Article One of the Constitution


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Article One of the Constitution

  1. 1. ARTICLE ONE Requirements, Duties, and Characteristics of the Legislative Branch.
  2. 2. Bicameral Legislature Article 1, Section 1: …which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives. <ul><li>Our Congress is split in two houses: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The House of Representatives is determined on a State’s Population ( proportional representation) . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each state sends 2 Senators to the other part of congress, the Senate ( equal representation ). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Senate is 100 people, can’t change without adding/subtracting states. </li></ul><ul><li>The House is 435 people, but is divided differently every 10 years to reflect the latest census/population figures. </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is Fair? How should representing the states balance the big and the small? (Continuation of our “We the People” lessons) NJ Plan: Equal Representation Pro: all have equal say. Con: people’s votes aren’t equal. VA Plan : Proportional Representation Pro: people’s votes are now weighted evenly. Con: small states have little say vs Great Compromise: Create a legislature with 2 houses, balance responsibilities between the two, and create a more perfect union of big and small.
  4. 4. <ul><li>A balance is created between the big and the small states. </li></ul><ul><li>In 200o, Bush won more states than Gore, but Gore won more people. </li></ul><ul><li>Ideally, this example represents the idea of both plans. </li></ul>
  5. 5. A balance in population is a little more clear here. This map shrinks/expands each state based on population.
  6. 6. Characteristics of the 2 Houses Article 1, Section 2 (Clauses 1 & 2); Section 3 (Clauses 1,2 &3) All Reps/Senators are elected by direct election – the people vote directly for them. Senate House of Representatives 6 Years Length of Term 2 Years 30 Years Old Age Minimum 25 Years Old Live anywhere in state Residency Requirement Live in district 9 year US citizen Citizenship Requirement 7 year US citizen 100 Total # 435 2 From IL 19 New Jersey (NJ) Plan – favors small states More Like: Virginia (VA) Plan – favors big states
  7. 7. Our Congress People Are: <ul><li>Representative Judy Biggert (R) – 13 th District </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Serving in her 10 th year (5 terms ) * up for reelection in ’08* </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Senator Dick Durbin (D) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Serving in his 12 th year (2 terms) * up for reelection in ’08* </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Senator Barack Obama (D) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Serving in his 4 th year (1 term) *doing something election related…* </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Leadership of the House Article 1, Section 2, Clause 5: The House of Representatives shall choose their Speaker and other Officers <ul><li>Speaker of the House is voted on by the Representatives. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Currently Nancy Pelosi (D-CA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Considered to be the “most powerful person in the US,” as s/he controls which bills get voted on and when. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Republicans and Democrats also elect leaders to represent their causes, mainly the Minority Leader . </li></ul><ul><li>Whips : both parties have them – responsible for getting people “on board” with votes. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Leadership of the Senate Article 1, Section 3, Clause 4: The Vice President of the United States shall be President of the Senate, but shall have no Vote, unless they be equally divided. <ul><li>The Vice President “leads” the Senate as the President of the Senate. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Vice President only votes to break ties. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The VP does not run day-to-day business </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acts as a “presence” to remind the Senate of the President’s wishes and power. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Senators also elect the the president pro tempore . (Robert Byrd of D – WV) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only formally takes charge when the VP cannot. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually the oldest person in the Senate (Byrd is 81). </li></ul></ul>Article 1, Section 3, Clause 5: The Senate shall choose their other Officers, and also a President pro tempore, in the Absence of the Vice President, or when he shall exercise the Office of the President of the United States.
  10. 10. Impeachment Process Article 1, Section 2, Clause 5; Section 3, Clauses 6 & 7
  11. 11. Other Requirements and Things Article 1, Sections 4, 5, & 6 <ul><li>Since 1872, Congress requires all states to hold elections for Senators and Reps on the same day. </li></ul><ul><li>Each house sets quorum : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Senate/House cannot vote with a minimum number of Senators/Representatives present (51 in Senate, 218 in House) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rules are set (and are very long and detailed). </li></ul><ul><li>Congressional Record – all votes, speeches and actions are recorded everyday and available online. </li></ul><ul><li>$$$ - All make $170 k, with leadership making more. </li></ul><ul><li>Cannot be arrested or sued ( immunity ) for something they say during debate, unless it is a criminal act. </li></ul><ul><li>Cannot hold another government job while serving in Congress. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Congress’ Primary Job: Make Laws Article 1, Section 7: Law Making Process <ul><li>Vesting clause : all the government’s power to write laws lies in the legislative branch. Nowhere else. </li></ul><ul><li>We will do an activity later called “How a Bill Becomes a Law” (HABBAL) to further explain this. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Enumerated powers of Congress Article 1, Section 8, Clauses 1-18: Congress shall have the power… <ul><li>Collect Taxes for the common defense and general welfare </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Taxes must be the same in all parts of the country. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also gives Congress power to spend money like Paige at the mall! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Borrow money through bonds bought by Americans. </li></ul><ul><li>Establish laws on Naturalization : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The process by which an immigrant becomes an American citizen. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Regulate all trade (between states or countries). </li></ul>
  14. 14. Enumerated powers of Congress Cont… Article 1, Section 8, Clauses 1-18: Congress shall have the power… <ul><li>Coin Money! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine the value of each piece. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also regulates weights and measures. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Punish counterfeiting. </li></ul><ul><li>Establish Post Offices, delivery of mail. </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a system of patents and copyrights. </li></ul><ul><li>Establish courts. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Congress determines the number of courts and judges at each inferior, or lower court (as in lower than the Supreme Court). </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Enumerated powers of Congress Cont… Article 1, Section 8, Clauses 1-18: Congress shall have the power… <ul><li>Military Powers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Declare War : The President may NOT do this! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create an Army, Navy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make rules and raise/spend money for it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Call for the militia (or National Guard) to defend nation. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Elastic Clause – Congress’ greatest power! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ make all laws necessary and proper.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Congress can make laws it feels are needed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Also called the “general welfare” and “necessary and proper” clause. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Congress is May Not : Article 1, Section 9: Powers denied to the Federal government. <ul><li>Suspend Habeas Corpus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remember what the means? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Create Ex post facto laws </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EPF laws are created to punish something LEGAL by making a new law to make that act ILLEGAL. You cannot be arrested for actions in the past. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Create a Royalty </li></ul><ul><li>Tax Exports </li></ul><ul><li>Spend money without passing a law first </li></ul><ul><li>Pass bills of attainder </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A legislative act declaring a person guilty with no trial. </li></ul></ul>