></ul></ul><ul><li>U.S. Department of Education </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Special Education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Title I Preschool </li></ul></ul><ul><li>U.S. Department of Defense </li></ul><ul><li>State-funded Preschool Programs </li></ul><ul><li>District/Local Programs </li></ul>
    7. 7. Interagency Collaboration
    8. 8. Interagency Early Learning Initiative <ul><li>Study Groups </li></ul><ul><li>Encouraging Coordinated State Early Learning Systems </li></ul>
    9. 9. Six Study Groups <ul><li>Standards, Curriculum and Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Program Standards </li></ul><ul><li>Family Engagement </li></ul><ul><li>Health Promotion </li></ul><ul><li>Workforce and Professional Development </li></ul><ul><li>Data Systems </li></ul>
    10. 10. Components of a Coordinated State Early Learning Systems <ul><li>Aligned early learning and development standards, curriculum and assessments </li></ul><ul><li>Program quality and rating system with a review, monitoring and improvement system </li></ul><ul><li>Plan for human capital </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies for family engagement </li></ul><ul><li>Systems to facilitate health screening and referrals </li></ul><ul><li>Coordinated zero to 5 data infrastructure </li></ul>
    11. 11. Children in Poverty <ul><li>Percentage of children under 18 years living in poverty may peak at 21% (15.6M) in 2010 – highest in 20 years </li></ul><ul><li>Foundation for Child Development </li></ul><ul><li>2010 Child Well-Being Index </li></ul>
    12. 12. Impact on Child Care Facilities <ul><li>Reduction in the number of children in child care programs </li></ul><ul><li>Increased vacancies in child care programs </li></ul><ul><li>Closure of some childcare programs </li></ul><ul><li>NCCRRA Survey </li></ul>
    13. 13. State–funded Preschool <ul><li>Difficult State budgets in 2010 and 2011 </li></ul><ul><li>Dramatic increase in State-funded preschool funding may be over </li></ul><ul><li>New Mexico, Florida, Illinois, Wisconsin, New York, Arizona, and others … considering, or have implemented, cuts to early learning programs </li></ul>
    14. 14. Head Start <ul><li>ARRA (American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009): </li></ul><ul><li>$1B Head Start </li></ul><ul><li>$1.1B Early Head Start </li></ul><ul><li>FY 2011: </li></ul><ul><li>$989 increase in the total funding for Head Start, to over $8.2 billion </li></ul>
    15. 15. ARRA (cont,) <ul><li>Teacher Incentive Fund ($200M) </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher Quality Enhancement ($100M) </li></ul><ul><li>Statewide Data Systems ($250M) </li></ul>
    16. 16. Title 1 <ul><li>Improving the Academic Achievement of the Disadvantaged </li></ul><ul><li>ARRA: </li></ul><ul><li>$10B to State Educational Agencies </li></ul>
    17. 17. Maternal, Infant and Childhood Home Visiting Program Grants <ul><li>$90M: The Affordable Care Act </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence-based home visiting strategies that help families create a nurturing environment for young children and connect to a range of services, including: </li></ul><ul><li>health, </li></ul><ul><li>early education, </li></ul><ul><li>early intervention and more </li></ul>
    18. 18. <ul><li>an early childhood service system in every State that supports high-quality, evidence-based practice.  </li></ul><ul><li>coordinated services to improve maternal and child health and promote healthy child development in our communities most in need. </li></ul><ul><li>additional funding to Tribal programs </li></ul>
    19. 19. Increase the quality and availability of Child Care <ul><li>Child Care and Development Block Grant </li></ul><ul><li>FY 2011: </li></ul><ul><li>$1.6B addition to child care funding to extend child care assistance to approximately 235,000 more children (total = $6.644B). </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Largest increase in child care funding in over 20 years.  </li></ul>
    20. 20. Special Education <ul><li>Additional $250M in formula grants for a total of $11.76 billion to help States pay the extra costs of providing special education and related services to an estimated 6.7M children with disabilities aged 3 through 21 years  </li></ul><ul><li>Maintains $374.1M in additional support to States for providing special education and related services to preschoolers with disabilities ages 3 through 5 </li></ul><ul><li>Maintains $439.4M investment to help States implement statewide systems of early intervention services for all eligible children from birth through age 2 and their families </li></ul>
    21. 21. Race to the Top <ul><li>ARRA: $4.3B - Race to the Top (Rounds 1 and 2) </li></ul><ul><li>FY 2010: </li></ul><ul><li>$1.35B (Round 3) </li></ul><ul><li>The initial competition, includes an invitational priority for activities that improve outcomes for high-need students who are young children (birth through 3rd grade) </li></ul>
    22. 22. Investing in Innovation (i3) Program <ul><li>ARRA: $650M </li></ul><ul><li>FY2011: </li></ul><ul><li>$500M to identify, develop, and scale up promising models and interventions. </li></ul><ul><li>The initial competition, funded by the Recovery Act, includes a competitive priority for activities to improve outcomes for high-need students who are young children (birth through 3rd grade) </li></ul>
    23. 23. Promise Neighborhoods <ul><li>ARRA: $10M </li></ul><ul><li>FY 2011: </li></ul><ul><li>$210M: to provide funding for another cohort of competitive planning grants and new implementation grants to community-based organizations for the development of comprehensive neighborhood programs, with effective schools at the center. </li></ul>
