Chapter 8 Government, Citizenship, and the Constitution


Published on

Constitution and functions of the federal government

Published in: Education
1 Like
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Chapter 8 Government, Citizenship, and the Constitution

  1. 1. Government, Citizenship, and the Constitution Chapter 8: pp. 246 - 271
  2. 2. Section 1: Goals and Principles of the Constitution <ul><li>Main Idea: </li></ul><ul><li>The goals and principles of the Constitution have guided the United States for more than 200 years. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Preamble – OPENING STATEMENT <ul><li>To Form a More Perfect Union </li></ul><ul><li>To Establish Justice </li></ul><ul><li>To Insure Domestic Tranquility </li></ul><ul><li>To Provide for the Common Defense </li></ul><ul><li>To Promote the General Welfare </li></ul><ul><li>To Secure the Blessings of Liberty </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>“ perfect union” – a unified nation </li></ul><ul><li>“ justice” – fair treatment for every American </li></ul><ul><li>“ domestic tranquility” – peace at home </li></ul><ul><li>“ common defense” – military to protect from foreign attack; civilian (nonmilitary) control </li></ul><ul><li>“ general welfare” – well-being of citizens </li></ul><ul><li>“ blessings of liberty ” – maintain the freedom people died for in the Revolution </li></ul>
  5. 5. Articles and Amendments of the Constitution <ul><li>I – III: The 3 Branches of Government </li></ul><ul><li>IV: Relations between States and admitting new States </li></ul><ul><li>V: Amendment Process (Changes to Constitution) </li></ul><ul><li>VI: Supreme Law of the Land – (States can’t make laws that contradict the Constitution) </li></ul><ul><li>VII: Procedure for Ratification by new States </li></ul><ul><li>AMENDMENTS: 27 formal changes since 1791 </li></ul>
  6. 6. Seven Basic Principles <ul><li>Popular Sovereignty – people can alter/abolish their government </li></ul><ul><li>Limited Government – the government only has the powers listed in the Constitution and EVERYONE must obey the laws (including the President!) </li></ul><ul><li>Separation of Powers – Different branches have different roles: </li></ul><ul><li>Legislative ( Congress ) – makes the laws </li></ul><ul><li>Executive ( President / Cabinet ) – carries out laws </li></ul><ul><li>Judicial ( Courts ) – explains and interprets laws </li></ul>
  7. 7. Seven Basic Principles (cont.) <ul><li>Checks and Balances – protects against branches of government abusing their power. Each branch has a “check” on the other two. </li></ul><ul><li>Federalism – Federal and state government powers are mostly separate (some are shared). – See p.235 </li></ul><ul><li>Republicanism – People do not directly participate; they elect representatives. Representatives listen to their constituents (people they represent) but vote with their own judgment. </li></ul><ul><li>Individual Rights – Peoples individual rights are protected (the Bill of Rights) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Section 2: How the Federal Government Works <ul><li>Main Idea: </li></ul><ul><li>The United States government is divided into three branches with separate roles and responsibilities. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Branches of the United States Federal Government Legislative Branch Made up of: House of Representatives and the Senate This branch creates laws. Executive Branch Made up of the President, Vice President and the Cabinet (Advisors) This branch sees that laws are carried out and oversees the military. Judicial Branch Made up of the Supreme Court and Lower Courts (District and Appellate) This branch interprets the laws of the country.
