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  1. 1. Final Project Jaicom Luese Q. Mojica Psychology 101 Mike Dulay
  2. 2. 6 Schools of Psychology <ul><li>Psychology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychoanalytic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behaviorist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Humanistic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biological </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sociocultural </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Psychology <ul><li>Psychology is a branch of science that deals with the study of human behavior. They use scientific methods to prove their theories. They use naturalistic observation to see what is the behavior of the subject in its natural state. They can also use correlational approach which relates everything that happens is connected. They connect the behavior of the subject through the things that happened to him years or days before his behavior change. Also the most use in science is experimental, they experiment on a subject to test what is his reaction to things that affects his behavior. Psychology is the study of behavior which is part of the brain, how can the naturalistic and correlational method provide evidence that the brain has been change when the behavior changed. Psychology is a branch of science that is why it should be studied In a systematize way. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Psychoanalytic Sigmund Freud Assumption Subject matter Research Method School Idea Treatment
  5. 5. Sigmund Freud <ul><li>He is one of the greatest scientist </li></ul><ul><li>He investigated the unconscious mind for 50 years. </li></ul><ul><li>“ He called the area of the mind that lies outside of the personal awareness the unconscious” </li></ul><ul><li>“ He was fascinated by patients whose problems seemed to be more emotional than physical.” </li></ul><ul><li>Psychoanalytic theory is the best-known approach which he developed. </li></ul><ul><li>He theorized that we form our personality through a series of psychosexual stages. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Assumption of Psychoanalytical <ul><li>“Freud believed that all thoughts, emotions, and actions are determined. In other words, nothing is an accident: if we probe deeply enough we will find the causes of everything you think and do.” </li></ul>
  7. 7. Subject matter of Psychoanalytical <ul><li>Psychoanalytical theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Three mental structures : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ID : The primitive part of personality that remains unconscious, supplies, energy, and demands pleasure. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>EGO : The executive part of personality that directs rational behavior. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SUPEREGO : A judge or sensor for thoughts and actions. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Psychosexual development <ul><li>Oral Stage (ages 0-1) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ID : creative : Eros :: destructive: Thanatos </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oral-aggressive </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adults who exploit others; argue to other </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oral-dependent </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gullible, passive, needs lots of attention </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>May cause aggression in the form of biting. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Anal Stage ( ages 1-3) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anal- retentive (holding- on) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Obstinate, stingy, orderly, and compulsively clean </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anal- expulsive (letting- go) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Disorderly, destructive, cruel, or messy . </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Psychosexual development <ul><li>3. Phallic Stage (ages 3-6) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oedipus complex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electra complex </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4. Latency Stage (ages 6- 12) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lebido latent </li></ul></ul><ul><li>5. Genital stage (ages 12- onwards) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Research method of Psychoanalytical <ul><li>Correlational Approach: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Negative correlation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The effects of improper psychosexual development to the behavior of a person. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Psychoanalytic Idea <ul><li>“ Behavior is directed by forces within one’s personality that are often hidden or unconscious.” </li></ul>
  12. 12. Psychoanalytic Treatment <ul><li>Psychoanalytic can be treat by psychoanalysis. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Free association </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Saying whatever comes to mind” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dream Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interpretations of dream </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analysis of Resistance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When the patient is resisting to interpret or share his feelings they need to bring him to his awareness. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analysis of Transference </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ The tendency of patients to transfer feelings to a therapist that correspond to those the patient had for important persons in his past. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Behaviorism Founders Assumption Research Method Subject Matter Idea Therapy
