Chapter 14 Section 4Nation Building in Latin America
I. Nationalist Revolts A. By the end of the 18th century, the political ideals of the revolution in North America were threatening European control of Latin America. B. Privilege social classes divided colonial Latin America. 1. Peninsulares- Top level 2. Creoles- Controlled land and businesses. 3. Mestizos- largest segment, worked as servants or laborers
C. Creole elites were especially influenced by revolutionary ideals. 1. They liked the ideas of free press, free trade, and equality before the law. 2. Also resented colonial control of trade. a. esp. the peninsulares.D. Creole elites denounced the rule of Spain and Portugal. 1. Spain and Portugal were weakened by the defeats at the hand of Napoleon.
E. On the Island of Hispaniola more than one hundred thousand slaves rose up and seized control of the island. 1. 1804 the area now called Haiti became the first independent state in Latin America.E. Mexico experienced a revolt beginning in 1810. 1. Miguel Hidalgo inspired by the French Revolution, he urged the mestizos to free themselves from the Spanish.
G. In 1810 Hidalgo led an unsuccessful armed attack on the Spaniards. 1. They were defeated and Hidalgo was executed. 2. September 16 is Mexico’s Independence Day.
H. The involvement of Indians and mestizos in the revolt against Spain frightened both the creoles and peninsulares. 1. They cooperated in defeating the popular revolutionary forces. 2. They then overthrew the Spanish in order to preserve their own power.
I. In 1821 Mexico declared its independence from Spain. 1. Agustin de Iturbide named himself emperor in 1822, but was removed. 2. Mexico then became a republic.
J. Two members of the creole elite are considered liberator of South America. 1. Jose de San Martin- Argentina 2. Simon Bolivar- Venezuela
K. San Martin believed the Spanish had to be removed from all of S. American countries for any nation to be free. 1. He freed Argentina by 1810. 2. In 1817 he led forces against the Spanish in Chile. He surprised the Spanish, and their forces were defeated.
L. San Martin wanted to move on to Lima, the center of Spanish authority. 1. Allied with Simon Bolivar because he knew he would need help.L. By the end of the 1820s, S and C America were free of the Spanish.
1. Concert of Europe- Use force to restore Spanish Rule.2. Monroe Doctrine- Warned against European involvement in L. America and guaranteed the independence of the new Latin American Nations.
II. Difficulties of Nation Building A. The new L. American nations faced many serious problems between 1830 and 1870, such as border wars, a huge loss of property and people, and no modern infrastructure. B. Over the 19th century these new countries will become economically dependent on Europe and the U.S. once again.
C. The new nations began as republics, but soon caudillos came to power. 1. Caudillos ruled by force. 2. Mexican ruler Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna. a. He misused state funds, halted reforms, and created chaos. b. 1835 settlers in Texas revolted against him.
D. In 1836 Texas gained its independence. 1. War between Mexico and the U.S. soon followed (1846-1848). 2. Mexico lost nearly ½ of its territory.E. Santa Anna’s rule followed by a period of reform dominated by Benito Juarez. 1. Child of Native American peasants.
F. The U.S. intervention in L. America led to the building of the Panama Canal (1914). 1. The U.S. controlled it for most of the 20th century.
G. Political independence did not translate into economic independence. Britain and other Western nations dominated the Latin American economy. 1. L.A. continued to be a source of raw materials and food for the industrial west. 2. Finished consumer goods, especially textiles, were imported.
H. A basic problem for all L.A. nations was the domination of society by elites. 1. Large estates remained a way of life in L.A.H. Land remained the basis of wealth, prestige, and power in L.A. throughout the 19th century. 1. The elite ran governments and made huge profits, while the masses lived in dire poverty.
III. Political Change in Latin America A. After 1870 L.A. governments wrote constitutions similar to those in the United States and Europe. 1. Ruling elites kept their power, by restricting voting rights. A. Effects of the Spanish American War. 1. Cuba became a protectorate of the U.S. 2. Puerto Rico annexed by the U.S. 3. U.S. supported a rebellion that allowed Panama to become independent. a. In return U.S. received the land to build the Panama Canal.
C. American investments in Latin America were protected by military force. 1. The Marines were in Haiti from 1915-1934. 2. Nicaragua from 1909-1933. a. Resentment built against the big power from the north.
D. In Mexico, among other Latin American countries, large landowners supported dictators who looked out for the interests of the ruling elite. 1. Dictator Porfirio Diaz ruled Mexico between 1877 and 1911 with the support of the army, the Catholic Church, the aristocrats, and foreign capitalists.
E. Wages declined under this dictator, and 95% of the rural population did not own land. 1. A liberal landowner force Diaz out, and a wider revolution started. 2. Emiliano Zapata demanded agrarian reform. 3. He led the peasants against the wealthy.
F. A new constitution enacted in Mexico in 1917 set up a government led by a president, created land reform, established limits on foreign investment, and set out to help workers.
IV. Economic Change in Latin America A. Latin America had a period of economic prosperity after 1870. 1. This was due to the exportation of a few major items. a. Wheat and beef from Argentina. b. Coffee from Brazil, c. Bananas from Central America.
B. After 1900 Latin America began doing more of its own manufacturing.C. Due to the prosperity, the middle sectors of Latin American society grew. 1. The middle sectors were only 5 to 10 percent of the population.
D. Members of the Latin America middle sectors had shared characteristics; 1. They lived in cities. 2. Sought education and decent incomes. 3. Saw the U.S. as a model for industrialization.