Hist 141 modern latin america


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Hist 141 modern latin america

  1. 1. Modern Latin America Andrew Lelja History 141 71154
  2. 2. Latin America’s Wars <ul><li>The Haitian War for Independence from 1791-1803, began as a struggle between the privileged white planters and the less privileged affranchis, and rapidly became an all-out race war when the pure blacks, ultimately dominated. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Latin American wars for independence were an outgrowth of deep-seated political, economic, and social frustrations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Within colonial Latin America a class system existed which exalted the Europeans, gave lesser privileges to the American-born, pure-blooded whites, and repressed all others. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mercantilism, an economic system which held that colonies existed for the benefit of the motherland, stagnated economic development throughout the New World. </li></ul><ul><li>Trade was exclusive and monopolistic, conducted by Europeans in European ships. </li></ul><ul><li>Further down the class ladder were the mestizos, Indians, and blacks, and each was treated progressively worse, and they were heavily taxed. </li></ul><ul><li>The American Revolution and the French Revolution influenced Simon Bolivar of New Granada, and Miguel Hidalgo of Mexico. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Latin America’s Wars <ul><li>The king was like glue and many administrative entities within the Spanish colonial empire had been held together primarily through their loyalty to the King. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Because of geographical barriers, they wondered if the vast but sparsely populated colonial entities would become a single nation or whether they would break up. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Colombia was subjected to nearly eighty years of on-again, off-again civil wars between Centralists and Federalists. </li></ul><ul><li>The poorly defined boundaries of the newly independent nations caused wars. </li></ul><ul><li>The Spanish king's inadequate knowledge of the geography transferred vast areas from one administrative entity to another in attempts to improve political, social, and economic control. </li></ul><ul><li>The post-independence wars of territorial conquest against the native Americans were an extension of the colonial experience. </li></ul><ul><li>Unassimilated tribes inhabited the more inhospitable regions throughout Latin America, and the new nations conducted campaigns against these Indians which continue in some places today. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Latin America’s Wars <ul><li>The desire to rule in order to satisfy one's ambitions has also led to war in Latin America. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong-willed individuals, known as caudillos, routinely used force to achieve their personal ends. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two major caudillo’s were Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna of Mexico and Justo Jose de Urquiza of Argentina. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Caudillos generally professed political ideologies, many willingly sacrificed these when they conflicted with their quests for power. </li></ul><ul><li>The power of a caudillo was his ability to deliver his followers to the cause of his choice. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Their loyalty was to him personally and could be lost if the caudillo were defeated in battle, or unable to deliver the spoils which his followers expected. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The cause for the War of the Pacific from 1879-83, sometimes called the &quot;Nitrate War&quot; between Chile against Peru and Bolivia, was the arbitrary taxation and duties imposed by Bolivia upon Chilean-owned nitrate firms, provoking Chile to intervene militarily and ultimately leading to war. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Without the nitrates, the Chileans may never have attempted to conquer the desert. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Latin America’s Wars <ul><li>In the decades following independence, the unresolved struggle between conservatives, who favored a monarchy, and liberals, who wanted a republic, led to wars. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The most bloody were the French intervention in Mexico (1861-67) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The commercial nations frequently intervened within Latin America because they believed their investments or another commercial power was threatened. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Latin American nations emerged from the wars for independence bankrupt, indebted, and devastated. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The wars had brought trade to a standstill almost everywhere. </li></ul><ul><li>Religion was a prime motivator during the intraclass struggles that plagued Colombia during the last seven decades of the nineteenth century. </li></ul><ul><li>These ten causes for war in Latin America-race war, the ideology of independence, the controversy of separation versus union, boundary disputes, territorial conquests, caudilloism, resource wars, intraclass struggles, interventions caused by capitalism, and religious wars-were intertwined and profoundly influenced the region throughout the nineteenth century. </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Second World <ul><li>South America could be a large world player with as much power as the U.S. or Eurasia, but the continent was the last to be explored by the Europeans. </li></ul><ul><li>South America has plenty of natural resources that can help supply the world, especially Europe and Asia. </li></ul><ul><li>If North America and South America work together they can both become completely energy self sufficient as a continent. </li></ul><ul><li>South America has never had en economic crisis. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Their economy has always been underdeveloped compared to the rest of the world, so they have never had a chance to have a well working economy to produce a bubble. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. The Second World <ul><li>Ever since Christopher Columbus came to America, Spain and Portugal were successful in conquering many parts of Latin America. </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish conquistadors worked their way south through Latin America in search of gold and silver, but also to make themselves a stronger world power. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hernan Cortez conquered the Aztec Empire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Francisco Pizarro conquered Inca Empire. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Many Native Americans were killed from disease and war. </li></ul><ul><li>The Protestant Reformation helped Latin America regain its balance of power. </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Second World <ul><li>The United States wanted to work on getting Latin American countries to become democratic. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>On April 21,1898, the United States declared war on Spain so they can try to control Cuba. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The U.S. also seized the Philippines. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The U.S. was never successful turning any of the Latin American countries into democracies. </li></ul><ul><li>China has helped bring a surplus of supplies to Latin America, but they have also caused fierce competition in China’s market. </li></ul><ul><li>Before the Great Depression, Latin America played a major role in our world’s exports. </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Second World <ul><li>The United States has realized the importance and potential of South America. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They see investing in their country as an investment and can create a strong manufacturing base to compete with Asia. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>South America and Africa are still not considered very important continents compared to the three main powers of the world. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The United States, Europe and Asia. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>South America still has many resources and integral countries that can help make them a strong second-world power. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Latin American Sports <ul><li>The most popular sport in South America is Football, also known as Soccer to North Americans. </li></ul><ul><li>Basketball is very popular in Argentina. </li></ul><ul><li>Baseball is the most popular sport on Venezuela. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many Venezuelans play professional baseball in the MLB. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Many talented tennis players competing in worldwide events. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Guillermo Vilas, Gustavo Kuerten, Gabriela Sabatini, Gaston Gaudio, Juan Martin del Potro, and Mercelo Rios. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rugby us becoming more popular. </li></ul><ul><li>Jai Alai and Cricket were introduced by the Europeans. </li></ul><ul><li>Juan Fangio and Nelson Piqeut are Formula 1 drivers. </li></ul><ul><li>Rio de Janiero, Brazil will be the host city for the 2016 Olympic Games. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Latin America Facts <ul><li>South America features the largest rainforest in the world. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contains 1/5 of the world’s fresh water, and is 4 million square kilometers with over 2.5 million insect species. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Amazon river is the second longest river in the world. </li></ul><ul><li>At 3,300 feet high, Santo del Angel is one of tallest waterfalls in the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Cerro Aconagua is tallest peak in the Andes Mountains in Argentina. </li></ul><ul><li>Bolivia has the largest salt flat in the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Atacama Desert is Chile is the driest desert. </li></ul><ul><li>Ushuaia, Argentina on the the island of Tierra del Fuegois the southern most city in South America. </li></ul>