    24. 24. Effective Teaching and Learning: Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) <ul><li>FY 2011: $300M: </li></ul><ul><li>Supports State and local efforts aimed at implementing and supporting a comprehensive STEM strategy for the provision of high-quality STEM instruction and support to students from prekindergarten through grade 12 by funding the competitive grant program at </li></ul>
    25. 25. Effective Teaching and Learning: Literacy <ul><li>FY 2011: $450M: </li></ul><ul><li>Supports State and local efforts aimed at implementing and supporting a comprehensive literacy strategy that provides high-quality literacy instruction and support to students from prekindergarten through grade 12 </li></ul>
    27. 27. Overarching Principles <ul><li>Raise the bar for all students. Close the gap . </li></ul><ul><li>Tight on goals . Loose on means . </li></ul><ul><li>Foster innovation and reward success . </li></ul><ul><li>Build on the four assurances . </li></ul>
    28. 28. Four Assurances Raise standards and improve assessments . Recruit, retain & support effective educators , and ensure equitable distribution. Build robust data systems that track student progress and improve practice. Turn around low-performing schools , focusing on dropout factories and their feeder schools.
    29. 29. Early Learning <ul><li>ESEA reauthorization: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alignment of standards and assessments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coordination of professional development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integration of high-quality early learning programs into school reform efforts </li></ul></ul>
    30. 30. High-quality early learning approaches <ul><li>Continued Title I Support of Preschool </li></ul><ul><li>A Birth-Through-College-to-Career Agenda </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Promise Neighborhood grants </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Comprehensive Education Reforms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Race to the Top </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Innovation in Early Learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Investing in Innovation (i3) </li></ul></ul>
    31. 31. Supports early learning professionals <ul><li>Joint Professional Development </li></ul><ul><li>Expanded Administrators’ Knowledge of Early Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Support for Teachers of Young Children . </li></ul>
    32. 32. Expands learning opportunities for young children <ul><li>Seamless Transitions and Improved Coordination </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthened Literacy and STEM P-12 Plans </li></ul><ul><li>Increased Learning Time for Young Children </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehensive Early Learning Assessment Systems </li></ul>
    33. 33. Looking at Assessment <ul><li>The process of collecting, interpreting and evaluating evidence of learning in order to make informed judgments </li></ul>
    34. 34. An Assessment System <ul><li>A coordinated system of assessments and strategies intended to collect information about the process and context of young children’s learning and development in order to make informed instructional and programmatic decisions. </li></ul>
    35. 35. Purpose <ul><li>To monitor the learning and development of children prior to third grade </li></ul><ul><li>To monitor program effectiveness and support continuous improvement </li></ul>
    36. 36. Types of Measures <ul><ul><li>Screenings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diagnostic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Observational measures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Descriptive data </li></ul></ul>
    37. 37. Questions <ul><li>How is Johnny doing? </li></ul><ul><li>Do all children have the basic health, social- emotional, and cognitive competencies needed to be successful in school? </li></ul><ul><li>Are children progressing along a trajectory that will lead to school success? </li></ul>
    38. 38. Questions <ul><li>How is the program doing? </li></ul><ul><li>Does the program have sufficient resources (human/financial) to be successful? </li></ul><ul><li>Are program standards being met? </li></ul><ul><li>Are quality measures leading to improved outcomes for children? </li></ul>
    39. 39. <ul><li>Early Learning Standards: A comprehensive, well-articulated set of standards that define what children should know and be able to do. </li></ul><ul><li>Program Quality Standards : A comprehensive set of standards that describe program quality. </li></ul><ul><li>Assessments: Multiple approaches to documenting children’s learning and reviewing program quality. </li></ul>
    40. 40. <ul><li>Opportunity to learn: assessment of the environments in which children are spending time. </li></ul><ul><li>Inclusion: ensuring that all children served by the program will be assessed fairly, regardless of their language, culture, or disabilities. </li></ul><ul><li>Resources: Assurance of adequate financial resources to ensure the development and implementation of the system components. </li></ul>
    41. 41. <ul><li>Reporting: Maintenance of an integrated database of assessment instruments and results, accessible to potential users, that </li></ul><ul><ul><li>provides information about how the instruments and scores relate to standards, and that </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>can generate reports for the varied audiences and purposes. </li></ul></ul>
    42. 42. <ul><li>Professional Development: Ongoing opportunities at all levels to understand the standards and the assessments and to learn to use the data and data reports with integrity for their own purposes. </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring and evaluation: Monitoring of the system itself to ensure continuous improvement. </li></ul>