Sigmund Freud and Classical Psychoanalysis

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A brief lecture outline of Freud\'s theories and Classical Psychoanalysis.

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  • Classical Psychoanalysis Jun 19, 2009 Mark W. Matthews, PhD
  • Classical Psychoanalysis Jun 19, 2009 Mark W. Matthews, PhD
  • Classical Psychoanalysis Jun 19, 2009 Mark W. Matthews, PhD
  • Classical Psychoanalysis Jun 19, 2009 Mark W. Matthews, PhD
  • Classical Psychoanalysis Jun 19, 2009 Mark W. Matthews, PhD
  • Classical Psychoanalysis Jun 19, 2009 Mark W. Matthews, PhD
  • Classical Psychoanalysis Jun 19, 2009 Mark W. Matthews, PhD
  • Classical Psychoanalysis Jun 19, 2009 Mark W. Matthews, PhD
  • Classical Psychoanalysis Jun 19, 2009 Mark W. Matthews, PhD
  • Classical Psychoanalysis Jun 19, 2009 Mark W. Matthews, PhD
  • Classical Psychoanalysis Jun 19, 2009 Mark W. Matthews, PhD
  • Classical Psychoanalysis Jun 19, 2009 Mark W. Matthews, PhD
  • Classical Psychoanalysis Jun 19, 2009 Mark W. Matthews, PhD
  • Classical Psychoanalysis Jun 19, 2009 Mark W. Matthews, PhD
  • Classical Psychoanalysis Jun 19, 2009 Mark W. Matthews, PhD
  • Classical Psychoanalysis Jun 19, 2009 Mark W. Matthews, PhD
  • Classical Psychoanalysis Jun 19, 2009 Mark W. Matthews, PhD
  • Classical Psychoanalysis Jun 19, 2009 Mark W. Matthews, PhD
  • Classical Psychoanalysis Jun 19, 2009 Mark W. Matthews, PhD
  • Classical Psychoanalysis Jun 19, 2009 Mark W. Matthews, PhD
  • Classical Psychoanalysis Jun 19, 2009 Mark W. Matthews, PhD
  • Classical Psychoanalysis Jun 19, 2009 Mark W. Matthews, PhD
  • Classical Psychoanalysis Jun 19, 2009 Mark W. Matthews, PhD
  • Classical Psychoanalysis Jun 19, 2009 Mark W. Matthews, PhD
  • Classical Psychoanalysis Jun 19, 2009 Mark W. Matthews, PhD
  • Classical Psychoanalysis Jun 19, 2009 Mark W. Matthews, PhD
  • Classical Psychoanalysis Jun 19, 2009 Mark W. Matthews, PhD
  • Classical Psychoanalysis Jun 19, 2009 Mark W. Matthews, PhD
  • Classical Psychoanalysis Jun 19, 2009 Mark W. Matthews, PhD
  • Classical Psychoanalysis Jun 19, 2009 Mark W. Matthews, PhD
  • Classical Psychoanalysis Jun 19, 2009 Mark W. Matthews, PhD
  • Classical Psychoanalysis Jun 19, 2009 Mark W. Matthews, PhD
  • Classical Psychoanalysis Jun 19, 2009 Mark W. Matthews, PhD
  • Classical Psychoanalysis Jun 19, 2009 Mark W. Matthews, PhD
  • Classical Psychoanalysis Jun 19, 2009 Mark W. Matthews, PhD Psychic energy and psychic structures Constancy principal developed as homeostasis and quintessence are the goals of the organism. Tension reduction and tension relief Pleasure principal. Humans motivated by pleasure and pleasure is at least initially defined as constancy Reality Principal Psychosexual Stages
  • Classical Psychoanalysis Jun 19, 2009 Mark W. Matthews, PhD
  • Sigmund Freud and Classical Psychoanalysis

    1. 1. Sigmund Freud and Classical Psychoanalysis
    2. 2. <ul><li>The Constancy Principle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>States that the aim of the psychic apparatus (i.e., mind) is to keep stimulation to near zero if at all possible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Studies on Hysteria (Breuer & Freud, 1895) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generated from an now outdated neurological conception </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quiescence = pleasant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Excitement = unpleasant </li></ul></ul>Classical Psychoanalysis Mark W. Matthews, PhD
    3. 3. <ul><li>The psychic quantity that the constancy principle regulated (required to discharge) were the affects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. An event (e.g., interpersonal exchange) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Reaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sexually excited, angry, frightened, pleased </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Affect determined by </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Individual personality </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Event itself </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Culture determines which affects are acceptable </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Classical Psychoanalysis Mark W. Matthews, PhD
    4. 4. <ul><ul><li>4. This interplay (individual & culture) determine which affects are “embroiled in conflict” (G & M, p. 27) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5. The memory associated with these affects become subject to repression </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Note: in this form, there are no irreducible forces or fundamental passions (i.e., drive) </li></ul>Classical Psychoanalysis Mark W. Matthews, PhD
    5. 5. <ul><li>Drive is an energy source </li></ul><ul><li>Activates the psychic apparatus [structure] </li></ul><ul><li>Determines humanity’s essential nature </li></ul><ul><li>Quotes: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ a demand made upon the mind for work” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ the ultimate cause of all activity” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ every psychical act begins as an unconscious one” </li></ul></ul></ul>Classical Psychoanalysis Mark W. Matthews, PhD
    6. 6. <ul><li>Two drives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sexual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-preservation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Later to be incorporate in ego </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Later to become death/destruction </li></ul></ul></ul>Classical Psychoanalysis Mark W. Matthews, PhD