  10. 10. Legislative Branch (Congress) <ul><li>House of Representatives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>435 members (based on states’ population) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lead by the Speaker of the House (3 rd in line to be president) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Always elected by people. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Senate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>100 members (2 from each state) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lead by the Vice President of the United States, who doesn’t participate in debate, but breaks ties. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>President pro tempore (a senator who fills in for the V.P.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Originally chosen by state legislature – 17 th Amendment (1913) gave that power to the people. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Congress drafts bills ( proposals for new laws) </li></ul><ul><li>Bills can come from either side of Congress but appropriations ($$$) bills always start in the House. </li></ul><ul><li>Bills approved by both houses go to the President for approval or veto . </li></ul><ul><li>Other powers of Congress: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Levy (collect) taxes, coin (make) money, create post offices, fix weights and measures, and declare war. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Elastic Clause: Congress can “stretch” it’s powers to “make all laws which shall be necessary and proper…” (I, 8.18) </li></ul><ul><li>Committees: The job of Congress is so big, they split up into committees to split up responsibilities. </li></ul><ul><li>Each house has separate committees on different topics: </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture , Defense, Education, etc… </li></ul>
  13. 13. Executive Branch (Office of the President) <ul><li>President of the U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>Highest elected official </li></ul><ul><li>Carries out the laws of the United States </li></ul><ul><li>Directs Foreign Policy and makes treaties with other nations </li></ul><ul><li>Commander-in-Chief of the Military </li></ul><ul><li>The chief ambassador of the country. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Cabinet of the President: Advisors on the different aspects of running the nation. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Secretary of… Defense, Treasury, Education, Interior, Homeland Security among many others. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Elected by the “ Electoral College ” – people from each state who are “pledged” to the candidate with the state’s majority vote. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fact: 4 times a president who was elected DID NOT receive the popular vote, but was elected through the Electoral College. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Judicial Branch (The Federal Courts) <ul><li>The Supreme Court was the first and is still the most powerful court. </li></ul><ul><li>Judiciary Act of 1789 set up the system of lower and appellate courts we have today. </li></ul><ul><li>Cases start at District Federal Court, move to Appellate for review (if necessary), then to the Supreme Court as a “ last resort ,” (again, if necessary) </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Supreme Court has 9 members (8 Justices and one Chief Justice) who are appointed for life. </li></ul><ul><li>Serves as the final court of appeals </li></ul><ul><li>The S.C. hears about 100 cases (usually less) a year. Decisions are based on a majority (5). </li></ul><ul><li>Biggest role of the Supreme Court… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interpreting the United States Constitution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laws decided unconstitutional are abolished . </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Checks and Balances <ul><li>C. and B. are the abilities for one branch to limit the powers of one or both of the others. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The President can veto a bill passed by Congress, but Congress can still pass the bill by overriding the veto. The Supreme Court can check both by declaring a law unconstitutional. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impeachment : Congress can remove a sitting President from office. The House of Reps. Calls for impeachment and the Senate conducts a trial. A 2/3 majority removes the President.* </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(*No President has been removed by the Senate. However, two have been impeached by the House… Andrew Johnson and Bill Clinton.) </li></ul>
  18. 18. Section 3: Changing the Constitution <ul><li>Main Idea: </li></ul><ul><li>The amendment process has made the Constitution a living document that reflects changing times. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Why did the framers provide for changes to the Constitution? <ul><li>Even though they did not know how America would change, the framers knew that it would change, and that the Constitution would have to change with the nation . </li></ul>
  20. 20. The Amendment Process <ul><li>Article 5 of the Constitution outlines the process – very complex and takes months (or years!) </li></ul><ul><li>Proposal for an amendment: </li></ul><ul><li>2/3 of both House and Senate </li></ul><ul><li>National Convention called by Congress at the request of 2/3 of the State Legislatures.* </li></ul><ul><li>*Option 2 has never been used </li></ul><ul><li>What is two-thirds of the Senate? The House? </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Ratification (2 options) </li></ul><ul><li>Approval by legislatures of ¾ of the states… </li></ul><ul><li>Approval by special conventions in ¾ of the states …* </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What issues might make the ratification process difficult? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>*Option 2 only used for the 21 st Amendment Repeal of Prohibition </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How many would this be? </li></ul>