  14. 14. Founders <ul><li>Ivan Pavlov </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pavlov was studying digestion when he discovered classical conditioning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>John Watson </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ He simply observed the relationship between stimuli and response .” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>B.F. Skinner </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ He believed that our actions are controlled by rewards, or positive reinforces .” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ He also believed that, misguarded rewards lead us into destructive actions and create problem such as over population, pollution, and war.” </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Assumption of Behaviorist <ul><li>They assume that our behavior can be control or learn </li></ul>
  16. 16. Research method of behaviorist <ul><li>Experiment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They use stimulus and response to check the behavior that we will react </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Classical Conditioning Uncondition Stimulus Uncondition Response Species-typical stimulus response relationship
  18. 18. Behaviorist Idea <ul><li>“Behavior is shaped and controlled by one’s idea” </li></ul>
  19. 19. Behavior therapy <ul><li>Behavior Therapy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Any therapy to actively change behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Aversion Therapy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Suppressing an undesirable response by associating it with painful or uncomfortable stimuli </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Humanistic Psychology Abraham Maslow Assumption Subject Matter/ School Idea Research Method Treatment
  21. 21. Abraham Maslow <ul><li>“ He is the founder of Humanistic Psychology.” </li></ul><ul><li>“He was interested in studying people with exceptional mental health.” </li></ul>
  22. 22. Assumption of Humanists <ul><li>The Humanists assume that we have the ability to make voluntary choices or freewill. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Hierarchy of Needs Physiological Needs Self- Actualization Belonging and Love needs Safety Needs Esteem Needs
  24. 24. Research Method <ul><li>Correlation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The positive and negative correlation of the hierarchy of needs if they are met or not. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Humanistic treatment <ul><li>Client- centered therapy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ A non- directive therapy based on insights gained from conscious thoughts and feelings; emphasizes accepting one’s true self” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Existential Therapy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ An insight therapy that focuses on the elemental problems of existence, such as death, meaning, and responsibility; emphasizes making courageous life choices.” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gestalt Therapy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ An approach that focuses on immediate experience and awareness to help clients rebuild thinking, feeling, and acting into connected wholes ; emphasizes the integration of fragmented experiences.” </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Cognitive Psychology Jean Piaget Assumption Subject Matter/ Idea Research Method Therapy
  27. 27. Jean Piaget <ul><li>“He is known as ‘the great pioneer of the constructive theory of knowing.’” </li></ul><ul><li>“He turned the cognitive development theory and put them into stages, expanding on the works of James Mark Baldwin.” </li></ul>
  28. 28. Assumption of Cognitive Psychology <ul><li>Humans develop their behavior when they learn how to do things. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Cognitive Development <ul><li>Stage 1: Sensory motor (0-2) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Basic symbols </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Objective permanence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stage 2: Preoperational Stage (2-6) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mental routine for separating, combining and otherwise transforming in a logical matter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Irreversibility and orientation </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Cognitive Development <ul><li>Stage 3: Operation (6-11) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop conservation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stage 4: Formal Operation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypothetical, ideal logical thinking </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Research Method of Cognitive Psychology <ul><li>Experiment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They do experiment to measure what level is your intelligence </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Treatment of Cognitive Psychology <ul><li>Cognitive therapy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ A therapy directed at changing the maladaptive thoughts, beliefs, and feelings that underlie emotional and behavioral problems. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Token Economy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A therapeutic program in which desirable behaviors are reinforced with tokens that can be exchanged for goods, services, activities, and privileges. </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Biological Psychology Assumption Subject matter School Idea Research Method Therapy
  34. 34. Assumption of Biological Psychology <ul><li>Humans are made up of millions of neuron that work for the behavior of a person. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Subject matter of biological psychology
  36. 37. Research method of Biological Psychology <ul><li>Experiment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They do experiment to know how the neurons will synapse and the reaction of the neurotransmitters that it emit. </li></ul></ul>
  37. 38. Biological Treatment <ul><li>They give medicine to the patient by knowing what neuron or part of the body they need to target </li></ul>
  38. 39. Sociocultural Psychology Assumption
  39. 40. Sociocultural psychology <ul><li>sociocultural perspective maintains that behavior and mental processes are shaped not only by prior learning experiences (the behavioral perspective) or intrapsychic forces (for instance, the unconscious) but also by the social or cultural context. </li></ul>
  40. 41. References <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Coon.Hergenhahn.ray. Psychology. </li></ul>