    7. 7. <ul><li>Psychosexual Stages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oral </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Incorporative(0 - 8 months): focus on the mouth, lips, tongue, swallowing, and sucking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Incorporative character: smoker, eater </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sadistic (8 - 12 months): biting and devouring </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sadistic character: sarcastic </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Classical Psychoanalysis Mark W. Matthews, PhD
    8. 8. <ul><ul><li>Anal (2 - 3 years) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Child is learning how to control physiological functions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Expulsive: releasing feces </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Expulsive character: messy, untidy </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Retentive: holding feces </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Retentive character: neat, tidy, obsessive </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Classical Psychoanalysis Mark W. Matthews, PhD
    9. 9. <ul><ul><li>Phallic (4 - 5 years) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oedipus Complex </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reverse Oedipus Complex </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Latency (6 - 12 years) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sexual instincts are sublimated until genital stage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Genital (12 years +) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sexual instincts are not primarily autoerotic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Health defied as the establishment of appropriate relationships with whole objects </li></ul></ul></ul>Classical Psychoanalysis Mark W. Matthews, PhD
    10. 10. <ul><li>1. Sexual drive not yet organized </li></ul><ul><li>2. Composed of component/partial drives </li></ul><ul><li>3. Partial drives through their dependent relationship to the self-preserving drives are carried outside of the infant’s own body </li></ul><ul><li>4. Set of experiences develops </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frustrating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Satisfying </li></ul></ul>Classical Psychoanalysis Mark W. Matthews, PhD
    11. 11. <ul><li>5. These experiences, especially the satisfying experiences create an image or representation of what satisfaction is like </li></ul><ul><li>6. “The association of these satisfactions with the conditions under which they were experienced leads to object formation” (G & M, p. 41) </li></ul>Classical Psychoanalysis Mark W. Matthews, PhD
    12. 12. <ul><li>“ Because within the drive model the object is the creation of drive, object relations remain a function of drive” (G & M, p. 42, italics in original) </li></ul><ul><li>Objects are passive receptacles or recipients of cathexis </li></ul>Classical Psychoanalysis Mark W. Matthews, PhD
    13. 13. <ul><li>Topographic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>unconscious (Ucs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>preconscious (Pcs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>conscious (Cs) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Introduced in The Interpretation of Dreams </li></ul><ul><li>Doubt about mechanisms the Ucs, Pcs and Cs use </li></ul>Classical Psychoanalysis Mark W. Matthews, PhD
    14. 14. <ul><li>One of the biggest areas changed as he accommodated his theory and created the structural model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Addition of Narcissism, identification, and the ego ideal were too much for the system </li></ul></ul>Classical Psychoanalysis Mark W. Matthews, PhD
    15. 15. <ul><li>Structural </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Finally gives structures to functions and the psychic apparatus written about </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>id </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>all unconscious </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ego </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>mostly unconscious </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>navigates reality </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>superego </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>mostly unconscious </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>generated from resolution of Oedipus Complex </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Classical Psychoanalysis Mark W. Matthews, PhD
    16. 16. <ul><li>Actual Neuroses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anxiety neuroses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neurasthenia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A psychological disorder characterized by chronic fatigue and weakness, loss of memory, and generalized aches and pains, formerly thought to result from exhaustion of the nervous system. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dysfunction of current sexual life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Related to hypothesized chemical sexual substances (i.e., physiological) </li></ul></ul>Classical Psychoanalysis Mark W. Matthews, PhD