  22. 22. The Bill of Rights (The First 10 amendments) <ul><li>First Amendment : </li></ul><ul><li>Individual Liberties : </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom of religion, speech and press . </li></ul><ul><li>Read what you want, criticize government, worship where you want. Speak your mind ! </li></ul><ul><li>The 1 st amendment stops at violating another person’s civil liberties… </li></ul><ul><li>2 nd – 4 th Amendments: </li></ul><ul><li>Protection from British-like policies: </li></ul><ul><li>2 nd : “…bear arms ” </li></ul><ul><li>3 rd : “ quartering of soldiers” </li></ul><ul><li>4 th : “ unlawful search and seizure” </li></ul><ul><li>DEBATE: What does the 2 nd Amendment REALLY mean? </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>5 th – 8 th Amendments </li></ul><ul><li>Rights of the Accused: </li></ul><ul><li>5 th : “Self-incrimination” </li></ul><ul><li>6 th : Trial by jury ; speedy and impartial where you know the charges and can face your accuser. </li></ul><ul><li>7 th : Juries for civil (non-criminal) trials </li></ul><ul><li>8 th : No excessive bail, fines or “ cruel and unusual punishments.” </li></ul><ul><li>9 th and 10 th Amendments </li></ul><ul><li>Other issues… </li></ul><ul><li>9 th : Citizens’ rights were not limited to those in the Constitution </li></ul><ul><li>10 th : Powers not given to the federal government or denied to the states are reserved for the states. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples of the 10 th Amendment? </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Other Amendments… <ul><li>Civil War Amendments (13-15) </li></ul><ul><li>13: Abolition of Slavery </li></ul><ul><li>14: Gave citizenship to former slaves </li></ul><ul><li>15: Right to vote cannot be denied by “race, color, or previous condition of servitude.” </li></ul><ul><li>Voting Amendments (19 and 26) </li></ul><ul><li>19: Women’s Suffrage – The Right to Vote </li></ul><ul><li>26: Voting Age Requirement went from 21 to 18 </li></ul>
  25. 25. Section 4: State and Local Governments <ul><li>Main Idea: </li></ul><ul><li>State and Local governments often play a more direct role in our lives than does the Federal government. </li></ul>
  26. 26. LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Create and enforce ordinances and policies while still following the laws of the state and national governments. STATE GOVERNMENTS Creates and enforce laws for the state while also following all laws set forth by the U.S. Constitution U.S. CONSTITUTION The supreme law of the land which everyone has to follow. However, the Constitution does allow certain policies to be left up to individual states.
  27. 27. State Constitutions (The U.S. Constitution is still the “supreme law of the land!”) <ul><li>State Constitutions are similar to the U.S. Constitution: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They have a preamble </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They define individuals’ rights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They set up a Three-Branch System </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Amending State Constitutions <ul><li>State Constitutions can be changed by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proposals by the state legislature and/or general election vote. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Half of the states allow for people to directly change the state constitution through Constitutional Initiatives (Petitions). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>State Constitutions can be rewritten if approved by the legislature or through a general vote. </li></ul>
  29. 29. State Services <ul><li>Maintain law and order </li></ul><ul><li>Enforce Criminal Law </li></ul><ul><li>Protect property </li></ul><ul><li>Regulate business, commerce </li></ul><ul><li>Supervise Public Education </li></ul><ul><li>License Teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Set Curriculum Standards </li></ul><ul><li>Provide for Public Health & Welfare </li></ul><ul><li>Build / Maintain Highways </li></ul><ul><li>( INFRASTRUCTURE ) </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain State Parks and State-owned land </li></ul>Licenses: Doctors, Nurses, Lawyers, Teachers, and… Drivers!
  30. 30. Local Governments <ul><li>County, City, Town, Village, Parish, and District – Powers given by the state. </li></ul><ul><li>Local governments spend the most money on EDUCATION . </li></ul><ul><li>Private citizens have a role in local education (vote on budgets, serve on school boards, comment on curriculum changes) </li></ul><ul><li>Local Gov't administers police, fire, water, sewerage, health and many other services (either directly or through private companies) </li></ul>
  31. 31. Section 5: Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship <ul><li>Main Idea: </li></ul><ul><li>Being an American citizen brings both rights and responsibilities. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Who is a Citizen? <ul><li>Born in the U.S. or have at least one parent who was. </li></ul><ul><li>Someone who is naturalized (the process of someone becoming a citizen) </li></ul><ul><li>You were 18 or younger when your parents were naturalized . </li></ul>
  33. 33. The Naturalization Process <ul><li>Immigrant – Someone who moves to another country. </li></ul><ul><li>Resident Alien – Complete a 5 year process of living in this country with permission. </li></ul><ul><li>Apply for citizenship and take a test, demonstrate “ good moral character .” </li></ul><ul><li>Take the “ Oath of Citizenship .” </li></ul>
  34. 34. What defined citizenship? (According to the Founding Fathers) <ul><li>Someone who displayed… </li></ul><ul><li>Civic Virtue – willingness to work for the good of the nation or community even at great sacrifice. </li></ul><ul><li>Patriotism – love or devotion toward one’s country. </li></ul><ul><li>Respect for people, property and the law. </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Courage (physical and moral) </li></ul>
  35. 35. Responsibilities of a Citizen <ul><li>Voting </li></ul><ul><li>Obeying the Laws </li></ul><ul><li>Defending the Nation </li></ul><ul><li>Jury Duty </li></ul><ul><li>Serving the Community </li></ul><ul><li>Being Informed </li></ul>