    17. 17. <ul><li>Psychoneuroses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not neurological or physiological </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Available for psychoanalytic treatment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Result of a conflict brought about the incongruity of ideas and the ensuing failure to release affect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seduction Theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Early seduction provides a traumatic experience precisely because the immature sexual apparatus is poorly equipped to handle the excitations that are stimulated, nor is the immature personality equipped to deal with their emotional concomitants” (G & M, p. 28). </li></ul></ul></ul>Classical Psychoanalysis Mark W. Matthews, PhD
    18. 18. <ul><li>Phase 1: Defense Model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Repression of unacceptable affects exercise a “pathogenic force” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sexuality was considered the most likely area resulting in unacceptable affects, but still only one of a myriad of possible areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incompatibility and conflict are pathogenic (regardless of source) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Dominant mass of ideas” </li></ul></ul>Classical Psychoanalysis Mark W. Matthews, PhD
    19. 19. <ul><li>Phase 2: Resistance and Repression </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dominant mass of ideas = social structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The tension between one’s impulses and the social structure into which one must fit is what determines repression </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wants to make repression deriving from humanity’s biological nature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Postulates “organic repression” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ontogeny reiterating phylogeny </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Morality without society </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Purest form of drive/structure model </li></ul></ul></ul>Classical Psychoanalysis Mark W. Matthews, PhD
    20. 20. <ul><li>Phase 3: Anxiety and Late Affect Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anxiety near universal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Affect relegated to secondary position </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No longer affect that is defended against </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Affect (specifically anxiety) is an indication that repression was partially failing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>With drive being primary, specific aspects of affects were disregarded, except as the affects indicated or revealed the nature of the repressed drive impulse </li></ul></ul>Classical Psychoanalysis Mark W. Matthews, PhD
    21. 21. <ul><ul><li>“ In Freud’s early view of the actual neuroses he saw anxiety as the product of dammed-up libido which had become ‘toxic’; because there were no opportunities for discharge, the libido had become (physiologically) transformed. The theory of anxiety in psychoneuroses, and the theory of affect generally, was imported from this approach to the actual neuroses. Anxiety was seen as the result of a damming-up, not in the case because of inadequate sexual opportunity, but because of repression” (G & M, p. 65) </li></ul></ul>Classical Psychoanalysis Mark W. Matthews, PhD
    22. 22. <ul><li>“ All neurotic psychopathology represents a compromise between a repressed unacceptable wish and an unconscious fear. Where as all behavior represents a compromise between the demands of inner drives and external reality, neurotic behavior is a second-best solution, reflecting the individual’s effort to accommodate not only to the real world but also to the restrictions imposed by his unconscious fear” (MacKinnon & Michels, 1971, p. 74) </li></ul>Classical Psychoanalysis Mark W. Matthews, PhD
    23. 23. <ul><li>Symptoms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sharply defined </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ego-dystonic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generally Axis I </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anxiety </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Depression </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Phobias </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Obsessions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Compulsions </li></ul></ul></ul>Classical Psychoanalysis Mark W. Matthews, PhD
    24. 24. <ul><li>Character </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More generalized behaviors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Part of a persons personality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ego-syntonic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generally Axis II </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mistrust </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Irresponsibility </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Impulsiveness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Narcissism </li></ul></ul></ul>Classical Psychoanalysis Mark W. Matthews, PhD
    25. 25. <ul><li>Symptoms are uncovered through what the patient talks about </li></ul><ul><li>Character is uncovered and revealed in the way and manner the patient talks and how the patient relates to others </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms not only defend against forbidden wishes, symptoms also partially gratify the wish. </li></ul>Classical Psychoanalysis Mark W. Matthews, PhD
    26. 26. <ul><li>Neurosis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The ego responds to intolerable id demands by renouncing the id’s demands (i.e., repression) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Psychosis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The ego responds by renouncing the reality that makes the id’s demands intolerable (i.e., disavowal) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This defense is against perceptions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This defense is directed outwards </li></ul></ul></ul>Classical Psychoanalysis Mark W. Matthews, PhD
    27. 27. <ul><li>Early Phases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypnosis moving toward free association </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abreaction/Catharsis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pathology happens when affect cannot be discharged (constancy principle) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pent up affects result in neurotic symptoms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recovery of the repressed memories result in abreaction </li></ul></ul>Classical Psychoanalysis Mark W. Matthews, PhD
    28. 28. <ul><li>Later Phases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Treatment requires the uncovering of the libidinal force which has led to the appearance of a given affect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Described like chess </li></ul></ul>Classical Psychoanalysis Mark W. Matthews, PhD
    29. 29. <ul><ul><li>Transference </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Distortion based on history </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Acting in vs. Acting out </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Patient is unconsciously reenacting a latter-day version of forgotten childhood memories, repressed fantasies, and other material with the therapist </li></ul></ul></ul>Classical Psychoanalysis Mark W. Matthews, PhD
    30. 30. <ul><ul><li>Interpretation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Helps patient distinguish </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>reality and fantasy </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>past and present </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>self and others </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provides broader perspective on how childhood impacts present </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enlightens how the patient responds automatically and in stereotyped ways </li></ul></ul></ul>Classical Psychoanalysis Mark W. Matthews, PhD
    31. 31. <ul><ul><li>Working Through </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Once or twice is never enough! </li></ul></ul></ul>Classical Psychoanalysis Mark W. Matthews, PhD
    32. 32. <ul><li>First personality theorist </li></ul><ul><li>Ideas have permeated all of society </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Art & Literature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Popular Culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Freudian Slip </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dream Analysis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Id, Ego, Superego </li></ul></ul></ul>Classical Psychoanalysis Mark W. Matthews, PhD
    33. 33. <ul><li>Acknowledged presence and power of a dynamic unconscious </li></ul><ul><li>Developed a cohesive theory of personality structure </li></ul><ul><li>Pioneered a developmental model of diagnosis and treatment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Different ages and stages with different needs and struggles </li></ul></ul>Classical Psychoanalysis Mark W. Matthews, PhD
    34. 34. <ul><li>Concerned with psychopathology </li></ul><ul><li>Wrested with the “Seduction Theory” </li></ul><ul><li>First theorist to talk about “object relations” </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment Concepts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transference/Countertransference </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resistance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dream Work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Free Association </li></ul></ul>Classical Psychoanalysis Mark W. Matthews, PhD
    35. 35. <ul><li>Drive/Structure Model </li></ul><ul><li>Constancy Principal </li></ul><ul><li>Pleasure Principal </li></ul><ul><li>Reality Principal </li></ul><ul><li>Psychosexual Stages </li></ul><ul><li>Pathology has developmental characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Talking Cure </li></ul>Classical Psychoanalysis Mark W. Matthews, PhD
    36. 36. <ul><li>Development of Drive/Structure Model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fundamental human urges </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Elemental passions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Id expresses true purpose </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mental topography is a fiction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stresses metaphorical nature by assigning common names </li></ul></ul></ul>Classical Psychoanalysis Mark W. Matthews, PhD
    37. 37. <ul><li>Greenberg, J. R., & Mitchell, S. A. (1983). Object relations in psychoanalytic theory. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. </li></ul><ul><li>MacKinnon, R. A., & Michels, R. (1971). The psychiatric interview in clinical practice. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders. </li></ul>Classical Psychoanalysis Mark W. Matthews, PhD

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